Phonetics

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					                 Phonetics
I . Definition
II .Consonants
    A. Definition
    B. Voicing
    C. Place of Articulation
    D. Manner of Articulation
    E. Computer Software
III. Vowels
IV. Position of the Tongue, Lips; Degree of Muscle Tension
V. Phonetic Symbols
VI. English and Mandarin Sounds
VII. Uses of MPS

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              Definition
Phonetics: The study of speech sounds (Yule 41)
    Articulatory phonetics: how speech sounds are made
   Acoustic phonetics: physical properties of speech
   Auditory phonetics: perception of speech sounds
   Forensic phonetics: in legal cases involving speaker
  identification and the analysis of recorded utterances
Q: Why do we have many different individual
sounds?



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     Distinguish between Words
1.   low, row
2.   ban, pan
3.   bat, bad
4.   bit, but
5.   lan(爛), lang(浪)




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           Consonants (1)
Definition: the air coming up out of the
lungs is blocked somewhere in the vocal
tract(=place), or squeezed thru a small hole
formed for med at some place in the vocal
tract.
  e.g. blocked completely: /p/
       squeezed: /f/
       combo: /tS/


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           Consonants (2)
Voicing:
  Voiced (+v): If the vocal cards are together, the
  airstreams forces it way through and causes
  them to vibrate.
  Voiceless (-v): When the vocal cards are spread
  apart, the air from the lungs passes between
  them unimpeded




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              Consonants (3)
Place of Articulation (Nash 39)
=Where a speech sound is made?
  Bilabials: [p, b, m]
  Labiodentals: [f, v]
  Dental: [Q, ð]
  Alveolar: [t, d, n, s, z, l]
  Retroflex: [r]
  Palato-alveolar: [S, Z]
  Palatals: [tS, dZ ]
  Velars: [k, g, ŋ]
  Glottal: [h]



                                 Yun-Pi Yuan   6
              Consonants (4)
Manner of articulation (Nash 40)
=How a speech sound is made?
  Stop: [p, b, t, d, k, g]
  Nasal: [m, n, ŋ]
  Fricative: [f, v, Q, ð, s, z, S, Z, h]
  Affricative: [tS, dZ]
  Approximants:
     Glide: [w, j, r]
     Liquid: [l]
  Tap: [t, d]



                            Yun-Pi Yuan    7
Place and Manners of Articulation
Label Place         Manner Examples
    (a) alveolar          stop          top, dog
    (b)labiodental        fricative    food, Vivian
    (c) dental            fricative    thanks, then [-v, ð+v ]
    (d)bilabial           stop          play, baby
    (e) palato-alveolar   fricative    she, genre
    (f) palatal            affricate    church, judge
    (g)velar               stop         kite, gorgeous



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           Accent Coach
Consonants lesson (see tongue positions)
English vowels
Vowel lessons
Vowel review




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                Vowels
Definition: vowels are formed by shaping the
air in the vocal tract, rather than by blocking
or squeezing it in some way. (Nash 42)
  Position of the tongue (Nash 46;Yule 48)
  Degree of muscle tension
  Position of the lips
  Diphthongs: vowels which move from one
  vowel towards another in one syllable.


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                  Vowel Chart


                       h
      f c b       +    m              =   (Nash 46; Yule 48)
                        l


(This grid = abstract representation of position of
  tongue inside your mouth)
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   Position of the Tongue (1)
Front vowels:
heat /hit/    high
hit /hIt/
hate /het/   mid
head /hd/
had /hæd/    low


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    Position of the Tongue (2)
Central vowels:
        high
        mid
^       low




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  Position of the Tongue (3)
Back vowels:
fool /ful/   high
full /fl/
foe /fo/     mid
fall /fOl/
far /fr/    low



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    Degree of muscle tension
e.g. tense vs. lax
       i       I
     u    U
      e      
      o      O
/æ, K, V, A/ all lax



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             Position of the lips
  e.g. rounded vs. unrounded
       u, U, o, O i, I, e,  , æ, etc.


  Mandarin /yü/ (ㄩ)魚 or 呂(lü)
=high, front, rounded---equivalent to /i/ + rounded




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               Diphthongs
Combination of vowels: start with one
vowel, and then move to another vowel
within one syllable
  e.g. /aI/ (ay), /au/ (aw), /OI/ (oy), /eI/ (ei) and
  more
Diphthongization: the process of making
diphthongs; happen with a wide rang of
vowel sounds and is more common in some
varieties of Eng. (e.g., Southern British).

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      Phonetic Symbols (1)
Shorthand descriptions of the distinctive
features of individual speech sounds
/b/                      /p/
+ consonantal                 + consonantal
- vocalic                      - vocalic
+ bilabial                    + bilabial
+ stop
                              + stop
+ voiced
                              - voiced

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     Phonetic Symbols (2)
 /m/
+ consonantal
- vocalic
+ bilabial
+ nasal




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     Phonetic Symbols (3)
 /f/
+ consonantal
- vocalic
+ labiodental
+ fricative
- voiced



                Yun-Pi Yuan   20
      Phonetic Symbols (4)
 /j/
- consonantal
- vocalic
+ palatal
+ voiced
- rounded



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      Phonetic Symbols (5)
 /w/
- consonantal
- vocalic
+ velar
+ bilabial
+ voiced



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      Phonetic Symbols (6)
/æ/
- consonantal
+ vocalic
+ front
+ low
+ lax
- rounded

                Yun-Pi Yuan   23
      Phonetic Symbols (7)
 /y/ ㄩ                        /i/
- consonantal                 - consonantal
+ vocalic                     + vocalic
+ high                        + high
+ front                       + front
+ rounded                     - rounded
+ tense                       + tense

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     Phonetic Symbols (8)
 //
+ consonantal
- vocalic
+ velar
+ nasal
+ voiced



                Yun-Pi Yuan   25
    Phonetic Symbols (9)
ㄅ/p /       ㄆ/p’/           ㄖ/z/
+consonantal +consonantal   +consonantal
-vocalic     -vocalic       -vocalic
+bilabial    +bilabial      +retroflex
+stop        +stop          +fricative
-aspirated   +aspirated     +voiced



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  English & Mandarin Sounds
See Nash p. 45, 42 for consonants (add semi-
vowels /w/ & /j/ to Mandarin)
See Nash p. 46 for vowels.
Difference in description of consonants:
  +- v vs. +- aspirated (BUT: ㄖ is +v)
注音符號 called Mandarin Phonetic Symbols,
but not completely phonetic
  Don’t follow principle of having one symbol
  represents one sound, and only one sound

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注音符號 not phonetic symbols
ㄢn ㄣn ㄤ ㄥ; each = v + c 
one symbol for two sounds
ㄨ= {u, wu, w}
  無、吳 /wu/
  為 /we/、王 /w /
  龍 /lu/
一 = {i, j}
  義 /i/
  也 /je/

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              Uses of MPS
MPS work fine for helping children learn to
read or foreigners learn Mandarin
But: misleading for linguistic analysis and can
lead to confusion
  Example: claim that // is not a Mandarin sound
  Not real phonetic symbols
That’s why you see other phonetic symbols
(IPA based) in Nash.

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posted:2/11/2012
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