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Verbs and Verbals

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Verbs and Verbals Powered By Docstoc
					Verbs and Verbals



        Infinitives, Gerunds,
        and Participles
Finite and Conjugated Verbs

   Conjugated verbs
    –   Verbs in predicates conjugated or formed into
        tenses, moods, aspects, and voices
   Finite verbs
    –   Non-conjugated verbs
    –   Infinitives, Gerunds, or Participles
Verbals are “part verb”

   As “part-verb” structures, they retain all of the
    verb qualities
    –   They may be modified by adverbs
    –   They may take subjects, objects and
        complements
    –   They may be negated
    –   They may have tenses and/or voices
Infinitives

   Infinitives are the base form of the verb (+ “to”)
    –   To go to class on a beautiful, sunny day is not fun.
            “To go to class on a beautiful, sunny day” is the infinitive
             phrase
            “to class” is an adverbial prepositional phrase inside that
             infinitive phrase and modifying the infinitive “To go”
            “on a beautiful, sunny day” is an adverbial prepositional
             phrase inside that infinitive phrase and modifying the
             infinitive “To go”
            The infinitive phrase is acting as a noun and is the subject
             of the verb “is” in this pattern 2 sentence.
Functions of the Infinitive
   Infinitives may act as adverbs
    –   modifying verbs
    –   To fix the election, Jones named his wife to the
        commission.
            “To fix the election” is an adverb modifying “named”
            “the election” is the direct object of the infinitive “To fix”
   as adjectives
    –   modifying nouns
   and as nouns
    –   subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, subject
        complements, object complements, appositives
Gerunds
   Gerunds are the “ing” form of the verb
   Gerunds only act as nouns in sentences
    –   My doctor labels dieting without exercise as the
        worst possible choice.
            “dieting without exercise” is the gerund phrase
               – “dieting” is the gerund
               – “without exercise” is an adjectival prepositional phrase
                 modifying that gerund “dieting”
            The entire gerund phrase is the direct object of “labels”
             in this pattern 10 sentence in which “worst possible
             choice” is the object complement renaming “dieting
             without exercise”
Present Participles
(not in conjugated verbs!)

   Present Participles are also the “ing” form of
    the verb
   Present participles are always active voice
   Present participles only act as adjectives.
    –   We live by a running brook.
            “running” is the present participle modifying the noun
             “brook” that is the object of the preposition “by” in this
             pattern 6 sentence.
Past Participles
(not in conjugated verbs!)

   Past Participles are the “en” or “ed” form of
    the verb
   Past Participles are always passive voice
   Past Participles only act as adjectives
    –   Run off her feet by the children, Ann slept.
            The entire participle phrase “Run off her feet by the
             children” modifies “Ann”
            The two adverbial prepositional phrases “off her feet”
             and “by the children” both modify the past participle
             “Run”

				
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posted:2/11/2012
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