Chapter 2 � Your Family Health History: Understanding Your by EuBy9fBj

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									Chapter 2 – Your Family Health History: Understanding Your Genetic
Inheritance

Multiple Choice Questions

1.    What is the purpose of creating a family health tree?
      A.     to discover your personal health risks and strengths
      B.     to identify environmental factors that influence your health
      C.     to illustrate patterns of lifestyle habits in your family
      D.     to estimate your life expectancy

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      21
      Objective(s): 1


2.    Which of the following statements about family health trees is TRUE?
      A.    Lifestyle habit information should not be included.
      B.    Results from genetic testing are required to create a family health tree.
      C.    Basic information for each relative in the family health tree includes date of birth,
            major diseases, and age and cause of death.
      D.    A family health tree traces a family’s origin.

      Answer:       C
      Page(s):      21-22
      Objective(s): 1


3.    What information found in a family health tree indicates that a disease might have a
      genetic link?
      A.     presence of a disease in family members with poor health habits
      B.     onset of disease at late age
      C.     appearance of a disease in one family member
      D.     a family member with multiple cancers

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 1
4.   Which of the following statements about cells and genes is FALSE?
     A.    The sequencing of bases within a gene is of little significance.
     B.    Each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.
     C.    Our bodies are made up of about 260 different types of cells.
     D.    Each chromosome contains from hundreds to thousands of genes.

     Answer:       A
     Page(s):      23
     Objective(s): 2


5.   Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, includes which of the following?
     A.    a triple helix
     B.    proteins
     C.    a nucleus
     D.    four types of nucleotide bases

     Answer:       D
     Page(s):      23
     Objective(s): 2


6.   Which of the following statements about chromosomes is FALSE?
     A.    Chromosomes are composed of tightly wound molecules of DNA.
     B.    Different cell types contain different chromosomes.
     C.    Chromosomes are located in the nucleus of a cell.
     D.    DNA is divided into 23 pairs of chromosomes.

     Answer:       B
     Page(s):      22-23
     Objective(s): 2


7.   Genetic disorders caused by multiple genes interacting with the environment are called
     A.     polygenic.
     B.     autosomal.
     C.     multifactorial.
     D.     ecological.

     Answer:       C
     Page(s):      25
     Objective(s): 2
8.    When a change occurs in a gene, it is called a(n) __________________.
      A.    recessive gene
      B.    allele
      C.    mutation
      D.    chromosomal disorder

      Answer:       C
      Page(s):      24
      Objective(s): 2


9.    Alternative forms of the same gene are called __________________.
      A.     recessive genes
      B.     alleles
      C.     mutations
      D.     chromosomes

      Answer:       B
      Page(s):      24
      Objective(s): 2


10.   Any of the chromosomes that do not contain genes that determine sex are called
      __________________.
      A.    carrier chromosomes
      B.    allele chromosomes
      C.    autosomal chromosomes
      D.    sex-linked chromosomes

      Answer:       C
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


11.   Jen and Eric are both carriers of sickle cell disease, an autosomal recessive disorder.
      Their newborn baby has a _____ percent chance of developing the disease.
      A.     100
      B.     25
      C.     50
      D.     75

      Answer:       B
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2
12.   Joy has an autosomal dominant disorder; her husband Thad is not a carrier of the same
      disorder. Their son has a _____ percent chance of being a carrier.
      A.     50
      B.     100
      C.     75
      D.     25

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2


13.   Josie and Elijah’s children have a 100 percent likelihood of being carriers of an
      autosomal recessive disorder. Which of the following scenarios is TRUE?
      A.     Josie and Elijah are carriers.
      B.     Josie is affected; Elijah is a carrier.
      C.     Josie and Elijah are affected.
      D.     Josie is affected; Elijah is not a carrier.

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      25-26
      Objective(s): 2


14.   Carriers will pass on a carrier status to their children _____ percent of the time.
      A.     100
      B.     33
      C.     25
      D.     50

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2


15.   Which of the following statements about X-linked disorders is TRUE?
      A.    A carrier mother has a 50 percent chance of passing her mutated X gene to her
            daughters and a 25 percent chance of passing it to her sons.
      B.    Most X-linked disorders are recessive.
      C.    X-linked disorders usually affect females.
      D.    An affected father passes the mutated gene on to all of his offspring.

      Answer:       B
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2
16.   Who is more at risk for acquiring sex-linked disorders?
      A.     daughters
      B.     sons
      C.     daughters and sons equally
      D.     sex-linked disorders are not genetically linked

      Answer:       B
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2


17.   Heart disease is an example of a multifactorial illness. Which of the following reasons
      does NOT support this statement?
      A.     Smoking tobacco and high blood pressure increase the risk for heart disease.
      B.     First-degree relatives have a six-fold increase in risk for heart disease.
      C.     Genetic screening and information may lead an individual to modify his or her
             environmental risk factors to prevent the disease from developing.
      D.     Random error in formation of ovum or sperm causes heart disease.

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      26-27
      Objective(s): 2


18.   Down syndrome is what type of disorder?
      A.    chromosomal
      B.    polygenic
      C.    X-linked
      D.    multifactorial

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


19.   Which of the following statements about Down syndrome is FALSE?
      A     Down syndrome cannot be diagnosed during pregnancy or shortly after birth.
      B.    Down syndrome occurs in about 1 in every 800 live births.
      C.    An individual with Down syndrome is born with an extra copy of
            chromosome 21.
      D.    The risk associated with giving birth to a baby with Down syndrome increases
            with maternal age.

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


20.   The Human Genome Project confirms that
      A.    there are clearly defined genetic differences among human races.
      B.    a human has the same number of genes as a mouse.
      C.    humans have more genes than scientists expected.
      D.    the majority of DNA is used in protein-coding genes.

      Answer:       B
      Page(s):      24
      Objective(s): 2


21.   Which of the following groups has the highest incidence of sickle cell disease?
      A.    Chinese
      B.    Ashkenazi Jew
      C.    Caucasian
      D.    African American

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      28
      Objective(s): 3


22.   European Caucasians have a greater risk of acquiring cystic fibrosis. This fact
      demonstrates that
      A.    closely-knit populations do not necessarily share the same genes.
      B.    certain genetic disorders occur more frequently within particular ethnic groups.
      C.    cystic fibrosis is unique in that it occurs more frequently in one ethnic population
            than in others.
      D.    genetic screening is not necessary for couples sharing the same ethnic
            background.

      Answer:       B
      Page(s):      28
      Objective(s): 3


23.   Research studies have shown that genes may affect human behavior. According to this
      research, which of the following statements is FALSE?
      A.     Core temperament traits are inherited at conception.
      B.     Genes may affect sexual orientation.
      C.     There is no clear genetic role in addiction.
      D.     Gene variations cause a reaction to alcohol known as flushing syndrome.
      Answer:       C
      Page(s):      31
      Objective(s): 3


24.   Gene variations can affect the rate at which alcohol is metabolized. Which population
      has high frequency of these gene variations and, therefore, a significantly reduced risk of
      alcoholism?
      A.     Southeast Asian
      B.     Ashkenazi Jew
      C.     Caucasian
      D.     African American

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      31
      Objective(s): 3


25.   Which of the following mental disorders is known to have a genetic component?
      A.    bipolar disorder
      B.    anorexia nervosa
      C.    adjustment disorder
      D.    PTSD

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      30
      Objective(s): 3


26.   Which of the following is TRUE regarding Alzheimer’s disease?
      A.    A mutation in the APOE gene increases a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s
            disease.
      B.    Alzheimer’s disease is a rare cause of dementia.
      C.    The most common form of Alzheimer’s disease is an autosomal dominant
            disorder.
      D.    People with Alzheimer’s disease experience some memory loss but are capable of
            continued high functioning.

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      30
      Objective(s): 3
27.   Which of the following disorders is associated with the European Caucasian population?
      A.    familial hypercholesterolemia
      B.    sickle cell disease
      C.    thalassemia
      D.    cystic fibrosis

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      28
      Objective(s): 3


28.   Mackenzie is a newborn infant who shows symptoms of cystic fibrosis. Her parents have
      her tested to confirm or exclude the possibility of the disease. Mackenzie had what type
      of test performed on her?
      A.       diagnostic
      B.       presymptomatic
      C.       predispositional
      D.       predictive

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


29.   Which type of genetic testing is used when an asymptomatic individual has a family
      history of a disorder with a genetic association?
      A.      retrospective
      B.      diagnostic
      C.      predictive
      D.      carrier

      Answer:       C
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


30.   Todd’s father developed Alzheimer’s disease at age 46. Todd has no symptoms, but took
      a genetic test for early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. What type of test did Todd undergo?
      A.      predispositional
      B.      diagnostic
      C.      presymptomatic
      D.      carrier

      Answer:       C
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4
31.   Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding newborn screening tests?
      A.    Newborn screening tests require a signed consent form.
      B.    The PKU genetic mutation is a model condition for genetic testing.
      C.    Federal mandates determine disorders to be included in newborn screenings.
      D.    Sickle cell disease is federally mandated to be included in newborn screening.

      Answer:       B
      Page(s):      33
      Objective(s): 4


32.   Which of the following is NOT considered a treatment for genetic disorders?
      A.    medications
      B.    experimental gene therapy
      C.    diet modification
      D.    genetic counseling

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      33-34
      Objective(s): 4


33.   Rachel has cystic fibrosis. She takes vitamin supplements for vitamins A, D, E, and K
      every day. What dietary modification practice does Rachel exhibit?
      A.     exclusion
      B.     restriction
      C.     substitution
      D.     supplementation

      Answer:       D
      Page(s):      33
      Objective(s): 4


34.   Katelyn has both PKU (phenylketonuria) and a peanut allergy. She should practice
      which dietary modification type(s)?
      A.     restriction and exclusion
      B.     exclusion and supplementation
      C.     exclusion only
      D.     restriction and supplementation
      E.     supplementation only

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      33
      Objective(s): 4


35.   Which of the following statements about viral gene therapy is TRUE?
      A.    Potentially fatal immune responses can result from viral gene therapy.
      B.    Viral gene therapy is ready to be used widely.
      C.    The healthy gene always works once it is inside the cell.
      D.    Scientists have developed methods to transport a gene that is larger than a virus.

      Answer:       A
      Page(s):      34
      Objective(s): 4


36.   Which of the following is a source of concern related to the research on genes and the
      related medical advances?
      A.      Medical care may be based on a personal genetic profile.
      B.      More genetic diseases may be treated using gene therapy.
      C.      Athletic performance may be enhanced.
      D.      Symptoms of aging may be alleviated.

      Answer:       C
      Page(s):      35
      Objective(s): 5


True/False Questions

37.   The most relevant information from a family health tree includes major diseases as well
      as age and cause of death.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      21
      Objective(s): 1


38.   A family health tree should be shared with your health provider.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 1
39.   When evaluating a family health tree, a family member who has a heart attack at age 70
      raises more genetic concerns than a relative who develops colon cancer at age 28.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 1


40.   Sally’s aunt and sister-in-law both recently developed breast cancer. Courtney’s mother
      and sister both recently developed breast cancer. Courtney has a higher risk of breast
      cancer than Sally.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 1


41.   A family health tree is also called a genogram or a genetic pedigree.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      21
      Objective(s): 1


42.   Twenty-two of our 23 chromosome pairs are the same for women and men.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      22-23
      Objective(s): 2


43.   The complete set of DNA is called a person’s genome.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 2


44.   Genetic mutations can be either beneficial or harmful to one’s health.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      24
      Objective(s): 2
45.   Most genetic disorders are caused by single-gene mutations.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


46.   If an individual receives a faulty, mutated copy of a gene from his or her mother, that
      person will most likely acquire a genetic disorder.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      24
      Objective(s): 2


47.   Autosomal dominant disorders occur equally among women and men.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


48.   An autosomal recessive disorder requires only one copy of a mutated gene for a disorder
      to be present.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


49.   Jan is a carrier of cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder; she has a 25 percent
      chance of passing the mutated gene on to her sons and daughters.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2


50.   The X chromosome is small and contains few genes, so it has a much lower likelihood of
      mutations causing a genetic disease.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2
51.   Fathers rarely pass sex-linked disorders on to their sons.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2


52.   If a disease has a genetic link, it will usually occur more frequently among first-degree
      relatives of a person with an illness than it occurs in the general population.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


53.   An illness with a significant genetic contribution will occur more frequently among
      fraternal twins than among identical twins.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


54.   Chromosomal disorders are caused by mutations in multiple genes within a chromosome.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


55.   Many chromosomal disorders lead to a fetus being unable to survive the prenatal period.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


56.   A child with Down syndrome can be born to parents of any age and maternal age has
      little significance.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2
57.   A child born with Down syndrome has an extra copy of chromosome 21.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


58.   Genetics cannot distinguish one race of people from another.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      24
      Objective(s): 2


59.   The risk of a child receiving the same genetic mutation from both parents is higher if both
      parents share the same ethnic background.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      28
      Objective(s): 3


60.   The genetic mutation that causes Tay-Sachs disease, a degenerative brain disorder, is
      found at higher frequency in the African American population.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      28, 29
      Objective(s): 3


61.   Research suggests that our core temperament traits are inherited at conception.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      30
      Objective(s): 3


62.   The only clearly identified genes having a role in alcoholism are genes that protect
      against alcoholism.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      31
      Objective(s): 3
63.   A positive result for a predispositional test ensures the eventual development of the
      genetic disorder being tested.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


64.   Carrier tests are frequently offered to individuals in certain racial and ethnic groups that
      are known for having high carrier rates.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


65.   Prenatal screening prevents genetic diseases.

      Answer:       False
      Page(s):      32-33
      Objective(s): 4


66.   The disorders included in routine screening programs at birth vary from state to state.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      33
      Objective(s): 4


67.   In gene therapy, abnormal genes are replaced by healthy genes.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      34
      Objective(s): 4


68.   Scientists have used viruses to inject healthy genes into cells with abnormal genes.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      34
      Objective(s): 4
69.   The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) prohibits group health
      plans from using genetic information as a basis for denying or limiting an individual’s
      coverage. However, individuals who are seeking health care on their own, rather than as
      a part of a group, are not protected under HIPAA.

      Answer:       True
      Page(s):      35
      Objective(s): 5


Short Answer

70.   A method of illustrating an individual’s family genetic history is called a(n)
      _______________.

      Answer:       family health tree
      Page(s):      21
      Objective(s): 1


71.   A series of paired nucleotides at a certain location on chromosome that codes for a
      specific protein is called a ___________________.

      Answer:       gene
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 2


72.   The molecule that encodes, or controls the production of, genetic information located
      tightly coiled in the chromosome is ____________________.

      Answer:       deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 2


73.   The two chains that DNA consists of are joined in a(n) ___________________ structure.

      Answer:       double helix
      Page(s):      22
      Objective(s): 2
74.   Twenty-two of our 23 chromosome pairs are the same for men and women. These
      chromosomes are called ____________________.

      Answer:       autosomal chromosomes
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


75.   One chromosome pair is referred to as the ___________________, because it determines
      sex.

      Answer:       sex-linked chromosome
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


76.   Changes that occur during the process of parents passing genes to their children are called
      ____________________.

      Answer:       mutations
      Page(s):      24
      Objective(s): 2


77.   A(n) __________________ is the result of a mutation in just one gene.

      Answer:       single-gene disorder
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


78.   Interactions among one or             more    genes    and    the    environment     cause
      ____________________ or traits.

      Answer:       multifactorial disorders
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2


79.   Only one copy of a mutated gene is required for a(n) __________________ disorder to
      be present.

      Answer:       autosomal dominant
      Page(s):      25
      Objective(s): 2
80.   A mutated gene that is not expressed when paired with a healthy gene is called
      ___________________.

      Answer:       recessive
      Page(s):      24, 25
      Objective(s): 2


81.   A person with one healthy gene and one mutated autosomal recessive gene is a(n)
      ________________.

      Answer:       carrier
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2


82.   Because sex-linked disorders are almost all caused by mutations on the X chromosome,
      they are sometimes called ____________________ disorders.

      Answer:       X-linked
      Page(s):      26
      Objective(s): 2


83.   In a(n) _____________________, an entire chromosome may be added, lost, or altered.

      Answer:       chromosomal disorder
      Page(s):      27
      Objective(s): 2


84.   The ___________________ was launched in 1990, as scientists organized to discuss
      plans to map and sequence human genetic information.

      Answer:       Human Genome Project
      Page(s):      23
      Objective(s): 2


85.   The process of determining the position of genes in relation to one another and their
      location on the chromosomes is called __________________.

      Answer:       genetic mapping
      Page(s):      23
      Objective(s): 2
86.   The foundation of personality that remains stable across the lifespan and appears to be
      inherited is __________________,

      Answer:       temperament
      Page(s):      30
      Objective(s): 3


87.   The tendency to become addicted to alcohol has been found to run in families;
      ______________ factors, however, also play a critical role in the development of
      alcoholism.

      Answer:       environmental
      Page(s):      31
      Objective(s): 3


88.   Three gene variations affect the way alcohol is metabolized and are found in higher
      frequencies in ______________ populations.

      Answer:       Asian
      Page(s):      31
      Objective(s): 3


89.   A(n) _____________________ can help an individual and his or her family evaluate risk
      for a specific disease, learn about the diagnostic test available, discuss treatment options,
      and consider the possible consequences of the test.

      Answer:       genetic counselor
      Page(s):      31-32
      Objective(s): 4


90.   When an individual shows signs of an illness, a(n) _________________ test may help
      confirm or exclude the possibility of certain diseases.

      Answer:       diagnostic
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4
91.   If an individual is healthy, a(n) ___________________ test can be used to assess the
      individual’s risk for developing a particular genetic disease in the future.

      Answer:       predictive
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


92.   ___________________ tests are predictive tests that identify the presence of genetic
      mutations that are associated with autosomal dominant disorders.

      Answer:       Presymptomatic
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


93.   Predictive tests associated with multifactorial diseases are called ___________________
      tests.

      Answer:       predispositional
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


94.   A genetic test performed to look for a recessive gene is called a(n) ______________ test.

      Answer:       carrier
      Page(s):      32
      Objective(s): 4


95.   A(n) ________________ blood test conducted during the early part of pregnancy can
      possibly suggest an increased risk for a neural tube defect or chromosomal abnormality.

      Answer:       triple screen
      Page(s):      32-33
      Objective(s): 4


96.   Dietary modification can be used to treat some genetic conditions. A child with
      phenylketonuria (PKU) must limit his or her intake of phenylalanine. This form of
      dietary modification is called ____________________.

      Answer:       restriction
      Page(s):      33
      Objective(s): 4
97.    Dietary modification can be used to treat some health conditions. A person with a severe
       food allergy must completely remove the food from his or her diet. This form of dietary
       modification is called ____________________________.

       Answer:       exclusion
       Page(s):      33
       Objective(s): 4


98.    Dietary modification can be used to treat some health conditions. A person with cystic
       fibrosis poorly absorbs fat-soluble vitamins and will need to take more than the
       recommended daily amounts.          This form of dietary modification is called
       __________________________.

       Answer:       supplementation
       Page(s):      33
       Objective(s): 4


99.    The federal act intended to address concerns regarding genetic testing and health
       insurance is called the ___________________.

       Answer:       Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
       Page(s):      35
       Objective(s): 5


100.   The ____________________ of 2008 is federal legislation designed to fill in gaps in the
       current protections against discrimination based on genetic information.

       Answer:       Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
       Page(s):      37
       Objective(s): 5


101.   The practice of selectively breeding or controlling a group’s reproductive choices in an
       attempt to improve the human race is called ________________.

       Answer:       eugenics
       Page(s):      37
       Objective(s): 5
Matching Questions

Match the following:

       A)     autosomal recessive disorder
       B)     autosomal dominant disorder
       C)     mutifactorial disorder
       D)     chromosomal disorder
       E)     sex-linked disorder

102.   People with this type of disorder have a 50 percent chance of passing the condition on to
       their children.

       Answer:       B
       Page(s):      25
       Objective(s): 2


103.   Most of these disorders are caused by genes on the X chromosome.

       Answer:       E
       Page(s):      26
       Objective(s): 2


104.   Lifestyle habits contribute to the risk posed by these disorders.

       Answer:       C
       Page(s):      26
       Objective(s): 2


105.   Two copies of the disease-causing allele are required for this sort of disease to be present.

       Answer:       A
       Page(s):      25
       Objective(s): 2


106.   Many of these disorders lead to fetal death or death in the first year of life.

       Answer:       D
       Page(s):      27
       Objective(s): 2
Match the following:

       A)     predispositional test
       B)     carrier test
       C)     presymptomatic test
       D)     diagnostic test

107.   A test designed to look for a gene associated with an autosomal recessive disorder

       Answer:       B
       Page(s):      32
       Objective(s): 4


108.   A test that helps confirm or exclude the possibility of certain diseases once symptoms of
       an illness have surfaced

       Answer:       D
       Page(s):      32
       Objective(s): 4


109.   A test designed to detect a mutation that increases an individual’s risk of developing a
       disease

       Answer:       A
       Page(s):      32
       Objective(s): 4


110.   A test intended to detect a mutation that indicates the eventual onset of a disorder

       Answer:       C
       Page(s):      32
       Objective(s): 4

								
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