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					                                                        Library Downsizing and Closing 1


SPECIAL LIBRARIES CLOSING




                             When the Levee Breaks:

              Coping With Downsizing or Closure of a Special Library

                               Annie Alee Murphy

                            San Jose State University
                                                                Library Downsizing and Closing 2


                                             Abstract

       The purpose of this presentation, written for current and future special librarians in

Professor Sue Brewsaugh’s seminar class in special libraries at San Jose State University, is to

explore how librarians in special libraries can deal effectively with staff, resource and budget

downsizing and what measures they can take should their libraries close completely. This paper

explores how to contend with a situation many special librarians have faced, are facing, or will

face – that of having their information center drastically scaled back or eliminated completely. In

order to maintain focus and to provide helpful, useful information for readers, the paper was

written with the journalistic mantra in mind: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
                                                                  Library Downsizing and Closing 3


                                      When the Levee Breaks:

           Planning For and Coping With Downsizing or Closure of a Special Library

       In today’s economy, job loss through elimination of positions is a constant threat.

Employment declined by 4.7 million in 2009 alone, the largest calendar-year job loss since 1939.

According to the latest Economic News Release from the United States Bureau of Labor

Statistics, 15,260,000 people were unemployed in the month of April, 2009. Many pundits

predict that a lot of former jobs are gone for good.

       Librarians are not immune to cuts during an economic downturn. For the special

librarian, these cutbacks often are more extreme and more imminent than in other sectors.

Corporate libraries exist in a more volatile environment than other libraries. Corporate libraries

have traditionally been, in general, less stable institutions than other libraries. Corporate libraries

are more quickly and dramatically affected by environmental change than other libraries

(Housewright, 2008). The climate is particularly ominous for libraries that rely on overhead for

their funding. Although overhead is declining as a primary method of funding special libraries, it

is still the most common method. Nearly half (46 percent) of corporate libraries rely on budgeted

dollars, as do 41 percent of government libraries and 25 percent of academic libraries (Strouse,

2006). Henceforth, while academic libraries may still exist to support research and public

libraries may continue for public service (albeit with reduced employees and hours), special

libraries are often cut when profits decrease.

       Whereas exact figures regarding the number of special libraries closed or downsized are

not available, a telling example is the list compiled by Michelle Quigley, news researcher at The

Palm Beach Post, which shows the number of newspaper and media library layoffs and closures

in the last five years, current as of March 3, 2010 (see Appendix). Seventy-four libraries of major
                                                                  Library Downsizing and Closing 4


newspapers were either eliminated, outsourced, or had staff reduced (Quigley, 2010). While

media libraries are just a small sector of the special library world, the major loss of libraries in a

field where the fast retrieval of facts, figures and research is tantamount to doing business

highlights the precarious nature in which corporate and organizational libraries exist today.

       Much has been written about how special librarians must prove their value to their host

companies. Articles and books have been published about how they can show their contribution

to the bottom line, i.e., profit. Most librarians and library students understand the importance of

marketing a library’s materials and manpower. However, all these measures are preventive

medicine to be taken while the library is still operating in somewhat good health. What can be

done when the board of directors, CEO, or general top dog says, “Sorry, we must cut something

and you’re it?” How do librarians insure the delivery of needed information and services when

their budgets are slashed? What can they do when their library shrinks in size? Moreover, what

do they do when their library or information center closes up shop? What do librarians do when

the ultimate answer is NO? As it states in the song When the Levee Breaks (written by Memphis

Joe [McCoy] and performed by a number of artists), “Cryin’ won’t help you, prayin’ won’t do

you no good.” Rather, this a time for action, adaptability and a bit of audacity. The ship is

sinking and the decision to downsize set in stone, weighing down the boat. However, if your

organization is not on the brink of total shutdown, you can at least try some things to both

showcase how you can contribute and to position yourself for a seat in the lifeboat (Matarazzo &

Pearlstein, 2009).

       Almost every information-providing professional, or for that matter every information-

seeking person, will tell you that with the advent of the Internet and user-friendly search engines,

a lot of library services now seem redundant. Special libraries are being particularly hard hit.
                                                                  Library Downsizing and Closing 5


When engineers, doctors, lawyers, architects, advertising executives and anyone else can find the

data, photos, statistics and answers they need at their desks and at any time of the day or night,

they often skip the added step of using their organization’s library. Moreover, in a time of cost-

cutting and shrinking profits, many organizations can no longer rationalize the expense of

maintaining a library collection and staff. While it can be argued that special librarians save their

parent companies money by getting information quickly to users who can meanwhile focus on

more specific duties, such ease and efficiency are often casualties in an economic downturn.

Special libraries facing cutbacks or elimination need to employ and assimilate effective business

strategies in order to increase their chances of survival and success (Fletcher et al, 2009).

Who Is Your Clientele?

       Egalitarians that they are, librarians provide services to everyone. Unfortunately, offering

a little help to a lot of users may dilute your significance as “no one will stand up for the library

because no one receives substantive assistance.” Prioritize your target audiences and serve the

heavy hitters “thinking first of those on whom the success of the firm depends” (Matarazzo &

Pearlstein, 2007). While such an approach may seem counter-intuitive to an information

professional, in times of economic hardship it is imperative to be visible and valuable to those

who can champion your library’s existence.

       This does not mean that a librarian need turn away anyone seeking information. Rather

than refusing service, refine it. If your staff is cut it would be wise to concentrate efforts on

building stronger relationships with those who are in a position to save the library from

extinction. For example, if sales representatives utilize library resources to obtain statistics or

news items, approach sales management regarding direct collaboration with the department.

Inform senior attorneys that you are ready and willing to help junior attorneys in legal research,

not only finding resources but training them on how to find such resources on their own. Kate
                                                                 Library Downsizing and Closing 6


Bird, editor of Wired West, the newsletter for the Western Canada Chapter of SLA, contends that

librarians were a natural choice when looking for trainers to teach journalists to access resources

from their desktops. “After all, these were their customers, relationships with them already

existed, and the librarians knew the strengths and weaknesses, as well as the varying needs, of

the reporters. Unlike outside trainers, the librarians were also available for follow-up”

(Matarazzo & Pearlstein, 2010). You must become central to the core tasks of your organization.

Don’t wait to be asked to do something. Study your clients, find out what they need to do their

jobs, and hand it to them on a silver platter before they even realize they need it. Not only will

you become visible, you may even become a shining example to others in the company

(Dempsey, 2002).

       Such efforts can actually be strengthened by economic downsizing. An explanation of,

“Well, library services have been cut and we want to make sure that your department still gets

what it needs,” will bolster the library’s image of a team player dedicated to the organization,

even when it appears to be losing ground.

What Are Your Services and Your Strengths?

       What does your library do for its organization? When asked for their library’s strengths,

many librarians (particularly those with a traditional view of a library setting), will answer that it

is the ability to get necessary, up-to-date information to end users quickly. This is a necessary

and noble endeavor for librarians, but if this is the only selling point for your library, you are

setting yourself up for failure in times of economic hardships. As William Crowley, Professor in

the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at Dominican University, pointed out,

“Bluntly stated, there is no longer any way that librarians and trustees can convince residents of

local communities and members of college and university campuses that libraries are their

primary information source” (Crowley, 2007). The same could be said for convincing corporate
                                                                  Library Downsizing and Closing 7


library users and CEOs. Many years ago, the esteemed Barbara Quint (well-known writer and

editor in the library world) offered an estimate that Google answered as many reference queries

in half an hour as all the reference librarians in the world did in seven years (Abram, 2008). No

matter how well or how quickly librarians may package and present information, it can be argued

that such information can now be accessed directly through databases and the Internet without

the intermediation of a librarian. As an attorney in the New York law firm of Wien Malkin &

Bettex put it over a decade ago, “Our attorneys can do their own research faster from computer

systems at their desk” (Koss-Feder, 1996). As Crowley (2007) also admonished, “Information

intermediaries, including librarians who see themselves as such, are passé. We are in an age of

information self-service”

       That said, it is well known in library circles that librarians, especially those in for-profit

organizations, need to promote all their services. Unfortunately, many librarians play up their

information gathering and delivery services while completely overlooking the ancillary services

they provide to end users. In a case of staff reduction, special librarians need to remind decision

makers that they also assist in generating reports, prioritizing deadlines, staying abreast of

industry developments, keeping up with competitor’s developments, software training, vendor

negotiations, budget forecasting, publishing papers, and maintaining websites and interactive

sources. Moreover, librarians generally have a very good grasp of the duties of each department

and can customize their assistance to maximize service to each department, even taking such

assistance out of the library and into the field. Granted, this may result in librarians losing their

librarian title, but it also shows dedication to the parent organization and could save jobs. As

librarian Doris Helfer stated, “One colleague working for a major high-tech corporation told me

there are quite a large number of librarians who’ve worked their way into all levels of the
                                                                  Library Downsizing and Closing 8


corporation because of their library and research skills, but who are not considered or even

known to be librarians, except among themselves” (Helfer, 2008). Think about it, which would

you rather lose, your job or your job title?

       A reduction in staff should always be accompanied with an objective look at your

library’s collection. While library staffing is examined on a regular basis, the library’s collection

often remains unexamined and static for years at a time. Eliminating unneeded or duplicative

resources can often be more economically beneficial than eliminating library staff. When your

staff or budget has been cut, shedding duplicative or seldom-used resources is a necessity.

       While a library’s resources are vital, it is its provision of services that will save or slay it.

Part of that service provision includes a ruthless focus on Maslow’s Hierarchy. As one librarian

succinctly put it, “We do not have the resources to do anything that is not directly applicable to

service provision. Furthermore, even among those options, we have to cherry-pick very

carefully, and decide that some things are not doable, even if they are important. Among those

services we elect to provide, we have to provide clear-eyed assessment, and be willing to

minimize or stop a service” (Schneider, K.G. (2010). When salaries and staff are being slashed, a

company may not want to pay library staff to digitalize unviewed photos, catalog unused

resources, or conduct database training sessions for temporary workers. Much as they may be

beneficial in the long run, cut services that could be seen as an unnecessary expense and

concentrate on services that will be deemed as money-making endeavors in the here and now.

       An important note about virtual libraries: Virtual libraries and electronic information

offerings have become so commonplace within the corporation that management frequently

doesn’t connect them with the library that developed them or understand what is required to

support them. Only 36 percent of corporate information centers have placed icons or other
                                                                Library Downsizing and Closing 9


branding mechanisms on their intranet offerings. This is coupled with the fact that more than half

of those corporate libraries with portals or some other intranet presence do not collect the critical

data needed to show the value of their virtual presence (Jacobs & Strouse, 2002). Management

doesn’t want to pay for what they don’t see. Of course, you should be marketing your virtual

library before budget cuts, but when cuts come it is essential to make your invisible library

visible by asserting that you and the other invisible librarians are willing to do whatever it takes

to continue getting needed information to users while also mentioning all the other talents your

team possesses. You must become central to the core tasks of your organization. Don’t wait to be

asked to do something. Study your clients, find out what they need to do their jobs, and hand it to

them on a silver platter before they even realize they need it. Not only will you become visible,

you may even become a shining example to others in the company (Dempsey, 2002).

       Some organizations try to save money through outsourcing various duties. While this

takes work away from your library staff, it behooves you to take a positive attitude toward

outsourcing efforts and work, as much as possible, with the outsourced workers. Outsourcing

specific activities can free up your library to focus on more profitable endeavors. For example,

outsourcing time consuming technical activities such as cataloging, and subscription and

circulation services can save money while increasing overall efficiency without sacrificing the

knowledge base of an in-house library (SLA, 1997). However, keep in mind one caveat:

Outsourced employees are typically not invited to participate in teams and can therefore not help

with company and other sensitive information. As contractors, they are not allowed or trusted

with sensitive company information. This is certainly another drawback and limitation to the

outsourced employee (Helfer, 1998). If your library requires handling highly confidential
                                                              Library Downsizing and Closing 10


materials by all involved, be careful when working with outsourced services, keeping security

uppermost in your mind.

       Also, if your library is going to cancel subscriptions and lose resources, look for other

avenues to gain such information. Explore interlibrary loans. Analyze free websites. Use and

expand your network. Susan Clarke, librarian at the Norris Visual Science Library of the Doheny

Eye Institute, stated that when her library’s budget was drastically reduced and resources

discontinued, she was able to get the materials needed for her users through the help of other

health and vision sciences librarians she knew. If ever there was a time to network, an economic

cutback is it. (S. Clarke, personal communication, April 6, 2010).

When Are Your Services Needed?

       Do your users utilize your services every day? All day? Only during research projects?

Are there times when the library experiences a lull in activity? Do patrons generally use your

library in an emergency, with answers needed immediately, or is the usage more scheduled or

unhurried? While you may feel the answer to when are your services needed is “always”, that

answer will be met with raised eyebrows by directors or executives looking to cut expenses.

Budget cuts require an objective assessment of the library hours. While not an optimum solution,

consider a reduction in hours (if such a reduction has not already been mandated). Granted, this

translates into a reduction in staff’s working hours and paycheck, but closing for one day a week,

two hours earlier each day or another option may save enough money to keep the library open

and allow everyone to keep their position (albeit with reduced hours). If you must shorten your

hours of operation, select and suggest hours when they library is heavily used.

Where Are Your Services Needed?

       Special librarians know that a corporate library must not be an appendage to its parent

organization but rather a vital organ which grows with its company. It’s important to note that, in
                                                                Library Downsizing and Closing 11


tough times, it’s best to make like Dr. Frankenstein and be able to place organs where needed or

convenient. When the library budget is slashed, it is more important than ever to show how

mobile librarians’ skills and services can be.

       How can such your library’s diverse litany of resources be utilized when your part of the

organizational picture winds up on the cutting room floor?

       In tough economic times, librarians need to be innovators and, at times, instigators.

Seemingly disparate abilities and knowledge can prove invaluable to keep librarians employed

even if the library itself closes. Are the librarian’s skills valued enough in these organizations so

that even though the library is closed or reduced, their skills can be repurposed elsewhere to

support good decision making? In other words, can the librarian survive even if the library does

not? (Matarazzo & Pearlstein, 2009) While they may wind up offering their services outside a

library setting and doing tasks outside a librarian’s job description, librarians can still keep doing

their job and even prosper by utilizing their skills in other departments including information

technology, product development, database management, knowledge management, marketing,

project planning, even public relations. (Librarians tend be very people-oriented and adept at

networking, making them prime candidates for organizers for corporate charity and community

outreach.)

       Getting in front of our audience in this way is something we in special libraries need to

do much more often (Matarazzo, Pearlstein, 2009). Assisting in research, writing reports,

compiling date, creating and maintaining interactive sources use librarian skills but many end

users would not think of asking a librarian for help in such endeavors. Show decision-makers

that your librarian skills don’t dissipate the moment you leave the library by not only working

directly with other departments but in these departments as well. As David Shumaker, Clinical
                                                               Library Downsizing and Closing 12


Associate Professor at the School of Library and Information Science at Catholic University,

reasoned, “The same technologies that are competing with traditional reference service have

freed us reference librarians from the chains that have kept us in the library. We’re free to roam

and share our expertise wherever our customers are because we can, in a sense, take many of our

most valuable tools with us” (Shumaker, 2009).

       Another idea is that of embedded librarians who perform information gathering and

delivery in the departments they serve rather than in a library space. A growing trend, embedding

librarians is proving the adaptability of librarians. At the headquarters of Fairfax Media, the

largest news media organization in Australia, a library space downsizing dispersed librarians into

the office areas of the various news bureaus they serve. When a subsequent office move offered

them the opportunity to recentralize in new library space, there was no sentiment in favor – the

new arrangement had proven too successful (Shumaker, 2009). The flip side is whether the

centralized library resource should continue and what this means to the library manager. Often it

can mean actually losing staff to other departments. But if this continues the legacy of

information services within the organization, is this not a good thing? (Schachter, 2007).

Why Does Your Library Exist?

       What is the overarching reason your library exists? An obvious answer would be to keep

users informed, but when dealing with reduced staff and hours, this question needs to be

examined more closely. Is the objective to verify facts, find cases, preserve company history, or

all of the above? Was the library created with the purpose of assisting with in-depth research,

with other needs being secondary? Look at your parent organization’s mission statement. If your

library is supporting an organization in a forward-thinking environment, for example the tech or

telecommunications industry, do you need onsite archival services? How many non-legal

materials does your law library truly need? Now is the time to realign your library with its
                                                              Library Downsizing and Closing 13


company’s mission and goals. If your organization’s mission is to be a leader in sales,

concentrate remaining staff and resources on researching competitors and scoping out market

trends. If their goal is to be innovators, concentrate on product research. Support – not

supplement -- your company’s business.

How Do You Serve Your Users?

       While encompassing all the other points already mentioned, this query encompasses the

processes your library uses to get its services to end users. Do you have print materials in a

central area? A virtual library? Website and blog? Database training? Updates delivered via e-

mail or cell phone? Reduction in staff and funding requires an objective examination of how you

can better serve your users.

       Tough economic times call for new tactics. Instead of a reference desk, virtual reference

may be more viable. Create a website to answer frequently asked questions. Online services

often produce the unexpected benefit of increasing librarian’s awareness of customers’

information needs. With anonymity assured, users may be more open to voicing disappointment

with or complaints about a library’s service, vital information to possess and process when your

library is in peril. When Boeing Corporation instituted a virtual reference service, staff members

were able to use information from Ask a Librarian customers to improve other areas of the

library organization (Martin, 2003). Now is a good time for librarians to be asking users, “How

are we doing?”

       While changing or upgrading services may seem impossible during a time of budget

slashing, it must be done. You can gain a little leeway by abandoning processes that are rarely

used or overly time-consuming. If there’s little time for training new hires on database usage,

make a video. Keeping company security in mind, explore Web 2.0 tools; a wiki might be

helpful in keeping users abreast of developments and current projects. If your users require
                                                              Library Downsizing and Closing 14


printed materials and a document delivery service is not in place, implement one. Give your

clientele the same resources and services but in a more efficient, economical way.

When the Ax Falls – And It Falls on You

       But alas, the best laid plans of mice and men go awry. You’ve marketed your library,

honed your skills, expanded or refined your resources as well as possible, and you’re still facing

the door.

       Obviously, no one wants to hear that their entire department (and/or livelihood) has been

deemed unnecessary. Special librarians are no exception to the rule. Upon learning that your

organization has decided that your library must be cut, many librarians will argue that such a

move is detrimental to the organization and must be reconsidered. Generally, these arguments

will fall on deaf ears. Most library closures (and indeed, most cutbacks of any kind) are made by

top-level executives or a board of directors who are far removed from the actual library (and the

workforce) itself. Usually, the decision to close a department is done without any consultation or

consideration from the department itself. When Marriott International closed its corporate library

in 1999, library manager Cindy Monroe learned that, “The decision was only based on dollars,

not a judgment of our value to the company.” She said she was not asked for any input in the

decision, which was made at the CEO level (DiMattia, 1999).Once a decision is announced to

downsize a department, decision makers are loath to change their minds. So now what?

       First, get as many facts as you can. What will be the ultimate date that the library closes?

When is your last day of employment? Will the physical collection (books, journals, drawings,

etc.) remain intact? Will online resources (databases, intranet) remain accessible? According to

Cary Kozlov, owner of Cary Kozlov Law Library Management Service, most law firms, when

they close up their libraries, usually keep their physical collections (if they have any). Depending

on the firm, some maintain their print collections and have them updated as needed (generally
                                                               Library Downsizing and Closing 15


using contracted clerks), other stop updating them and just let whatever they already have simply

sit on the shelves. (C. Kozlov, personal communication, April 29, 2010). Find out what your

organization plans to do with materials now in the library space and, if materials are being

shipped offsite, offer to help prepare for the move. If you get any advance notice, notify users of

the library about its impending closure and how and where they can get needed information. If

you’ve worked closely with any other libraries in terms of sharing resources, inform them of

your library’s closure. Librarians being the helpful souls they are, your network may reach out to

your users in this time of need.

       And, of course, explore where else in the organization your skills might be utilized. Sell

yourself with the point that you work for the company, not the library, and are ready and willing

to use your experience and expertise wherever it might be needed.

       Last, but not least, take heart in two quotes. The first is from journalist Ellen Goodman.

“There’s a trick to the Graceful Exit. It begins with the vision to recognize when a job, a life

stage, a relationship is over – and to let go. It means leaving what’s over without denying its

value.” The fact that your library is closing does not mean that it was inadequate nor that you

were incompetent. Be proud of the valuable assistance that you gave your parent organization

and prepare yourself to pack up and promote your skills.

       And from Helen Keller: “When one door of happiness closes, another opens, but often we

look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one that has been opened for us.” This is a

good tune to hum during this economic slump and time of library closures. The time of landing

or keeping a position in a traditional special library setting may be coming to an end, so it’s time

to think outside of the box (or library, as it may be). Project managers, fundraisers, embedded

researchers, records managers, information brokers, private investigators, database managers,
                                                               Library Downsizing and Closing 16


web designers, vocabulary designers and more can utilize a librarian’s experience and expertise.

When the levee breaks, use your skills to stay high and dry.
                                                       Library Downsizing and Closing 17


                                     References

Abram, S. (2008) Evolution to revolution to chaos? Reference in transition. Searcher,

       16(8), 42-48.

Crowley, W. (2007). Don’t let Google and the pennypinchers get you down: Defending

       (or redefining) libraries and librarianship in the age of technology. British

       Columbia Library Conference 2007, Burnaby, BC, Saturday, April 21, 2007.

       Retrieved on April 15, 2010 from

       http://library2020.bclibrary.ca/resources/Crowley_2007.pdf

Dempsey, K., Visibility: Decloaking “the Invisible Librarian.” Searcher, 10(7), 76-81

DiMattia, S. S. (1999). Marriott shuts corporate library: Dollars, not analysis of value, led

       to closing; Librarian not consulted. Library Journal, 124(3), 93.

Fletcher, Arlene, et al., Saving Special Libraries in a Recession: Business Strategies for

       Survival and Success. Retrieved on April 15, 2010 from

       http://www.sla.org/io/2009/07/735.cfm

Housewright, R. (2008). Themes of change in corporate libraries: Considerations for

       academic libraries [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.sla-

       scc.org/web_pages/events_section/documents/Corporate_Libraries_Webinar.pdf

Jacobs, L. & Strouse, R. (2002) What is your budget saying about your library?

       Information Outlook, 6(6), 6-17.

Koss-Feder, L. (1996, October 17). Ssshh! Corporate libraries get quiet : More businesses

       downsize, eliminate libraries to cut costs: The age of “virtual libraries”. Crain’s

       New York Business, 1996, 33.
                                                        Library Downsizing and Closing 18


Martin, J. (2003). Ask a librarian: Virtual reference services at the Boeing Library.

       Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 127-135.

Matarazzo, J., & Pearlstein, T. (2007). Marrying two expert tools will help you sustain

       your corporate library. Library Journal, 132(2), 42-43.

Matarazzo, J., & Pearlstein, T. (2009). Scenario planning as preventive medicine: The

       case of the unexpected takeover. Searcher, 17(10), 26-30.

Matarazzo, J., & Pearlstein, T. (2010). Survival lessons for libraries: Staying afloat in

       turbulent waters. Searcher, 18(4), 14-31.

Quigley, M. (2010). News Library Layoffs and Buyouts. Retrieved on May 12, 2010 from

       http://docs.google.com/View?id=dhsmznc3_18g3b8jqgh

Schachter, D. (2007). Special libraries in transition: What to do if the axe is falling;

       Closing libraries doesn’t always mean closing opportunities for information

       professionals. The facility may change, but the need remains. Information

       Outlook, 11(7), 42-45

Schneider, K.G. (2010, May 1). Help, I’ve fallen and I can’t get up. [Web log comment].

       Retrieved from http://freerangelibrarian.com/

Shumaker, D. (2009). Who let the librarians out? Embedded librarianship and the library

       manager. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 48(3), 239-42, 257.

Siess, J. (2010). Embedded librarianship: The next big thing? Searcher, 18(1), 38-45.
                                                     Library Downsizing and Closing 19


Special Libraries Association (2006). Exploring outsourcing: Case studies of corporate

       libraries. Retrieved on May 1, 2010 from

       http://www.sla.org/content/resources/research/researchlinks/explorout.cfm

Strouse, R. (2003). Assessing your library’s value statement. Information Outlook, 7(3),

       14-19.
                                                                         Library Downsizing and Closing 20


                                                         Appendix

                                          News Library Layoffs and Buyouts

                                                                             Number of
                                                Effective Number of
                Organization                                                  positions    Notes
                                                  Date    positions cut
                                                                             remaining
1. ABC News Research Center                    6/2006 and           13           0         Research Center
   (Washington, D.C.)                          2009                                        dismantled and the
                                                                                           collection dispersed
                                               7/2008 and
2. Albany Times Union (Albany, N.Y.)                                2            1
                                               3/2009
3. Arizona Daily Star (Tucson, Ariz.)          11/2009              2            0
4. Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock,
                                           5/1/2009                 1            3
   Ark.)
5. Atlanta Journal Constitution (Atlanta,      4/2009               15           0         Research discontinued,
   Ga.)                                                                                    archiving outsourced.
6. Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, Md.)              4/2009               1            2
7. Capital Times/Wisconsin State Journal       6/2008 and
                                                                    2            2
   (Madison, Wis.)                             9/2008
8. Charlotte Observer (Charlotte N.C.)         9/2008               3            2
                                               2008,
9. Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Ill.)                                  9            5
                                               2/2009
                                                                                           Remaining position is
10. Cincinnati Enquirer (Cincinnati, Ohio)     7/2009               1            1
                                                                                           part-time
                                               6/2006,
11. Columbus Dispatch (Columbus, Ohio)         3/2007,              3            4
                                               6/2007
12. Corpus Christi Caller-Times (Corpus        Spring
                                                                    2            1
    Christi, Texas)                            2007
13. Daily Camera (Boulder, Colo.)              6/2007               1            0         Archiving automated.
14. Denver Post (Denver, Colo.)                6/2007               1            4
15. Detroit Free Press (Detroit, Mich.)        6/22/2009            3            0         Research discontinued,
                                                                                           archiving automated.
16. Entertainment Weekly                       11/2008              2            1
17. Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville, Fla.) 11/2008                2            4
18. Forbes                                     1/2009               2            1
19. Fort Worth Star-Telegram (Fort Worth,      6/2008 and
                                                                    5            1
    Texas)                                     3/2009
20. Fortune                                    Spring               4            2         Business Information
                                               2008                                        Center serving Fortune,
                                                                                           Money, FSB and
                                                                     Library Downsizing and Closing 21


                                                                         Number of
                                               Effective Number of
               Organization                                               positions    Notes
                                                 Date    positions cut
                                                                         remaining
                                                                                       various Time Inc.
                                                                                       corporate departments
                                                                                       eliminated.
                                              7/2008 and
21. Hartford Courant (Hartford, Conn.)                         2             2
                                              3/2009
                                              11/2007,
22. Houston Chronicle (Houston, Texas)                        11             2
                                              11/2008
23. Knoxville News Sentinel (Knoxville,       6/2007           1             0         Archiving automated,
    Tenn.)                                                                             other library functions
                                                                                       eliminated.
24. Lexington Herald-Leader (Lexington,
                                              5/2009           4             1
    Ky.)
25. Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, Calif.)
26. Miami Herald (Miami, Fla.)                2008             4             3
27. NBC InfoCenter (New York, N.Y.)           4/2009           4             3         Two other positions lost
                                                                                       through attrition in
                                                                                       2004 and 2007.
28. New York Daily News (New York, N.Y.)
                                                                                       The NYT still has
29. New York Times (New York, N.Y.)           2007, 2008      13             7         additional part-time
                                                                                       positions.
30. News & Observer (Raleigh, N.C.)
                                              1/2006,
31. News & Record (Greensboro, N.C.)          6/2007,          3             1
                                              1/2009
32. Newsday (Long Island, N.Y.)               3/2008           1             11        Staff reduced from 23
                                                                                       through attrition since
                                                                                       2002.
33. News-Gazette (Champaign, Ill.)            5/2008           1             1
                                              1/2006,
                                              12/2007,
34. Newsweek                                  2008,            9             1
                                              2/2009,
                                              11/2009
35. Orlando Sentinel (Orlando, Fla.)
                                              2006 and
36. Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ont., Canada)                      2             2
                                              2008
37. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh,
    Penn.)
                                                                      Library Downsizing and Closing 22


                                                                          Number of
                                                Effective Number of
               Organization                                                positions    Notes
                                                  Date    positions cut
                                                                          remaining
38. Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio)                              4             5
39. Portland Press Herald/Maine Sunday
                                               6/2009           1
    Telegram (Portland, Maine)
40. Providence Journal (Providence, R.I.)      10/2008          2             1
                                                                                        Part-timer will be
41. Reno Gazette-Journal (Reno, Nev.)          7/2009           1             1         brought in to replace
                                                                                        long-time librarian.
42. Richmond Times-Dispatch (Richmond,                                                  Need verification on
                                               4/2009           8             2
    Virginia)                                                                           numbers.
43. Rocky Mountain News (Denver, Colo.)        2/2009                                   Newspaper closed.
                                                                                        Archives to Denver
                                                                                        Public Library and
                                                                                        Colorado Historical
                                                                                        Society.
44. San Antonio Express-News (San              10/2007
                                                                2             4
    Antonio, Tex.)                             and 3/2009
45. San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco, 12/2008
                                                                4             2
    Calif.)                                 and 3/2009
46. San Jose Mercury News (San Jose,           11/2005 -
                                                                6             2
    Calif.)                                    6/2008
                                                                                        Newspaper ceased
47. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, Wash.) 3/18/2009       2             0
                                                                                        operations.
48. Sporting News                              7/2008           1             0         Research center closed.
                                               2008 -
49. St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, Mo.)                    7             4
                                               2009
50. St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg,
                                                                2             12
    Fla.)
                                               7/2008,
51. Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.)       4/2009,          5             2         Library dismantled.
                                               5/2009
                                               2005,
52. Syracuse Post-Standard (Syracuse, N.Y.)                     4             2
                                               2006, 2009
53. Tampa Tribune (Tampa, Fla.)                5/27/09          5             3
54. The Daytona Beach News-Journal             6/2008,
                                                                4             1
    (Daytona Beach, Fla.)                      9/2009
55. The Des Moines Register (Des Moines,       2/2008,
    Iowa)                                      12/2008,         4             1         Archiving automated.
                                               5/2009
56. The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg,                        1             2
                                                                  Library Downsizing and Closing 23


                                                                       Number of
                                            Effective Number of
                 Organization                                           positions     Notes
                                              Date    positions cut
                                                                       remaining
   Va.)
57. The Fresno Bee (Fresno, Calif.)        6/2008           1              2
58. The Globe and Mail (Toronto, Ont.,
                                           4/1/2009         6              8
    Canada)
                                           1/2008 and
59. The Morning Call (Allentown, Penn.)                     2              2
                                           /2008
                                           2007 and
60. The Oregonian (Portland, Ore.)                          5              2
                                           2008
61. The Palm Beach Post (West Palm Beach, 8/12/2008,
                                                            8              2
    Fla.)                                 9/2009
                                           2/2008 and
62. The Patriot Ledger (Quincy, Mass.)                      2              1
                                           11/2008
63. The Patriot-News Company (Harrisburg,
                                          11/2008           1              1
    Penn.)
64. The Republican (Springfield, Mass.)    1/12/2009        2              2
65. The Royal Gazette/Mid-Ocean
                                           7/29/2008        1              1
    Newspapers (Bermuda)
66. The San Diego Union-Tribune (San
                                           12/2006 -                                  Includes 5 cuts through
    Diego, Calif.)                                         13              3
                                           5/2009                                     attrition.

                                           5/2006 and
67. The Star-Ledger (Newark, N.J.)                          6              4
                                           12/2008
68. The State (Columbia, S.C.)             1/2006 -         3              0          Library positions
                                           2/2008                                     eliminated through
                                                                                      attrition. Archiving
                                                                                      automated.
69. Time, Inc.
70. Times-Herald Record ( Middletown ,
                                           5/15/09          1              1
    N.Y. )
                                           12/2007
71. USA Today                              and              9              4
                                           12/2008
72. Vancouver Sun / The Province           12/2008 -
                                                            4              6
    (Vancouver, BC, Canada)                2/2009
73. Wall Street Journal (New York, N.Y.)   3/2009           2              0
74. Washington Post (Washington, D.C.)     2006,            9              7          Includes 2 positions lost
                                           2008, 2009                                 through attrition.

      Note: Positions are counted as a whole number whether they are/were full-time or part-time.

				
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