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									Regulatory and Permitting Issues                           TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2




                                Presentation to the
         West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
                                 October 28, 2004
                                  Portland, OR


                            Michael S. Bruno, Ph.D., PE

                         Terralog Technologies USA, Inc.
                                www.terralog.com
     Regulatory and Permitting Issues                                                                            TTI
     For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2



                                                            CO2



      Capture                    Transport                                      Sequestration



    Power Plants      Pipeline               Temp. Storage               Injection              Terrestrial



                                                                  EOR                                               Reforestation



                                                              Storage                                               Forest Mgmt

•   Not a hazardous waste
                                             Salt caverns                                                     Streamside protect \Consr
•   Not a criteria pollutant
•   Can be either a product or          Coal Bed Methane                                                          Biomass Energy
    waste depending on usage or
    classification
                                              Reservoir                                                       Deep Seeded Grassland



                                                              Disposal
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                                              TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2




        Red – storage or disposal in Coal bed methane, geologic and depleted reservoirs
        Green – Enhanced oil & gas recovery
        Blue – conventional oil and gas recovery
                        Source: USGS Fact Sheet 26-03, March 2003
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                              TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2




           CO2 Geologic Sequestration Regulatory Framework

           Applicable Legislation:
           Federal Regulation (SDWA, RCRA) - UIC program
           State Regulations (CEQA) - ARB, RWQCB
           Local Regulations (zoning laws)

           Primary Motivation:
           Protect Health, Safety, Environment (air, water)
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                                              TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2



  •   EOR well Class II – classified product in 6 states

  •   Definition of CO2 as waste or product to be decided by EPA & State !!

  •   Storage well --- AZ Class II
                       AK Class II or V
                       CA Class II
                       WA Class V
                       OR May not allow
                       NV Class V if meet certain conditions

  •   Waste disposal - AZ Class I
                       AK Class IID
                       CA Class I MOU w/EPA & review w/H20 Board
                       WA Class V
                       OR Class I or V (<100ft deep)
                       NV Class V (mostly shallow wells)
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                        TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2




Any injection well will trigger all or some of the following:
     –State agency permit if state has primacy, or EPA UIC
     permit
     –NPDES if have waste water disposal
     –Aquifer Protection Permit
     –DOT, Fire Marshall, PUC, OSHA during transportation
     of CO2 via pipeline
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                                       TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2



                                                    Injection Permit Process
                                                        and Requirements:



                                                    1. Geologic Review
                                                    2.   Injection Simulation
                                                    3.   Well Review
                                                    4.   Operating Plan
                                                    5.   Monitoring Plan
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                    TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2




     Terrestrial Sequestration & Storage Management

 •    Afforestation
 •    Reforestation
 •    Urban forestry
 •    Agroforestry
 •    Natural regeneration
 •    Biomass enrichment
 •    Forest product management
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                                                 TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2


                                               Any change or ground disturbance will trigger all
                                                 or some of the following:
                                                   – Permit from State Forest and Fire Dept
                                                   – State Dept of Fish & Wildlife review
                                                   – US Fish & Wildlife review
                                                   – Water Right Permit, NPDES or water
                                                     usage evaluation
                                                   – Conditional Use Permit zoning code
                                                   – US Army Corps of Engineers review
                                                   – Division of State Lands, BLM, Local
                                                     Indian Tribunal or County/City Planning
                                                     Dept review
                                                   – CEQA or SEPA evaluation
                                                   – Local Air District Permit, new source
                                                     review




          Source: Oregon Forest Protection Laws, An Illustrated Manual, 2002
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                    TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2




                        Land Management

  • Federal Land
      – US Dept of Agriculture – Forest Services
      – US Dept of Interior – BLM, National Park
        Services, Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • State Land
      – Dept of Forestry and Fire Protection
  • Private Land
        Regulatory and Permitting Issues                                                                                   TTI
        For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2

                                                             Oregon Example
                                                               Any Change/Gd. Disturbance/
                                                             Forest Mgmt. Forestation, Riparian
                                                                 Consr./Re-seed Grassland


                             State Land                    Federal Land                                            Private Land

         ODF
      OAR Ch 629                           USDA – FS                            USDI               Forest land
                                                                                                                                   Ranchland
      ORS 527.610                         See next slide                    See next slide        See State Land



OR Dept of Fish & Wildlife                                                                                 OR Div of State Lands
     OAR Ch 635                                    National Park Services                                  ORS 196.795-196.990



    US Fish & Wildlife                                                                                     US Army Corps of Eng
       50CFR 17                                             BLM                                               CWA Sec 404




 OR Div of State Lands                                                                                           OR DA
                                                   Bureau of Indian Affairs
 ORS 196.795-196.990                                                                                       ORS 603 Div. 80,90,95




 US Army Corps of Eng                                                                                      County Planning Dept
    CWA Sec 404
Regulatory and Permitting Issues                                                                                               TTI
For Geologic and Terrestrial Sequestration of CO2



                             Oregon Federal Land Regulations
                                                                 Federal Land




                         USDA - FS
                                                                                      USDI
                         36CFR Ch1



    US Fish & Wildlife
                                     Bureau of Indian Affairs            National Park Services                               BLM
       50CFR 17
                                           25CFR 1                            Not Allowed                                 43CFR Ch2, 35




OR Dept of Fish & Wildlife                                                                    OR Dept of Fish & Wildlife
     OAR Ch 635                                                 Local Tribunal                     OAR Ch 635




                                                                                                  US Dept of Fish & Wildlife
                                                                  See BLM
                                                                                                        50 CFR 17
Options                    Reasons
(Easy to difficult)
EOR                      In operation
        Regulatory and Permitting Issues
US Dept of Agriculture –
                         Class II wells for State with primacy, EPA w/o
                         Permit from US Forest Service
                                                                                                          TTI
                         US Fish and Wildlife Sequestration of CO2
        For Geologic and Terrestrial(Endangered species review)
Forest Service
                         State Fish and Wildlife (State endangered species review)
US Dept of Interiors --  Permit from BLM
BLM                      US Fish and Wildlife (Endangered species review)
                         State Fish and Wildlife (State endangered species review)
State Forestlands        Permit from State Forest and Fire Dept.
                         State Dept of Fish and Wildlife
                         US Fish and Wildlife                                         CO2 Sequestration Ranking Options
                         Water Right or usage Permit
                         US Army Corps of Eng. (OR)
                                                                                       West Coast Regional Partnership
                         Div. of State Lands (OR)
                         CEQA (CA) SEPA (WA) review
Private Forestlands      Permit from State Forest and Fire Dept.
Private Ranchlands       State Dept of Fish and Wildlife
                         US Fish and Wildlife
                         Water Right or usage Permit
                         County Planning Dept (OR, WA)
                         US Army Corps of Eng. (OR)
                         Div. of State Lands (OR)
                         CEQA (CA) SEPA (WA) review                                           Increasing difficulty
US Dept of Interiors –   Permit from BLM
Indian Lands             US Fish and Wildlife (Endangered species review)
                         State Fish and Wildlife (State endangered species review)
                         Local Tribunal
Subsurface Storage and   Uncertain depending on classification of CO2 as product or
Disposal                 waste
Biomass                  Local Air Permit (new source review)
                         NPDES Permit
                         County Planning Dept
                         Permit from State Forest and Fire Dept.
                         State Dept of Fish and Wildlife
                         US Fish and Wildlife
                         Water Right or usage Permit
                         US Army Corps of Eng. (OR)
                         Div. of State Lands (OR)
                         CEQA (CA) SEPA (WA) review
US Dept of Interiors –   No way
National Parks

								
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