PERSONALITY

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PERSONALITY Powered By Docstoc
					   Individual in the
     Organization
Individual Differences and
       Effectiveness




                             1
 After studying this unit you
      should be able to:
Describe the factors that influence
personality and work behaviour
Discuss key personality
characteristics for organizational
members
Understand the psychological process
you need in order to be personally
effective
                                   2
            Personality

Those stable and enduring aspects
 of an individual that distinguish him/her
from other people and
at the same time form a basis for our
predictions concerning his/her future
 behavior



                                        3
Major forces influencing personality
 Cultural forces
 Hereditary forces
 Social class and other group
 membership forces
 Family relation forces




                                       4
Differences between
     individuals




                      5
Approaches to Personality
Psychoanalytic perspective
Behavioral perspective
Humanistic perspective




                             6
    Psychoanalytic Theory
Basic Elements of Freud’s Theory
 Psychic Determinism
 Unconscious Mental Processes
 Personality Structure
 Conflict



                                   7
   Psychic Determinism
All human behaviour is determined.
 All behaviour is meaningful.
 The meaning can be sought both in
conscious and unconscious
phenomena




                                     8
    Unconscious Mental
        Processes
Most of mental activity occur in the
absence of consciousness.
 The unconscious (Id) is filled with
sexual and destructive drives




                                       9
  Personality Structure
The psyche contains the 3
 structures
 Id – smth in a person that is not
 recognized as part of the self
 The Ego – conscious part, obeying
 the rules of logic, reason and
 learned from the experience
 The Superego – moral
 component that is imposed in the
 self by the society
                                     10
          Conflict

Man is torn by conflict both within
himself and himself and outer
world.
 Conflict is central in human life.




                                      11
   Behavioural Approach
Personality is a set of learned
responses. Behaviour is a product
of conditioning.
 Internal events (thoughts and
feelings) can’t be studied objectively,
the subject of psychology is
behaviour.


                                      12
    Humanistic Approach
Man is innately motivated towards
growth and actualization of his
potential




                                    13
???
Is personality a constant
throughout our lifetime, which
remain resistant to change and
circumstances?

To what extent can we measure
and compare individuals on the
basis of their personality?
                                 14
      Type Theories
People are categorized into groups
on the basis of characteristics that
give rise to certain patterns of
behavior.

Temperament typology
Jung’s typology


                                       15
  Types of Temperament
Sanguine
Melancholic
Choleric
Phlegmatic




                         16
           Sanguine

Cheerful, hopeful, easy going and
supremely confident; weak emotions
though easily aroused.




                                 17
          Melancholic

Pessimistic, tendency towards ill
founded fears, resistance to
provocation, strong emotions once
aroused




                                    18
            Choleric

Active, irritable, aggressive;
changeable mood; rapid thinking;
highly strung; easily provoked;
strong emotions




                                   19
          Phlegmatic

sluggish; apathetic; supremely calm;
slow thinking; resistant to
provocation; weak emotions even
when aroused




                                   20
  Jung’s Theory of Types
Psychological types are patterns in the way
  people prefer to perceive and make
  judgments.

 All conscious mental activity is either perception
 (taking in data) or judgment (making decisions)
 activity
 Two perception processes are sensing and
 intuition, two judgment processes are thinking
 and feeling.



                                                  21
                 Jung’s Typology
E                                                                         I
Extroversion Focus attention on   Focus attention on       Introversion
              The outer world     The inner world

S             Look at things at                                           N
                                   Look at things in the
Sensing       present and                                  Intuition
                                  future, at patterns
              concrete
                                  and possibilities
              information
T                                                                         F
Thinking      Base decisions on                            Feeling
                                  Base decisions on
              logic & cause-
                                  values
              effect analysis

J                                                                         P
Judging                           Deal with world          Perceiving
              Deal with world
                                  through flexible
              through planning
                                  spontaneous
              and organizing
                                  approach

                                                                              22
  Personality Types
SJ`` - traditionalist, stabilizer,
consolidator, focus on order and facts
SP - negotiator, troubleshooter, fire
fighter, resists order, maverick
NT - visionaries, architect of system,
builder, focus on systems and strategy
NF - catalyst, spokesperson, energiser,
focus people on improvement
`
                                          23
        Trait Theories
A trait is a predisposition to respond
   in a consistent way in many
   different situations
Key assumptions
1. Many traits exist in all people to
   some degree
2. We can measure traits
   quantitatively
                                         24
             Extroverts
Impulsive, quick tempered,
emotional; often aggressive,
carefree, sociable, active. Like to be
the centre of attention, often
unreliable.




                                         25
Important Personality Traits in
       Organizations

1.   Locus of Control
2.   Achievement Orientation
3.   Machiavellianism
4.   Self-Esteem
5.   Self monitoring
6.   Risk taking

                                  26
     Locus of Control
 includes one’s conviction about the
 sources of one’s achievements and
               failures
Internals                Externals
believe that their       are convinced that
successes and            their successes and
achievements are         failures are due to
due to themselves        external factors




                                         27
 3 Basic Motivational Needs
 The need for achievement
 The need for power
 The need for affiliation

One of these needs tends to dominate
 in all of us (D.McClelland)


                                       28
     Need for Achievement
Need for achievement is the drive to
 accomplish challenging goals.
Behaviours include:
 knowing what they can achieve
 pushing for responsibility
 setting themselves new challenges
 a desire for feedback to do even better



                                           29
     Need for Affiliation
Need for Affiliation is the desire for
  close relationships with others
Behaviours include
• A need to be popular
• A need for people to be around
• Avoiding of difficult situations
• Sensitivity to situations and people

                                         30
       Need for Power
Behaviours include:
 A desire to lead
 A desire to volunteer
 Being persuasive
 Being linked to a managerial course
 elsewhere within the organization


                                       31
      Machiavellianism
An individual high in Mach. Is
pragmatic, maintains emotional
distance, believes that ends can
justify means
High-Machs manipulate more, are
persuaded less, persuade other more
than do Low-Machs


                                  32
Self-Monitoring

         Self-Monitoring
         the extent to which
         people are able to
         observe their own
         behavior and adapt it
         to external situations




                                  33
       Improving Self-Esteem
1. Be supportive by showing
   concern for employee
   problems, interests, status, &
   contributions
2. Offer work involving variety,
   autonomy, and challenges
   that suit the employee’s
   values, skills, and abilities
3. Strive for management-
   employee cohesiveness and
   build trust
4. Have faith in each employee’s
   self-management ability, and     34

   reward successes
           Behavior
 is the term given to the things that
human beings do that can be directly
  detected by the senses of others
The causes of behaviour are based
 on our
 information about people and the
 situation
 attitudes, beliefs and values
 motivation

                                        35
The Big Five Framework
  Extroversion – sociable, fun
  loving, friendly, talkative
  Openness to experience- being
  original, imaginative, daring and
  having broad interests
  Agreeableness refer to
  individual’s ability to defer to
  others. Cooperative and trusting
  of others. ( low A – mistrustful,
  skeptical,    stubborn and rude)    36
  The Big Five Framework

Conscientiousness- hardworking,
energetic, persevering

Emotional Stability – calm,
enthusiastic, and secure



                                  37
  Personality-Job Fit Model
Realistic type
Investigative type
Social type
Conventional type
Enterprising type
Artistic type


                              38
           Perception
is a mental process involving the
selection, organization, structuring
and interpretation of information in
order to make inferences and give
meaning to the information




                                       39
  Model of perception


Stimuli------Attention----
Recognition----Translation-----
--Behaviours



                                  40
     Perceptual Principles
Proximity
Similarity
Closure




                             41
          Perceptual Errors
Stereotyping – attributes are assigned to
people on the basis of their membership in a
social or demographic group
Halo effect – assumption that because a
person has a certain trait he/she automatically
has other traits
Selective perception- the perceiver singles
out certain info that supports prior belief and
filters out into that does not confirm that belief
Assumed similarity – individual ascribes to
others characteristics and feeling he posses
himself                                              42
Fundamental attribution errors

People make two attribution errors:
- by underestimating the impact of
external or situational causes of
behavior
- by overestimating the impact of
internal or personal causes of behavior
Self-serving bias: we accept
responsibility for success but not for
failure.
                                          43
            Attitude
A mental state of readiness,
organized through experience to
behave in a characteristic way
towards the object of the attitude




                                     44
    Structure of Attitudes
Cognitive component- the
perceptions, beliefs evaluations about the
object
Affective component- emotional
feelings (likes or dislikes) about the
attitude object
Behavioural components- the
tendency to act towards the attitude
object in a consistent and characteristic
way
                                             45
  Work related attitudes
Job satisfaction
Organizational Commitment




                            46
  Work related attitudes
Job satisfaction
Job involvement
Organizational Commitment




                            47
       Job satisfaction
a pleasurable or positive emotional
state resulting from a person’s
appraisal of his/her job or job
experience




                                      48
Dimensions of Job satisfaction
The work itself
Pay
Promotion
Supervision
Co-workers



                                 49
        Job involvement
The degree to which a person
identifies psychologically with his job
and considers his perceived
performance level to be omportatn ti
self-worth




                                      50
 Organizational commitment
An attitude towards the organization
 as a whole reflecting the individual’s
 Acceptance of the goals and values
 of the organization
 Willingness to exert effort on behalf
 of the organization
 Intention to stay with the
 organization
                                          51
    Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance is any
incompatibility between two or more
attitudes or between behavior and
attitudes.




                                      52
            Learning
Learning is any relatively permanent
change in behavior that occurs as a
result of experience




                                       53
     Operant conditioning
Behaviour is a function of its
consequences




                                 54
Methods of shaping behavior
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Punishment
extinction




                              55
    Reinforcement Schedules
Continous reinforcement
Intemittent reinforcement




                              56
  Schedules of Reinforcement

             Interval      Ratio
            fixed       Fixed -ratio
Fixed      interval


Variable   variable     Variable
           interval     ratio

                                       57
          Summary
Personality is influenced by genetics,
social, cultural and situational factors
There are no ‘good’ or ‘bad’
personality types
Knowledge of an individual’s
personality can aid in reducing
mismatches between and individual
and a job
Knowledge of personality makes
selection more effective
                                       58

				
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posted:2/11/2012
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