Library Downsizing and Closing 1 SPECIAL LIBRARIES CLOSING When the Levee Breaks: Coping With Downsizing or Closure of a Special Library Annie Alee Murphy San Jose State University Library Downsizing and Closing 2 Abstract The purpose of this presentation, written for current and future special librarians in Professor Sue Brewsaugh’s seminar class in special libraries at San Jose State University, is to explore how librarians in special libraries can deal effectively with staff, resource and budget downsizing and what measures they can take should their libraries close completely. This paper explores how to contend with a situation many special librarians have faced, are facing, or will face – that of having their information center drastically scaled back or eliminated completely. In order to maintain focus and to provide helpful, useful information for readers, the paper was written with the journalistic mantra in mind: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Library Downsizing and Closing 3 When the Levee Breaks: Planning For and Coping With Downsizing or Closure of a Special Library In today’s economy, job loss through elimination of positions is a constant threat. Employment declined by 4.7 million in 2009 alone, the largest calendar-year job loss since 1939. According to the latest Economic News Release from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 15,260,000 people were unemployed in the month of April, 2009. Many pundits predict that a lot of former jobs are gone for good. Librarians are not immune to cuts during an economic downturn. For the special librarian, these cutbacks often are more extreme and more imminent than in other sectors. Corporate libraries exist in a more volatile environment than other libraries. Corporate libraries have traditionally been, in general, less stable institutions than other libraries. Corporate libraries are more quickly and dramatically affected by environmental change than other libraries (Housewright, 2008). The climate is particularly ominous for libraries that rely on overhead for their funding. Although overhead is declining as a primary method of funding special libraries, it is still the most common method. Nearly half (46 percent) of corporate libraries rely on budgeted dollars, as do 41 percent of government libraries and 25 percent of academic libraries (Strouse, 2006). Henceforth, while academic libraries may still exist to support research and public libraries may continue for public service (albeit with reduced employees and hours), special libraries are often cut when profits decrease. Whereas exact figures regarding the number of special libraries closed or downsized are not available, a telling example is the list compiled by Michelle Quigley, news researcher at The Palm Beach Post, which shows the number of newspaper and media library layoffs and closures in the last five years, current as of March 3, 2010 (see Appendix). Seventy-four libraries of major Library Downsizing and Closing 4 newspapers were either eliminated, outsourced, or had staff reduced (Quigley, 2010). While media libraries are just a small sector of the special library world, the major loss of libraries in a field where the fast retrieval of facts, figures and research is tantamount to doing business highlights the precarious nature in which corporate and organizational libraries exist today. Much has been written about how special librarians must prove their value to their host companies. Articles and books have been published about how they can show their contribution to the bottom line, i.e., profit. Most librarians and library students understand the importance of marketing a library’s materials and manpower. However, all these measures are preventive medicine to be taken while the library is still operating in somewhat good health. What can be done when the board of directors, CEO, or general top dog says, “Sorry, we must cut something and you’re it?” How do librarians insure the delivery of needed information and services when their budgets are slashed? What can they do when their library shrinks in size? Moreover, what do they do when their library or information center closes up shop? What do librarians do when the ultimate answer is NO? As it states in the song When the Levee Breaks (written by Memphis Joe [McCoy] and performed by a number of artists), “Cryin’ won’t help you, prayin’ won’t do you no good.” Rather, this a time for action, adaptability and a bit of audacity. The ship is sinking and the decision to downsize set in stone, weighing down the boat. However, if your organization is not on the brink of total shutdown, you can at least try some things to both showcase how you can contribute and to position yourself for a seat in the lifeboat (Matarazzo & Pearlstein, 2009). Almost every information-providing professional, or for that matter every information- seeking person, will tell you that with the advent of the Internet and user-friendly search engines, a lot of library services now seem redundant. Special libraries are being particularly hard hit. Library Downsizing and Closing 5 When engineers, doctors, lawyers, architects, advertising executives and anyone else can find the data, photos, statistics and answers they need at their desks and at any time of the day or night, they often skip the added step of using their organization’s library. Moreover, in a time of cost- cutting and shrinking profits, many organizations can no longer rationalize the expense of maintaining a library collection and staff. While it can be argued that special librarians save their parent companies money by getting information quickly to users who can meanwhile focus on more specific duties, such ease and efficiency are often casualties in an economic downturn. Special libraries facing cutbacks or elimination need to employ and assimilate effective business strategies in order to increase their chances of survival and success (Fletcher et al, 2009). Who Is Your Clientele? Egalitarians that they are, librarians provide services to everyone. Unfortunately, offering a little help to a lot of users may dilute your significance as “no one will stand up for the library because no one receives substantive assistance.” Prioritize your target audiences and serve the heavy hitters “thinking first of those on whom the success of the firm depends” (Matarazzo & Pearlstein, 2007). While such an approach may seem counter-intuitive to an information professional, in times of economic hardship it is imperative to be visible and valuable to those who can champion your library’s existence. This does not mean that a librarian need turn away anyone seeking information. Rather than refusing service, refine it. If your staff is cut it would be wise to concentrate efforts on building stronger relationships with those who are in a position to save the library from extinction. For example, if sales representatives utilize library resources to obtain statistics or news items, approach sales management regarding direct collaboration with the department. Inform senior attorneys that you are ready and willing to help junior attorneys in legal research, not only finding resources but training them on how to find such resources on their own. Kate Library Downsizing and Closing 6 Bird, editor of Wired West, the newsletter for the Western Canada Chapter of SLA, contends that librarians were a natural choice when looking for trainers to teach journalists to access resources from their desktops. “After all, these were their customers, relationships with them already existed, and the librarians knew the strengths and weaknesses, as well as the varying needs, of the reporters. Unlike outside trainers, the librarians were also available for follow-up” (Matarazzo & Pearlstein, 2010). You must become central to the core tasks of your organization. Don’t wait to be asked to do something. Study your clients, find out what they need to do their jobs, and hand it to them on a silver platter before they even realize they need it. Not only will you become visible, you may even become a shining example to others in the company (Dempsey, 2002). Such efforts can actually be strengthened by economic downsizing. An explanation of, “Well, library services have been cut and we want to make sure that your department still gets what it needs,” will bolster the library’s image of a team player dedicated to the organization, even when it appears to be losing ground. What Are Your Services and Your Strengths? What does your library do for its organization? When asked for their library’s strengths, many librarians (particularly those with a traditional view of a library setting), will answer that it is the ability to get necessary, up-to-date information to end users quickly. This is a necessary and noble endeavor for librarians, but if this is the only selling point for your library, you are setting yourself up for failure in times of economic hardships. As William Crowley, Professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at Dominican University, pointed out, “Bluntly stated, there is no longer any way that librarians and trustees can convince residents of local communities and members of college and university campuses that libraries are their primary information source” (Crowley, 2007). The same could be said for convincing corporate Library Downsizing and Closing 7 library users and CEOs. Many years ago, the esteemed Barbara Quint (well-known writer and editor in the library world) offered an estimate that Google answered as many reference queries in half an hour as all the reference librarians in the world did in seven years (Abram, 2008). No matter how well or how quickly librarians may package and present information, it can be argued that such information can now be accessed directly through databases and the Internet without the intermediation of a librarian. As an attorney in the New York law firm of Wien Malkin & Bettex put it over a decade ago, “Our attorneys can do their own research faster from computer systems at their desk” (Koss-Feder, 1996). As Crowley (2007) also admonished, “Information intermediaries, including librarians who see themselves as such, are passé. We are in an age of information self-service” That said, it is well known in library circles that librarians, especially those in for-profit organizations, need to promote all their services. Unfortunately, many librarians play up their information gathering and delivery services while completely overlooking the ancillary services they provide to end users. In a case of staff reduction, special librarians need to remind decision makers that they also assist in generating reports, prioritizing deadlines, staying abreast of industry developments, keeping up with competitor’s developments, software training, vendor negotiations, budget forecasting, publishing papers, and maintaining websites and interactive sources. Moreover, librarians generally have a very good grasp of the duties of each department and can customize their assistance to maximize service to each department, even taking such assistance out of the library and into the field. Granted, this may result in librarians losing their librarian title, but it also shows dedication to the parent organization and could save jobs. As librarian Doris Helfer stated, “One colleague working for a major high-tech corporation told me there are quite a large number of librarians who’ve worked their way into all levels of the Library Downsizing and Closing 8 corporation because of their library and research skills, but who are not considered or even known to be librarians, except among themselves” (Helfer, 2008). Think about it, which would you rather lose, your job or your job title? A reduction in staff should always be accompanied with an objective look at your library’s collection. While library staffing is examined on a regular basis, the library’s collection often remains unexamined and static for years at a time. Eliminating unneeded or duplicative resources can often be more economically beneficial than eliminating library staff. When your staff or budget has been cut, shedding duplicative or seldom-used resources is a necessity. While a library’s resources are vital, it is its provision of services that will save or slay it. Part of that service provision includes a ruthless focus on Maslow’s Hierarchy. As one librarian succinctly put it, “We do not have the resources to do anything that is not directly applicable to service provision. Furthermore, even among those options, we have to cherry-pick very carefully, and decide that some things are not doable, even if they are important. Among those services we elect to provide, we have to provide clear-eyed assessment, and be willing to minimize or stop a service” (Schneider, K.G. (2010). When salaries and staff are being slashed, a company may not want to pay library staff to digitalize unviewed photos, catalog unused resources, or conduct database training sessions for temporary workers. Much as they may be beneficial in the long run, cut services that could be seen as an unnecessary expense and concentrate on services that will be deemed as money-making endeavors in the here and now. An important note about virtual libraries: Virtual libraries and electronic information offerings have become so commonplace within the corporation that management frequently doesn’t connect them with the library that developed them or understand what is required to support them. Only 36 percent of corporate information centers have placed icons or other Library Downsizing and Closing 9 branding mechanisms on their intranet offerings. This is coupled with the fact that more than half of those corporate libraries with portals or some other intranet presence do not collect the critical data needed to show the value of their virtual presence (Jacobs & Strouse, 2002). Management doesn’t want to pay for what they don’t see. Of course, you should be marketing your virtual library before budget cuts, but when cuts come it is essential to make your invisible library visible by asserting that you and the other invisible librarians are willing to do whatever it takes to continue getting needed information to users while also mentioning all the other talents your team possesses. You must become central to the core tasks of your organization. Don’t wait to be asked to do something. Study your clients, find out what they need to do their jobs, and hand it to them on a silver platter before they even realize they need it. Not only will you become visible, you may even become a shining example to others in the company (Dempsey, 2002). Some organizations try to save money through outsourcing various duties. While this takes work away from your library staff, it behooves you to take a positive attitude toward outsourcing efforts and work, as much as possible, with the outsourced workers. Outsourcing specific activities can free up your library to focus on more profitable endeavors. For example, outsourcing time consuming technical activities such as cataloging, and subscription and circulation services can save money while increasing overall efficiency without sacrificing the knowledge base of an in-house library (SLA, 1997). However, keep in mind one caveat: Outsourced employees are typically not invited to participate in teams and can therefore not help with company and other sensitive information. As contractors, they are not allowed or trusted with sensitive company information. This is certainly another drawback and limitation to the outsourced employee (Helfer, 1998). If your library requires handling highly confidential Library Downsizing and Closing 10 materials by all involved, be careful when working with outsourced services, keeping security uppermost in your mind. Also, if your library is going to cancel subscriptions and lose resources, look for other avenues to gain such information. Explore interlibrary loans. Analyze free websites. Use and expand your network. Susan Clarke, librarian at the Norris Visual Science Library of the Doheny Eye Institute, stated that when her library’s budget was drastically reduced and resources discontinued, she was able to get the materials needed for her users through the help of other health and vision sciences librarians she knew. If ever there was a time to network, an economic cutback is it. (S. Clarke, personal communication, April 6, 2010). When Are Your Services Needed? Do your users utilize your services every day? All day? Only during research projects? Are there times when the library experiences a lull in activity? Do patrons generally use your library in an emergency, with answers needed immediately, or is the usage more scheduled or unhurried? While you may feel the answer to when are your services needed is “always”, that answer will be met with raised eyebrows by directors or executives looking to cut expenses. Budget cuts require an objective assessment of the library hours. While not an optimum solution, consider a reduction in hours (if such a reduction has not already been mandated). Granted, this translates into a reduction in staff’s working hours and paycheck, but closing for one day a week, two hours earlier each day or another option may save enough money to keep the library open and allow everyone to keep their position (albeit with reduced hours). If you must shorten your hours of operation, select and suggest hours when they library is heavily used. Where Are Your Services Needed? Special librarians know that a corporate library must not be an appendage to its parent organization but rather a vital organ which grows with its company. It’s important to note that, in Library Downsizing and Closing 11 tough times, it’s best to make like Dr. Frankenstein and be able to place organs where needed or convenient. When the library budget is slashed, it is more important than ever to show how mobile librarians’ skills and services can be. How can such your library’s diverse litany of resources be utilized when your part of the organizational picture winds up on the cutting room floor? In tough economic times, librarians need to be innovators and, at times, instigators. Seemingly disparate abilities and knowledge can prove invaluable to keep librarians employed even if the library itself closes. Are the librarian’s skills valued enough in these organizations so that even though the library is closed or reduced, their skills can be repurposed elsewhere to support good decision making? In other words, can the librarian survive even if the library does not? (Matarazzo & Pearlstein, 2009) While they may wind up offering their services outside a library setting and doing tasks outside a librarian’s job description, librarians can still keep doing their job and even prosper by utilizing their skills in other departments including information technology, product development, database management, knowledge management, marketing, project planning, even public relations. (Librarians tend be very people-oriented and adept at networking, making them prime candidates for organizers for corporate charity and community outreach.) Getting in front of our audience in this way is something we in special libraries need to do much more often (Matarazzo, Pearlstein, 2009). Assisting in research, writing reports, compiling date, creating and maintaining interactive sources use librarian skills but many end users would not think of asking a librarian for help in such endeavors. Show decision-makers that your librarian skills don’t dissipate the moment you leave the library by not only working directly with other departments but in these departments as well. As David Shumaker, Clinical Library Downsizing and Closing 12 Associate Professor at the School of Library and Information Science at Catholic University, reasoned, “The same technologies that are competing with traditional reference service have freed us reference librarians from the chains that have kept us in the library. We’re free to roam and share our expertise wherever our customers are because we can, in a sense, take many of our most valuable tools with us” (Shumaker, 2009). Another idea is that of embedded librarians who perform information gathering and delivery in the departments they serve rather than in a library space. A growing trend, embedding librarians is proving the adaptability of librarians. At the headquarters of Fairfax Media, the largest news media organization in Australia, a library space downsizing dispersed librarians into the office areas of the various news bureaus they serve. When a subsequent office move offered them the opportunity to recentralize in new library space, there was no sentiment in favor – the new arrangement had proven too successful (Shumaker, 2009). The flip side is whether the centralized library resource should continue and what this means to the library manager. Often it can mean actually losing staff to other departments. But if this continues the legacy of information services within the organization, is this not a good thing? (Schachter, 2007). Why Does Your Library Exist? What is the overarching reason your library exists? An obvious answer would be to keep users informed, but when dealing with reduced staff and hours, this question needs to be examined more closely. Is the objective to verify facts, find cases, preserve company history, or all of the above? Was the library created with the purpose of assisting with in-depth research, with other needs being secondary? Look at your parent organization’s mission statement. If your library is supporting an organization in a forward-thinking environment, for example the tech or telecommunications industry, do you need onsite archival services? How many non-legal materials does your law library truly need? Now is the time to realign your library with its Library Downsizing and Closing 13 company’s mission and goals. If your organization’s mission is to be a leader in sales, concentrate remaining staff and resources on researching competitors and scoping out market trends. If their goal is to be innovators, concentrate on product research. Support – not supplement -- your company’s business. How Do You Serve Your Users? While encompassing all the other points already mentioned, this query encompasses the processes your library uses to get its services to end users. Do you have print materials in a central area? A virtual library? Website and blog? Database training? Updates delivered via e- mail or cell phone? Reduction in staff and funding requires an objective examination of how you can better serve your users. Tough economic times call for new tactics. Instead of a reference desk, virtual reference may be more viable. Create a website to answer frequently asked questions. Online services often produce the unexpected benefit of increasing librarian’s awareness of customers’ information needs. With anonymity assured, users may be more open to voicing disappointment with or complaints about a library’s service, vital information to possess and process when your library is in peril. When Boeing Corporation instituted a virtual reference service, staff members were able to use information from Ask a Librarian customers to improve other areas of the library organization (Martin, 2003). Now is a good time for librarians to be asking users, “How are we doing?” While changing or upgrading services may seem impossible during a time of budget slashing, it must be done. You can gain a little leeway by abandoning processes that are rarely used or overly time-consuming. If there’s little time for training new hires on database usage, make a video. Keeping company security in mind, explore Web 2.0 tools; a wiki might be helpful in keeping users abreast of developments and current projects. If your users require Library Downsizing and Closing 14 printed materials and a document delivery service is not in place, implement one. Give your clientele the same resources and services but in a more efficient, economical way. When the Ax Falls – And It Falls on You But alas, the best laid plans of mice and men go awry. You’ve marketed your library, honed your skills, expanded or refined your resources as well as possible, and you’re still facing the door. Obviously, no one wants to hear that their entire department (and/or livelihood) has been deemed unnecessary. Special librarians are no exception to the rule. Upon learning that your organization has decided that your library must be cut, many librarians will argue that such a move is detrimental to the organization and must be reconsidered. Generally, these arguments will fall on deaf ears. Most library closures (and indeed, most cutbacks of any kind) are made by top-level executives or a board of directors who are far removed from the actual library (and the workforce) itself. Usually, the decision to close a department is done without any consultation or consideration from the department itself. When Marriott International closed its corporate library in 1999, library manager Cindy Monroe learned that, “The decision was only based on dollars, not a judgment of our value to the company.” She said she was not asked for any input in the decision, which was made at the CEO level (DiMattia, 1999).Once a decision is announced to downsize a department, decision makers are loath to change their minds. So now what? First, get as many facts as you can. What will be the ultimate date that the library closes? When is your last day of employment? Will the physical collection (books, journals, drawings, etc.) remain intact? Will online resources (databases, intranet) remain accessible? According to Cary Kozlov, owner of Cary Kozlov Law Library Management Service, most law firms, when they close up their libraries, usually keep their physical collections (if they have any). Depending on the firm, some maintain their print collections and have them updated as needed (generally Library Downsizing and Closing 15 using contracted clerks), other stop updating them and just let whatever they already have simply sit on the shelves. (C. Kozlov, personal communication, April 29, 2010). Find out what your organization plans to do with materials now in the library space and, if materials are being shipped offsite, offer to help prepare for the move. If you get any advance notice, notify users of the library about its impending closure and how and where they can get needed information. If you’ve worked closely with any other libraries in terms of sharing resources, inform them of your library’s closure. Librarians being the helpful souls they are, your network may reach out to your users in this time of need. And, of course, explore where else in the organization your skills might be utilized. Sell yourself with the point that you work for the company, not the library, and are ready and willing to use your experience and expertise wherever it might be needed. Last, but not least, take heart in two quotes. The first is from journalist Ellen Goodman. “There’s a trick to the Graceful Exit. It begins with the vision to recognize when a job, a life stage, a relationship is over – and to let go. It means leaving what’s over without denying its value.” The fact that your library is closing does not mean that it was inadequate nor that you were incompetent. Be proud of the valuable assistance that you gave your parent organization and prepare yourself to pack up and promote your skills. And from Helen Keller: “When one door of happiness closes, another opens, but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one that has been opened for us.” This is a good tune to hum during this economic slump and time of library closures. The time of landing or keeping a position in a traditional special library setting may be coming to an end, so it’s time to think outside of the box (or library, as it may be). Project managers, fundraisers, embedded researchers, records managers, information brokers, private investigators, database managers, Library Downsizing and Closing 16 web designers, vocabulary designers and more can utilize a librarian’s experience and expertise. When the levee breaks, use your skills to stay high and dry. Library Downsizing and Closing 17 References Abram, S. (2008) Evolution to revolution to chaos? Reference in transition. Searcher, 16(8), 42-48. Crowley, W. (2007). Don’t let Google and the pennypinchers get you down: Defending (or redefining) libraries and librarianship in the age of technology. British Columbia Library Conference 2007, Burnaby, BC, Saturday, April 21, 2007. Retrieved on April 15, 2010 from http://library2020.bclibrary.ca/resources/Crowley_2007.pdf Dempsey, K., Visibility: Decloaking “the Invisible Librarian.” Searcher, 10(7), 76-81 DiMattia, S. S. (1999). Marriott shuts corporate library: Dollars, not analysis of value, led to closing; Librarian not consulted. Library Journal, 124(3), 93. Fletcher, Arlene, et al., Saving Special Libraries in a Recession: Business Strategies for Survival and Success. Retrieved on April 15, 2010 from http://www.sla.org/io/2009/07/735.cfm Housewright, R. (2008). Themes of change in corporate libraries: Considerations for academic libraries [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.sla- scc.org/web_pages/events_section/documents/Corporate_Libraries_Webinar.pdf Jacobs, L. & Strouse, R. (2002) What is your budget saying about your library? Information Outlook, 6(6), 6-17. Koss-Feder, L. (1996, October 17). Ssshh! Corporate libraries get quiet : More businesses downsize, eliminate libraries to cut costs: The age of “virtual libraries”. Crain’s New York Business, 1996, 33. Library Downsizing and Closing 18 Martin, J. (2003). Ask a librarian: Virtual reference services at the Boeing Library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 127-135. Matarazzo, J., & Pearlstein, T. (2007). Marrying two expert tools will help you sustain your corporate library. Library Journal, 132(2), 42-43. Matarazzo, J., & Pearlstein, T. (2009). Scenario planning as preventive medicine: The case of the unexpected takeover. Searcher, 17(10), 26-30. Matarazzo, J., & Pearlstein, T. (2010). Survival lessons for libraries: Staying afloat in turbulent waters. Searcher, 18(4), 14-31. Quigley, M. (2010). News Library Layoffs and Buyouts. Retrieved on May 12, 2010 from http://docs.google.com/View?id=dhsmznc3_18g3b8jqgh Schachter, D. (2007). Special libraries in transition: What to do if the axe is falling; Closing libraries doesn’t always mean closing opportunities for information professionals. The facility may change, but the need remains. Information Outlook, 11(7), 42-45 Schneider, K.G. (2010, May 1). Help, I’ve fallen and I can’t get up. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://freerangelibrarian.com/ Shumaker, D. (2009). Who let the librarians out? Embedded librarianship and the library manager. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 48(3), 239-42, 257. Siess, J. (2010). Embedded librarianship: The next big thing? Searcher, 18(1), 38-45. Library Downsizing and Closing 19 Special Libraries Association (2006). Exploring outsourcing: Case studies of corporate libraries. Retrieved on May 1, 2010 from http://www.sla.org/content/resources/research/researchlinks/explorout.cfm Strouse, R. (2003). Assessing your library’s value statement. Information Outlook, 7(3), 14-19. Library Downsizing and Closing 20 Appendix News Library Layoffs and Buyouts Number of Effective Number of Organization positions Notes Date positions cut remaining 1. ABC News Research Center 6/2006 and 13 0 Research Center (Washington, D.C.) 2009 dismantled and the collection dispersed 7/2008 and 2. Albany Times Union (Albany, N.Y.) 2 1 3/2009 3. Arizona Daily Star (Tucson, Ariz.) 11/2009 2 0 4. Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock, 5/1/2009 1 3 Ark.) 5. Atlanta Journal Constitution (Atlanta, 4/2009 15 0 Research discontinued, Ga.) archiving outsourced. 6. Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, Md.) 4/2009 1 2 7. Capital Times/Wisconsin State Journal 6/2008 and 2 2 (Madison, Wis.) 9/2008 8. Charlotte Observer (Charlotte N.C.) 9/2008 3 2 2008, 9. Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Ill.) 9 5 2/2009 Remaining position is 10. Cincinnati Enquirer (Cincinnati, Ohio) 7/2009 1 1 part-time 6/2006, 11. Columbus Dispatch (Columbus, Ohio) 3/2007, 3 4 6/2007 12. Corpus Christi Caller-Times (Corpus Spring 2 1 Christi, Texas) 2007 13. Daily Camera (Boulder, Colo.) 6/2007 1 0 Archiving automated. 14. Denver Post (Denver, Colo.) 6/2007 1 4 15. Detroit Free Press (Detroit, Mich.) 6/22/2009 3 0 Research discontinued, archiving automated. 16. Entertainment Weekly 11/2008 2 1 17. Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville, Fla.) 11/2008 2 4 18. Forbes 1/2009 2 1 19. Fort Worth Star-Telegram (Fort Worth, 6/2008 and 5 1 Texas) 3/2009 20. Fortune Spring 4 2 Business Information 2008 Center serving Fortune, Money, FSB and Library Downsizing and Closing 21 Number of Effective Number of Organization positions Notes Date positions cut remaining various Time Inc. corporate departments eliminated. 7/2008 and 21. Hartford Courant (Hartford, Conn.) 2 2 3/2009 11/2007, 22. Houston Chronicle (Houston, Texas) 11 2 11/2008 23. Knoxville News Sentinel (Knoxville, 6/2007 1 0 Archiving automated, Tenn.) other library functions eliminated. 24. Lexington Herald-Leader (Lexington, 5/2009 4 1 Ky.) 25. Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, Calif.) 26. Miami Herald (Miami, Fla.) 2008 4 3 27. NBC InfoCenter (New York, N.Y.) 4/2009 4 3 Two other positions lost through attrition in 2004 and 2007. 28. New York Daily News (New York, N.Y.) The NYT still has 29. New York Times (New York, N.Y.) 2007, 2008 13 7 additional part-time positions. 30. News & Observer (Raleigh, N.C.) 1/2006, 31. News & Record (Greensboro, N.C.) 6/2007, 3 1 1/2009 32. Newsday (Long Island, N.Y.) 3/2008 1 11 Staff reduced from 23 through attrition since 2002. 33. News-Gazette (Champaign, Ill.) 5/2008 1 1 1/2006, 12/2007, 34. Newsweek 2008, 9 1 2/2009, 11/2009 35. Orlando Sentinel (Orlando, Fla.) 2006 and 36. Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ont., Canada) 2 2 2008 37. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Penn.) Library Downsizing and Closing 22 Number of Effective Number of Organization positions Notes Date positions cut remaining 38. Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio) 4 5 39. Portland Press Herald/Maine Sunday 6/2009 1 Telegram (Portland, Maine) 40. Providence Journal (Providence, R.I.) 10/2008 2 1 Part-timer will be 41. Reno Gazette-Journal (Reno, Nev.) 7/2009 1 1 brought in to replace long-time librarian. 42. Richmond Times-Dispatch (Richmond, Need verification on 4/2009 8 2 Virginia) numbers. 43. Rocky Mountain News (Denver, Colo.) 2/2009 Newspaper closed. Archives to Denver Public Library and Colorado Historical Society. 44. San Antonio Express-News (San 10/2007 2 4 Antonio, Tex.) and 3/2009 45. San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco, 12/2008 4 2 Calif.) and 3/2009 46. San Jose Mercury News (San Jose, 11/2005 - 6 2 Calif.) 6/2008 Newspaper ceased 47. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, Wash.) 3/18/2009 2 0 operations. 48. Sporting News 7/2008 1 0 Research center closed. 2008 - 49. St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, Mo.) 7 4 2009 50. St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, 2 12 Fla.) 7/2008, 51. Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.) 4/2009, 5 2 Library dismantled. 5/2009 2005, 52. Syracuse Post-Standard (Syracuse, N.Y.) 4 2 2006, 2009 53. Tampa Tribune (Tampa, Fla.) 5/27/09 5 3 54. The Daytona Beach News-Journal 6/2008, 4 1 (Daytona Beach, Fla.) 9/2009 55. The Des Moines Register (Des Moines, 2/2008, Iowa) 12/2008, 4 1 Archiving automated. 5/2009 56. The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, 1 2 Library Downsizing and Closing 23 Number of Effective Number of Organization positions Notes Date positions cut remaining Va.) 57. The Fresno Bee (Fresno, Calif.) 6/2008 1 2 58. The Globe and Mail (Toronto, Ont., 4/1/2009 6 8 Canada) 1/2008 and 59. The Morning Call (Allentown, Penn.) 2 2 /2008 2007 and 60. The Oregonian (Portland, Ore.) 5 2 2008 61. The Palm Beach Post (West Palm Beach, 8/12/2008, 8 2 Fla.) 9/2009 2/2008 and 62. The Patriot Ledger (Quincy, Mass.) 2 1 11/2008 63. The Patriot-News Company (Harrisburg, 11/2008 1 1 Penn.) 64. The Republican (Springfield, Mass.) 1/12/2009 2 2 65. The Royal Gazette/Mid-Ocean 7/29/2008 1 1 Newspapers (Bermuda) 66. The San Diego Union-Tribune (San 12/2006 - Includes 5 cuts through Diego, Calif.) 13 3 5/2009 attrition. 5/2006 and 67. The Star-Ledger (Newark, N.J.) 6 4 12/2008 68. The State (Columbia, S.C.) 1/2006 - 3 0 Library positions 2/2008 eliminated through attrition. Archiving automated. 69. Time, Inc. 70. Times-Herald Record ( Middletown , 5/15/09 1 1 N.Y. ) 12/2007 71. USA Today and 9 4 12/2008 72. Vancouver Sun / The Province 12/2008 - 4 6 (Vancouver, BC, Canada) 2/2009 73. Wall Street Journal (New York, N.Y.) 3/2009 2 0 74. Washington Post (Washington, D.C.) 2006, 9 7 Includes 2 positions lost 2008, 2009 through attrition. Note: Positions are counted as a whole number whether they are/were full-time or part-time.
Pages to are hidden for
"Coping_With_Downsizing"Please download to view full document