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Start your own garlic business Congratulations! By visiting this site you have already taken the first step to starting your own agricultural venture. Garlic is very easy to grow and very profitable. We have developed a 5 Year Plan aimed at the first-time grower. This plan allows you to start small (with only 600 square metres of ground) and grow your business as much as you choose. We must stress that you do not need previous experience with growing garlic (or anything else) to follow this plan. We will supply you with: Step-by-step Grower's Manual Planting cloves Year-round telephone support The Grower's Manual includes step-by-step instructions on preparation, planting (including methodology), harvesting and storage, complete with colour photographs. The manual also covers both export and local market information (including aspects such as packaging, presentation and export requirements). It is provided and despatched immediately on acceptance of order, enabling you to prepare your ground well in advance. The planting cloves are of a huge variety called Super Giant Garlic (SGG). Each individual clove can be the size of a regular bulb of garlic, and there are between 4 and 8 cloves per bulb (the average is 5). Shelf-life of this garlic is phenomenal (much longer than other varieties). This means that instant sale is not imperative and you could have garlic to sell in the off-season when prices are high. Our year-round telephone support is there for your convenience at no extra cost. In the 10 years of growing our S.G.G. it has never been susceptible to any crop-threatening disease. Indeed, one crop of smaller garlic planted immediately adjacent to out S.G.G. was completely wiped out with Brown Rust – whereas the S.G.G. was untouched. In short, this is a superb product. Land Requirements Initially, in order to plant 10,000 cloves, approximately 600m2 of ground is required. Should the 5 Year Plan be followed, this requirement would increase five-fold each year. The yield from this land should be approximately 15 tons / hectare, depending on soil type, local conditions, etc. Sandy soil makes for easier weeding, growth and harvesting, but any type will produce a good crop should the right additives and fertiliser be employed (refer to the manual provided with your order for detail). Water Requirements This will vary according to soil type. A reasonable borehole will suffice (refer to the manual provided with your order). The Market The market is not just South Africa. Exporters can handle everything produced here for export to Germany, Australia, etc., especially large cloves which travel well and have long shelf-lives. Locally, it can be sold to traders either whole, chopped, minced or flaked. Great strides have been made in the field of medicine and garlic is featuring in antiseptics and pain killing drugs (refer to manual provided with order for detail). Normal garlic consumption has increased tremendously over the last few years. We anticipate that S.G.G. will take over the garlic market – not add to it. he 5 Year Plan It must be stressed again that this plan is flexible. Allowance has been made for 20% of your annual crop sale to provide income for operating costs and profits. Should this be deemed unnecessary or indeed inadequate then it can be adjusted. This would either increase or decrease the time span of the plan (it makes allowance for the purchase of, for example, a tractor in the 4th or 5th year, construction of a dam as the crop increases and even for the taxman receiving his share). The culmination of the plan is R1-million, after tax, in your pocket after the 5th year, in addition to revenue received from sales in the interim and enough garlic seed to replant and continue enjoying further annual revenue. To start, you need 600m2 (square metres) of land. Garlic Growers will supply you with 10,000 planting cloves (garlic grows when the actual clove is planted). These cloves will produce 50,000 more cloves. Year Land Cloves Profit & cost for next year Cloves 1 = 600m2= 10,000= 50,000 cloves less 20%= 40,000 2 = 2,400m2= 40,000= 200,000 cloves less 20%= 160,000 3 = 9,600m2= 160,000= 800,000 cloves less 20%= 640,000 4 = 38,400m2= 640,000= 3,200,000 cloves less 20%= 2,560,000 This gives 640,000 WHOLE GARLIC at the end of the Year 4 which should be worth at least R1-million and would need 3,84 hectares of ground. If at the end of Year 4 you have sold 160,000 whole garlic, it should give you at least R200,000 which would be enough to cover all your costs for Year 5 (including the hire of extra land if necessary). This would leave you with 2,4-million cloves to plant in Year 5. 2,4-million cloves planted in Year 5 = 2,4-million WHOLE GARLIC at the end of Year 5. Even if, for a quick sale, you decided to practically give it away at only R1 per whole garlic, this would leave you with: R1-million for the TAXMAN, R1-million for YOU and 2-million cloves to plant for a 6th year. Facts about garlic Studies around the world have shown garlic to be beneficial in fighting heart disease, cancer, diabetes, infections and other illnesses. Crushed garlic can be used as a dressing for external wounds. It was used extensively and successfully in The Second World War for its antibiotic and antiseptic qualities. Garlic contains a wide range of trace minerals. These include copper, iron, zinc, magnesium, germanium, and especially selenium. In addition, garlic contains many sulphur compounds, vitamins A and C, fibre, and various amino acids. The mature garlic plant produces a bulb, sometimes called a head of garlic, with numerous individual cloves inside the paper-like wrapper. An individual clove when planted will reproduce an entire bulb after about 9 months. The use of garlic dates back to the early Egyptians, over 5,000 years ago. Egyptian slaves downed tools when their daily ration of garlic was removed, thus becoming the first ever known labour strike. Six bulbs of garlic were discovered in King Tutankhamun’s tomb. All varieties of garlic (and there over 450) are members of the Lily family. Fresh garlic is generally odour-free until crushed. It is the polysulphide allicin, as well as other substances such as adenosine and ajoene, that are key to garlic’s health benefits. The amount of allicin garlic can produce does not depend upon the cultivar. It can vary by as much as twenty-fold and is dependent upon soil and climate conditions. Generally speaking, Chinese garlic has the potential to produce the most allicin. Allicin dissipates over a period of ± 48 hours, therefore crushing fresh garlic is the only sure way of ensuFor more information, or to order your garlic package, please contact: Carl Maree (Farm Manager) 011-952-1575 Derek Immelman (Managing Director) 083-653-7942 email@example.com PO Box 1664 Krugersdorp, 1740 Gauteng Province SOUTH AFRICA The Garlic Grower's Manual (supplied free with your order) is a comprehensive guide to everything you need to know about growing garlic. Garlic Growers guarantee their garlic and have a proven track record of quality service. Delivery is free within South Africa for orders of 10,000 cloves or more (international delivery quoted on request). Only selected bulbs of export quality are allowed to leave the premises of Garlic Growers. All Garlic Growers bulbs are treated to prevent insects, pests, etc. from contaminating stock during storage. ring allicin will be present. Garlic has been used as food, a condiment, and for medicinal purposes for over 5,00 years. It is thought to have originated in central Asia, and then later brought to the Mediterranean area. Garlic (Allium sativum) belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family. M flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is not a true garlic and belongs to t same species as leeks. Ontario imports a substantial quantity of fresh and processed garlic products mainly from the USA, Mexico, and South America. Garlic powder is the most popular form o dried garlic with dehydrated pieces, flakes, and garlic salt also used. The majority o Ontario grown garlic is sold to the fresh market as whole fresh bulbs. Green tops of garlic, garlic spreads, and chopped garlic are also sold to a lesser extent. There are garlic dehydration facilities or organized marketing structure for selling or for distribution of garlic in Ontario. There is however, a producer organized Garlic Growers'Association of Ontario. | Top of Pa Plant Growth and Development Garlic is a perennial plant, commonly grown in Ontario as a winter annual, planted i fall and harvested the following summer. Garlic bulbs are composed of a number of thick, modified storage leaves called cloves, which are used as planting stock. Clove planted in late summer or fall develop extensive roots before winter, with little or no visible shoot growth. Overwintering shoot growth above the soil surface is not desirable, since it will be prone to winter injury in areas of insufficient snow protecti Properly planted, healthy cloves are very winter hardy. Figure 1. December removal of October planted garlic cloves showing late fall root development. A strong, well-established overwintering plant will rapidly develop shoot growth dur spring as soil and air temperatures increase. With adequate moisture and nutrition, large plant will develop before bulbing takes place. Many strains of garlic require a cold period to initiate bulbing. Fall-planted garlic receives a natural cold period as it overwinters in the soil. Spring-planted garlic, however, may require cold storage prior to planting to allow proper bulb developme The bulbing response is stimulated by the long days and warm temperatures of late spring. During this time, "hardneck" strains of garlic produce a solid flowering stalk referred to as the scape. The scape does not produce true seed, but rather develops small vegetative bulbils, also called bulblets, pips or topsets. There is considerable variability in the size and number of bulbils produced by "hardneck" garlic. Bulbils m be used as planting stock, although they often require two or more years of growth develop into marketable bulbs. Early removal of the scape during its development results in increased bulb yields. "Softneck" strains of garlic do not produce a scape. Each of the cloves, which make up the complete bulb, develops from an auxiliary bu at the leaf base. The leaves which are most exterior on the growing shoot form the sheath leaves which protect the bulb. Bulb size increases during late spring and summer until the leaves of the plant begi dry, turning tan brown from the tips toward the base of the leaves. As the bulbs increase in size, they also increase in dry matter content. After harvest further dryin is required to cure the bulbs. Once cured, bulbs are ready for long-term storage. Ga left in the field unharvested will begin to develop new root growth from each of the cloves during late summer. | Top of Pa Varieties There are an enormous number of strains of garlic in the world, with few strains bei named as cultivars. Current strains of garlic grown in Ontario originate from Asia, Europe, Northern Africa and North and South America. Cultivated garlic plants do not produce true seed. Therefore, no crossing or exchang of genetic material occurs between strains of garlic. All garlic is propagated vegetatively from cloves and bulbils, with each clove or bulbil a clone of the parent plant. Figure 2. A "hardneck" garlic strain showing early summer scape development. Figure 3. Bubils produced on scape tops vary in size and colour depending upon the strain of "hardneck" garlic. Two types of garlic, described as "hardneck" and "soft-neck", are grown in Ontario. Hardneck garlic strains bolt during late spring, producing a tall, solid flowering scap which protrudes through the center of the bulb. A small proportion of the scape remains with the marketed bulb of hardneck strains. Softneck garlic strains in Ontario do not develop a scape and generally have larger number of cloves, and smaller cloves per bulb than hardneck strains. The softneck strains are better suited to mechanization; the outer bulb sheath leaves can be brushed off mechanically. Garlic bulbs vary in color from red to white; clean, white garlic is preferred by the fr produce market in Ontario. Most garlic growers save their own locally adapted garlic bulbs for planting stock, an usually obtain new planting material from other local growers. | Top of Pa Location and Soil Preparation Garlic can be grown successfully on a wide range of soil types and is grown in most cultivated areas of Ontario. Soils which are prone to excessive frost heaving are lea desirable. Enhanced plant survival has been observed in areas where good snow co occurs and fields should be chosen accordingly. Fields should be selected which prov ample wind protection, especially where garlic is to be planted in lighter soils. Soils with high organic matter content are preferred due to their increased moisture and nutrient-holding capacity. Soils containing sufficient organic matter are also les prone to crusting and compaction. Very heavy soil types hinder bulb expansion, especially if allowed to dry out, resulting in rough and irregular shaped bulbs. Inten soil manage-ment practices are required on light sandy soils due to their low moistu holding capacity. The soil should be prepared far enough in advance in order to eliminate perennial weeds, adjust pH, nutrient and organic matter levels if needed, and remove any soi obstructions. The greatest success has been achieved where the soil pH ranges from 6.0 - 7.5. Any necessary pH adjustments should be made prior to planting. pH level below 6.0 have resulted in winter injury, poor plant vigour, reduced plant stands an overall yield reduction. For any crop, efficient use of fertilizer is dependent upon pro soil pH levels. The organic matter content of the soil should be built up before planting to increase the manageability of the soil. Organic matter can be increased by applying well-rott manure or by plowing down a green manure crop. For further information on green manure and cover crops, see OMAFRA Publication #363, Vegetable Production Recommendations. Before planting, the soil should be worked deep enough to prese a consistent planting medium that allows easy insertion of cloves into the soil. | Top of Pa Clove Preparation for Planting Garlic seed stock should be stored as whole bulbs until shortly before planting, since cloves separated from the parent bulb deteriorate more rapidly than whole bulbs. Break apart or "crack" the bulbs just prior to planting. Dry bulbs are more easily broken apart into cloves than damp bulbs. Either hand or mechanical equipment is commonly used to break the bulbs apart. However, there is greater potential for physical damage to cloves when using mechanical cracking devices. Some mechanic planting equipment requires that cloves be graded into sizes or weight ranges for improved planting efficiency. Any damaged or diseased cloves should not be planted When planning to use your own planting stock, harvest the planting stock bulbs late than your main crop. Harvesting very mature bulbs increases the ease of clove separation prior to planting. Planting larger cloves of the same strain of garlic will produce larger bulbs than the planting of smaller cloves. Many garlic seed treatments intended for crop protection and disease reduction hav been tested. To date, no registered seed treatments have proven to give consistent beneficial results. The most consistent success has been achieved by planting health damage- and disease-free planting stock. | Top of Pa Planting and Spacing Current research suggests that the optimum planting date is between September an November. Early spring planting may also be successful, although bulb yields tend t be lower and increased storage losses of planting material are common. To estimate the planting date, use the average date of first fall frost as listed in OMAFRA Publication #363, Vegetable Production Recommendations. This will provide an approximate planting date for your area. The amount of planting material required will vary from 700 - 1000 kg/ha, dependin upon the weight of individual cloves planted and the spacing used. The average number of cloves within each bulb varies from less than 8 to greater than 15 depending upon the strain of garlic. Space plants 7 - 12 cm apart in the row. Cloves small-bulbed strains may be planted as close as 7 cm apart, while large-bulbed stra will require as much as 12 cm between plants. Spacing between rows will depend on the method of planting and available equipment for cultivation. Single or multiple ro of plants are commonly used, with spacing between rows generally not less than 20 cm. Plant cloves so that the distance from the soil surface to the top of the clove is 3 - 5 cm. The 5 cm planting depth is recommended for light or organic soils. Cloves plant too shallow are prone to injury during the winter and early spring. Garlic which is planted in the spring may be planted closer to the soil surface. Hand planting is the traditional method of planting garlic, however, several importe mechanical planters are now in use. Various home-built or modified mechanical planters have been tried with only moderate success. | Top of Pa Fertility Garlic grows well on fertile soils. The soil phosphorus and potassium levels should b determined by a soil test. Any phosphorus or potassium required should be broadca followed by shallow incorporation into the soil before fall planting. The total amount of nitrogen required will vary with the soil type, the previous crop grown, the amount of organic matter present and the climatic conditions during the growing season. Garlic will generally require 70 - 125 kg/ ha of nitrogen. A small amount of nitrogen can be applied in the fall. One half of the nitrogen should be applied as soon as the garlic begins to grow in early spring; the remainder should b split into two to three applications at three week intervals. The application of nitroge should be completed within 4 - 6 weeks of harvest. Nitrogen can be applied through irrigation, although care must be taken to avoid foliar burn. The preferred sources o nitrogen are calcium or ammonium nitrate. Applications of urea should be avoided d to potential plant injury. | Top of Pa Irrigation Garlic is sensitive to moisture stress throughout the growing season. Any periods of dry soil conditions, especially during bulbing, will result in yield reductions. For most soils, approximately 2.5 cm of water per week is required during the grow season. In sandy soils, however, 5.0 cm or more of water may be required during h dry weather conditions. The preferred time of irrigation is morning to mid-afternoon, thus allowing sufficient time for the plant foliage to dry before nightfall. As garlic becomes mature at harve irrigation should cease. This cultural practice increases harvesting ease and reduces the potential deterioration and staining of exterior bulb sheath leaves. | Top of Pa Weed Control Garlic is a weak competitor against vigorous weeds. Therefore, weed control is essential and can be undertaken by cultivation, hand-hoeing or with herbicide application. Deep cultivation close to the plants should be avoided as root damage w subsequent yield losses may occur. For up-to-date weed control information, consul OMAFRA Publication #75 Guide to Weed Control. | Top of Pa Insects and Diseases The major disease problems of garlic in Ontario are: Fusarium basal rot, Penicillium mould, and viruses. Fusarium basal rot is a disease which attacks the basal plate region and the roots. T soil-borne pathogen invades the roots, resulting in empty, tan-colored, non-function roots. The basal plate region may develop a pinkish growth of mycelium. First visua symptoms are often the yellowing of the tip and dieback of the shoot during the spring. Warm soil temperatures and high soil moisture promote disease developmen Since the Fusarium inoculum remains as dormant spores in the soil or on plant resid crop rotation with crops not belonging to the Allium genus (e.g., garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, chives) is recommended. Penicillin mould is a main cause of decay of garlic in storage. The disease appears a masses of blue-green spores usually first seen at the base of the bulb. The primary source of inoculum is diseased bulbs used for planting material. When diseased bulb are cracked the air-borne spores readily come in contact with healthy cloves. Woun cloves are particularly susceptible to the disease. Often cloves infected with Penicillin become infected with secondary organisms such bacteria and other fungi, masking the original pathogen. Clove rot and reduced plan stands are often the result of planting infected cloves. Surviving plants which emerg appear weak and yellow. Warm temperatures of 22 - 25 °C are optimum for spore germination and disease development. Planting garlic too early in late summer whe soil temperatures are high may increase the severity of clove rot. Irrigation may be beneficial, as high soil moisture appears to suppress clove decay. Virtually all sources of garlic contain viruses. Fortunately, most of these viruses in garlic are latent. Latent garlic viruses may not become visible or reduce yields until garlic plant is stressed or growth interrupted. The most common symptoms of virus infection are colour changes of the leaves. Th include mosaics, flecking, streaking and mottling. Leaf shape distortion may also oc Aphids are one vector capable of transmitting some viruses from infected to healthy plants. Control of virus diseases is achieved through a combination of planting healt cloves, reducing aphid populations, proper fertility and water management during th growing season. The major insect problems in Ontario include onion maggots, thrips and wireworms. There are, at present, registered insecticides that will control these pests. Consult OMAFRA Publication #363 "Vegetable Production Recommendations" for information registered insecticides and control procedures. Bulb and stem nematode and white rot are very serious problems of garlic productio in other areas of the world. Once these problems are established in a field, control m be difficult or economically unfeasible. Garlic and onions are closely related, therefo Agriculture Canada Publication #1716, Diseases of Onions in Canada, should be helpful. | Top of Pa Harvesting and Grading Harvesting begins when the leaf tops begin to dry, discolor and bend towards the ground. Another indication of bulb maturity is the reduced thickness of the sheath leaves surrounding the bulb. Early harvest results in bulbs which are immature and tend to shrivel when cured, while late harvest may result in bulbs which have staine partially decayed wrapper leaves and exposed cloves. Figure 4. Hand-harvested garlic bulbs ready for curing. With small plantings of garlic the bulbs are usually harvested by hand pulling, using fork to loosen the soil and facilitate lifting. On larger plantings a tractor drawn blade commonly used to loosen the soil under the bulbs. A mechanized system can be use to lift the bulbs, remove the tops and separate the dirt and trash from the bulbs, however, complete mechanized harvesting is not used in Ontario at the present tim Once harvested, the garlic must be cured properly to ensure a long storage life. Fiel curing is achieved by placing the harvested garlic in covered, slotted vegetable bins and allowing natural air drying. Curing is often accomplished indoors using forced a dry the bulbs. Garlic cured indoors should either be placed in slotted bins, on wired racks or on open trays in a well-ventilated building. After curing, the garlic should be trimmed. Both the tops and the roots should be removed. Topping and root trimming are done mechanically or by hand. Brushing to remove the loose outer sheath is the final step before marketing. Garlic imported into Canada is commonly graded by size, with the larger-sized bulbs commanding a higher price. Grading is done by hand or mechanically. The grade sizes used are as follows: Colossal - 3" and larger Super Jumbo - 2½" - 3" Extra Jumbo - 2¼" - 2½" Jumbo - 2" - 2¼" Extra Flower - less than 2" | Top of Pa Storage For maximum storage life, garlic should be properly cured and stored at 0 °C with a - 70% relative humidity. Higher humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of Penicillin mould and root growth, which is undesirable. Adequate air circulation and proper storage containers are important to remove transpired heat a moisture. As storage temperatures are increased above 0 °C, the rate of bulb weigh loss also increases. Storage life under appropriate conditions is 5 - 8 months depending upon the strain of garlic. | Top of Pa Marketing Presently, the majority of Ontario-produced garlic is marketed as fresh product to wholesale distributers, independent grocers, farmers' markets or at the farm gate. Economics of scale do not support a processing industry at this time. However, processing alternatives may become a reality as the industry grows. To increase profitability, many producers have used value added techniques such as braided, pickled or home-processed garlic. Scapes have also been sold to specialty markets in Ontario. | Top of Pa References Diseases of Onions in Canada. Agriculture Canada Publication #1716 Guide to Weed Control. OMAFRA Publication #75 Vegetable Production Recommendations. OMAFRA Publication #363 Related Links Publication 363, Vegetable Production Recommendations Publication 75 Guide to Weed Control Bulb and Stem Nematode in Onions (Order No. 00-043) Identification of Diseases and Disorders of Onions (Order No. 95-063) Onion Maggot Control in Dry Onions (Order No. 00-017) | Top of Pa For more information: Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300 Local: (519) 826-4047 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Home Site Map Help Contact Us Products Français ontario.canada.
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