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Chapter Four: Analysis of data collected

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					   Analysis of data collected




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Analysis o f Dat a
4. 1. Intr oduct ion

T h e c u r r e n t s ec t i o n d es c r i b es t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d
c as e s t u d i e s as w e l l a s a n a l y s e s of t h e d a t a . F i r s t l y , d a t a w i l l b e
pr epar ed           f or   the    an al ys is,       and   then       the    an al ys ed       dat a     wi l l   be
p r es e n t e d .      H y p o t h es e s   wi l l   be    t est ed     using       dif f er ent      t y p es    of
t ec h n i q u e s wi t h i n S P S S s of t w a r e .       A f t e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s es ,
t h e c as e s t u d i es w i l l b e a n a l y s e d . C h a p t e r wi l l c o n c l u d e w i t h t h e
summar y of main f indings.

4 . 2 . G et t i n g d a t a r e a d y f o r a n a l y s i s

C o l l e c t e d d a t a r e q u i r e d p r e p a r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o m a k e a n a l y s es i n
l o g i c a l a n d s ys t e m a t i c w a y ( S e k a r a n , 2 0 0 3 ) .         F igur e10 shows t he
d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c es s f o l l o w e d b y c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h .

F i g u r e 1 0 D a t a a n a l y s is p r o c e s s




A l l t h e r es p o n s e s w e r e c h ec k e d f or b o t h t h e i n c o m p l e t e n e s s a n d f o r
b l a n k r e s p o n s e s ; a l l t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e f u l l y c om p l e t e d a n d
ther e wer e no missing dat a.                             T he dat a wer e c oding us ing SP SS
(Appendix 9).

4. 3. Valid ity and r eliability

A c c or d i n g t o P o t t e r a n d L e v i n e - D o n n e r s t e i n ( 1 9 9 9 ) v a l i d i t y s h o ws t o
what         e xt en t     a t est       m e a s u r es     t he specif ic              c onc ep t i t c l ai ms    to
m e a s u r e . T o a p p l y a n d i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s u l t s ac c u r at e l y t h e t es t
sh ou ld b e val i d ( L evi n e- D on n erst ei n, 1 99 9) . Acc or di n g t o J op p e
C ar m i n e s       and          Z eller     ( 1979)        validit y        in     q u an t it at i ve    r es earc h
d e t e r m i n e s wh e t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h c a n m e as u r e w h a t i t w as i n t e n d e d
t o measur e.

T h r o u g h t h e p i l o t s t u d y t h e f ac e , c o n t e n t a n d c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y w e r e
t es t e d . U s i n g t h e P e a r s o n c or r e l a t i o n c o ef f i c i e n t t h e v a l i d i t y w a s
c h ec k e d . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t ( 2 - t a i l e d ) f o r :




B y as s e s s i n g r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e t
the r equir em ents.

A c c or d i n g      to    N ewman            (2003)         r eliabilit y        is     a    meas ur em ent       of
c on s i s t e n c y o r r e p e a t a b i l i t y of m e a s u r es .

T h e b a s i s of r e l i a b i l i t y i s q u a l i t y of m e a s u r e m e n t , t h e ‘ c o n s i s t e n c y ’
o r ‘ r e p e a t a b i l i t y ’ of m e a s u r es ( N e w m a n , 2 0 0 3 ) . T o i n d i c a t e i n t er n a l
c on s i s t e n c y t h e C r o n b a c h ’ s a l p h a c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l b e u s ed . A c c o r d i n g
t o C a r m i n es a n d Z e l l e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) t h e c o ef f i c i e n t w h i c h i s c l o s e t o 1 i s
d ef i n e d as r e l i a b l e .

T h e C r o n b ac h ’ s a l p h a c o ef f i c i e n t w a s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g S P S S , t h e
r es u l t     p r es e n t e d     in      T able 12.       A p p e n d ix 1 1         illustr at es      the   SPSS
a n a l ys i s .
Tabl e 12 C ro nb ach’ s Al ph a




T h e C r o n b a c h ’ s a l p h a c o e f f i c i e n t s f or a l l s ec t i o n s a r e c l os e t o 1
w h i c h m e a n s t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s r e l i a b l e . F i f t h s ec t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t
i s 0 . 9 5 1 , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( C ar m i n es a n d
Z eller , 1979) .

				
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