Document Sample
islcollective_worksheets_intermediate_b1_upperintermediate_b2_elementary_school_high_school_readin_oney_251874f0af2c3263809_13905112 Powered By Docstoc
					Money brings good and bad effects in our lives; mostly good because we cannot live
without money and everything is acquired using money like the food we eat, our
beverages, our clothes, our school tuition fee, utilities and everything. I bet you could
agree with me if I say money makes the world go around unless if you’re a beggar. I bet
everyone know what money is about, even young children already know the importance
of money and ask for some coins for candies.
The use of money is as old as the human civilization. Money is basically a method of
exchange, and coins and notes are just items of exchange. But money was not always the
same form as the money today, and is still developing. The basis of all early commerce
was barter, in other words the direct exchange of one product for another, with the
relative values a matter for negotiation. Subsequently both livestock, particularly cattle,
and plant products such as grain, come to be used as money in many different societies at
different periods. Cattle are probably the oldest of all forms of money, as domestication
of animals tended to precede the cultivation of crops. The earliest evidence of banking is
found in Mesopotamia between 3000 and 2000 B.C. when temples were used to store
grain and other valuables used in trade. People in early societies developed forms of
proto-money -- the use of commodities that everyone agreed to accept in trade. Various
items have been used by different societies at different times. Aztecs used cacao beans.
Norwegians once used butter. The early U.S. colonists used tobacco leaves and animal
hides (settlers traded deer hides -- the origin of our modern word for money: "bucks").
The people of Paraguay used snails. Roman soldiers were paid a "salarium" of salt. On
the island of Nauru, the islanders used rats. Human slaves have also been used as
currency around the world. In the 16th century, the average exchange value of a slave
was 8000 pounds of sugar. Gradually, however, people began exchanging items that had
no intrinsic value, but which had only agreed-upon or symbolic value. An example is the
cowrie shell. The first use of cowries, the shell of a mollusc that was widely available in
the shallow waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, was in China in 1,200 BC.
Historically, many societies have used cowries as money, and even as recently as the
middle of the 20th century, cowries have been used in some parts of Africa. The cowrie
is the most widely and longest used currency in history. Another symbolic currency --
used widely in the Americas -- was wampum. Wampum are oblong clamshells sawed
into beads, polished, and then strung together. The earliest known use of wampum was
by North American Indians in 1535. Most likely, this monetary medium existed well
before this date. The Indian word "wampum" means white, which was the color of the
beads. Wampum was used as legal tender in several early American colonies and states.
A wampum factory in New Jersey remained in business until 1859. From the widespread
use of wampum as symbolic currency we get the current phrase "shelling out". Metal tool
money, such as knife and spade monies, was also first used in China. These early metal
monies developed into primitive versions of round coins at the end of the Stone Age.
Chinese coins were made out of copper, often containing holes so they could be put
together like a chain. Outside of China, the first coins developed out of lumps of silver.
They soon took the familiar round form of today, and were stamped with various gods
and emperors to mark their authenticity. These early coins first appeared in the Kingdom
of Lydia (now in Turkey) in the 7th Century B.C., but the techniques were quickly copied
and further refined by the Greek, Persian, Macedonian, and later the Roman empires.
Unlike Chinese coins, which depended on base metals, these new coins were made from
precious metals such as silver, bronze, and gold, which had more inherent value. As in so
many other things, the Chinese were the innovators for the next step. The Chinese
invented printing, and not too much later, they also invented paper money during the
T'ang Dynasty. This technology came in handy when China had to solve a problem with
their money because copper was scarce and not enough coins could be minted. During
Ming Dynasty the Chinese placed the emperor's seal and signature of the treasures on a
crude paper made from mulberry bark. In all, China experienced over 500 years of early
paper money, spanning from the ninth through the fifteenth century. Then beginning in
1455, the use of paper money in China disappeared for 700 years. People in Mongolia
were the second who began to use paper money in eleventh century. Paper money was
adopted in Europe much later than in Asia and the Arab world -- primarily because
Europe didn't have paper. The first paper mill in Europe was established by the Moors in
1151 A. D. in what is now Spain, but paper was not widely accepted because of religious
prejudice. Official Christian officials discouraged paper because it was introduced by the
heathen Moors. In 1221, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II announced that official
documents written on paper were invalid -- only parchment or vellum was acceptable.
Nevertheless, the use of paper spread because of its obvious convenience. The Bank of
Sweden issued the first paper money in Europe in 1661, though this was also a temporary
measure. In 1694 the Bank of England was founded and began to issue promisory notes,
originally handwritten but later printed. To make travelling with gold less dangerous,
goldsmiths, or people who made jewelry and other items out of gold, came up with an
idea. The goldsmiths started writing out notes on pieces of paper that said the person who
had the note could trade the note in for gold. These promissory notes were the beginning
of paper money in Europe. If you look at a British bank note today, you'll see it still says:
I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of twenty pounds.

Operations with money
In a bank you usually have a current account, which is one where you pay in your salary
and then withdraw money to pay your everyday bills. The bank sends you a regular ban
statement telling you how much money has gone in and out of your account. You may
also have a savings account where you deposit any extra money that you have and only
take money out when you want to spend it on something special. If you spend more than
you have in your account you can have an overdraft. The bank allows you to spend more
and charges you interest. If your account is overdrawn [you have taken more out of your
account than you had in it] you are in the red (as opposed to in the black or in credit).
Sometimes the bank may lend you money - this is called a bank loan.-If the bank [or
building society] lends you money to buy a house, that money is called a mortgage
When you buy [or purchase more formally] something in a shop, you usually pay for it
outright but sometimes you buy on credit. Sometimes you may be offered a discount or
reduction on something you buy. For example, you might get £10 off perhaps because
you are a student. You are often offered a discount if you buy in bulk. It is not usual to
haggle about prices in a British shop, as it is in, say, a Turkish market. If you want to
return, something which you have bought to a shop, you may be given a refund, i.e. your
money will be returned, provided you have a receipt. The money that you pay for
services, e.g. to a school or a lawyer, is usually called a fee (fees; the money paid for a
journey is a fare. If you buy something that you feel was very good value, it's a bargain.
If you feel that it is definitely not worth what you paid for it, then you can call it a rip-off
[very colloquial].
Public finance
The government collects money from citizens through taxes. Income tax is the tax
collected on wages and salaries. Inheritance tax is collected on what people inherit from
others. Customs or excise duties have to be paid on goods imported from other countries
VAT or value added tax is a tax paid on most goods and services when they are bought
purchased. Companies pay corporation tax on their profits. If you pay too much tax, you
should be given some money back, a tax rebate.
The government also sometimes pays out money to people in need, e.g. unemployment
benefit [also known as the dole, informal] disability allowances and student loans [money
lent to help pay for studying]. Recipients draw a pension / unemployment benefit or are
the dole or on social security.
Every country has its own special currency. Every day the rates of exchange are
published and you can discover, for example, how many dollars there are currently to the
pound sterling.
A company may sell shares to members of the public who are then said to have invested
that company. They should be paid a regular dividend on their investment, depending on
the profit or loss made by the company.

Moreover, we can say that money, nowadays, can be of different forms, shapes and
colors. Everything started with coins, after that notes, cheques and credit cards started to
appear. But with the development of new technologies, people realized that it wasn't
enough to have notes, coins and such-like things... That's why web money was invented,
with the help of which people could pay for everything they bought online. The way
money looks varies from country to country. It also plays a very important role in
promoting political or economic beliefs or ideas.

Nowadays, there’s no more direct barter as means of getting the things you need and
want unlike during the early 1900’s. Everything has a cost or a price tag on it, even if
other’s say money cannot buy everything. Yeah right, happiness cannot be bought but
you can divert yourself in so many things to get happiness. Happiness is up to you, I can
be happier if I have the financial freedom. Happiness is what we make it and it’s a
journey not a destination. How do money affects our lives?
Good effects:

-    It can be means of appreciation to someone you love. You can buy gifts and give it
    to them making them feel special.
-   It can be a motivator. You give money to your employees as incentives so they work
    more effectively. They do make good performance because they wanted to get the
    money or cash prizes. Your child will do well in school because s/he knows you’re
    buying a Wii if s/he gets good grades.
-   It pays all the essential/ basic needs like food, shelter and clothes also the utilities
    (telephone, internet, car bills)
-    It pays for your wants thus making you feel rewarded for your efforts of working
    hard. You can buy the things you want to make your life better, a new car, new shoes,
    bags, chocolates and more.
-    It helps other people in means of donations and solicitations. Money can help other
    people’s lives.
-   It binds friendship, merging of new partnerships and uniting west and east. Money
    can unite people of different races, ages, gender and status of life; they can agree
    about money issues. Some companies do merge and improving sales and hiring more
    people and more people have jobs.
-    Money can be the first factor in your buying capacity or decisions

Bad effects:

-   It takes your time. Money needs time to gain it so you work long hours. You also set
    aside other priorities for choosing earning money.
-   It lessens intimacy in life making the person empty or hallow. Because you have
    money it makes you greedy and wanting more of it and most people tend to not
    appreciate getting only a portion thus working more and more and don’t stop. At the
    end, the person feels he lacks something in his life that cannot be filled out. Actually,
    it’s just relaxation time and a time to bow to God and appreciate what he had.
-   It destroys friendship and family ties. Some family quarrels over big lands and gold
    and even kill other family members just to take it out from the last will. It also
    destroys friendship when arguing about it, money is just so powerful that leads
    everyone do anything just to get it.
-   Money can destroy trust, love and happiness; need to say more?
-    It’s the source of greed. Makes a person not satisfied thus trying to get more of it not
    noticing he is already stepping at other people just to get what he’s aiming for –
    higher positions for higher pay.

There are more effects of money in our lives both good and evil ways, I’m sure you have
more things in mind than this article says. I guess the best thing to end this article is a
warning or a friendly advice that we should remember that Money isn’t our master and
we are not money’s servants. We can get what we want but in a righteous/legal ways.
Even if we get good money today in a bad way but 20 years later it will haunt you and
the money you earned will vanish like water in your hand. Using money wisely can be a
good thing and it can even help you get better in life.

So we can say that there are two contrary points of view on the topic of money.
According to one of them, wealth is the most important thing in people`s life. But
supporters of another statement maintain that there are many things which are much more
valuable. Firstly, the extent of well-being can be an indicator of person`s intellection.
Judging by common conceptions, only educated and brainy people can be engaged on a
decent job which pays well. At the same time, that is not always like this. For instance, a
millionaire can also be a fraud and deceiver who bosses other people around. Secondly,
money let us fulfil our requirements. It makes the range of possibilities more various.
However, it is an open secret that human`s necessities are boundless: the more of them
are realised, the more are likely to occur again. Furthermore, poor people are always
bound to restrict themselves. Naturally, that makes them feel miserable and depressed.
Therefore, these people tend to make a crime to a greater degree than representatives of
classes with a satisfactory abundance. In my opinion, money is one of the necessary
elements in our life, yet it is not basic. Finally, the level of material security should fit
moral development and education.

There are a lot of ways to earn money.

1. Antiques

The buying and selling of antiques has been and should continue to be a very productive
business, financially, for those that do it. Here, you only need an extra room in the
house, or the use of your garage -- and you have an office! If you have a large home that
has some antique furnishings, you might consider turning it into a showroom for your
antique acquisitions and sales, providing you satisfy any local zoning regulations. The
interest in antiques will survive into the foreseeable future. Many people choose to spend
their free time on the weekends "antiquating" from place to place to try and pick up a few
odds or ends and maybe a jewel or two. If you know anything about antiques, this may
be a great opportunity for you.

2. Baking

Have you ever been told that you have a recipe that people would line up to get if they
could? Ever had anyone tell you that you should be selling those cupcakes you make?
There are a number of success stories about people who have launched successful
businesses by cooking at home and then marketing to local people first. You may
specialize in on just one well-tried and tested food product; or you may innovate on a
product that you created yourself and which has never been marketed before. Having
perfected the recipe you then turn to packaging and marketing. Word of mouth on a good
product may start to get restaurants or bakeries interested in acquiring your culinary
masterpieces. Then you progress to selling them statewide and you're on your way to a
profitable home-based business.
3. Childcare
Due to the financial pressures faced by many families today, parents work outside of the
home to bring in enough income to pay daily living expenses. A single parent is
obviously working but all too often, both members of a two-parent family are in the
workforce. This creates a home-based opportunity. Children must be watched, all day if
they're not in school, or, otherwise, for a brief time after school before the parents finish
work for the day. Most parents want their children immersed in a more stimulating
environment than is usual with the average babysitter. You can begin small at home,
offering a more stimulating and educational environment setting for client children.
Caring for one additional child may not be that lucrative, but taking care of several
children can certainly be a full-time, financially successful business. Often, taking care
of several children is made somewhat easier as the youngsters often will play together.
You can do this at home for only a small investment in basic equipment and toys for the
kids in addition to the advertising of your business.

4. Computer Specialist
The advent of the computer age has changed the concept of self-employment. Having a
computer at home has opened a number of opportunities for running your own business
utilizing this equipment. Companies everywhere are "outsourcing" work that can be
done by someone else on their computer, out of their own home. If you are a whiz in
computers, you may end up working as a consultant, writing programs for companies. If
you are a beginner, you may find yourself able to obtain work as a writer, using your
computer to produce copy that is easy to edit. You can also keep accounting and payroll
records for companies on your computer's database. Word processing software can be
used not only for writers but for those that can offer secretarial services out of their
house. Desktop publishing software can allow you to do newsletters for businesses and
other organizations. If you can operate a computer, you can find work in the information
age today. Of course, the advent of the Web has opened a lot of business opportunities
for the enterprising individuals. If you have skills in lay-outing and graphic design, you
can be a website designer. Website designers earn significant amounts of money

5. Photographer
The sky is the limit here! Armed with your trusty camera and some good advertising,
you can do weddings, models, family portraits, passports, student photos, local
newspaper coverage; almost anything that requires a picture! You can easily start this
work, part-time, and work into full-time work based on your success and inclination. Not
much equipment is necessary to get going as a camera off the store shelf can often do the
trick today. Picking up a tripod and having a room sufficient for developing your
pictures, and you're in business -- at home!

6. Pose as a live model. You don't have to be young or beautiful to pose for an art class.
You just need to be able to sit still for a long time.
7. Invigilate exams. Lots of schools and universities need outside invigilators, mostly in
January or during the summer.

8. Join a focus group. If you love expressing your opinions on anything from apple juice
to a new TV ad, this might be just the thing for you.

9. Take part in psychological research. It's interesting work because it's all about you, and
involves things like simple memory tests or having brain scans while you talk.

10. Be a mystery shopper. These are people who are paid to go shopping, eat in
restaurants or stay in hotels. All you have to do is write a report on how you were treated
as a customer.

11. Let companies advertise on your car. If you travel a lot and you've got a nice car, it
could have a starring role in an advertising campaign.

Some of these ways aren’t so difficult that if you are short of money but have to pay it
back you can follow and try some them to receive extra money.

To conclude I’d like to say that money doesn’t buy happiness but it helps.
Money has become one of the main things in our modern life. Some people live their
lives to earn money. They work hard, trying to earn as much money as they can. Some of
them become crazy about it and lose their dignity hunting money. They don’t appreciate
such important things as family, friendship, love and other feelings. Such people become
greedy, they spend their lives in loneliness. I don’t deny that money influences our life a
lot. As W.S. Maugham said “ Money is like the sixth feeling without which you cannot
make a complete use of the other five.” I quite agree. A person can’t be happy if he has
no money to satisfy his natural needs. But I think that money should have a limit. A
person shouldn’t have too much money. It begins destroying him and becomes his curse.
It is said in the Bible that “The love of money is the root of all evil.” Yes, big sums of
money really bring different problems because people feel very envious and jealous of
other’s fortune. The majority of all the crimes are made because of money. I’m among
the people who consider that money is not all-powerful. Humanity, dignity, intelligence,
kindness and other good qualities of a person can’t be bought for money. We’ll never be
able to buy pure love, real friendship and loving and caring family. But life isn’t worth
living without these things. It’s not worth living if money has become the point of it

Shared By: