The Netherlands Fish Out of Water Inter sectoral Conflicts Trade offs

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The Netherlands Fish Out of Water Inter sectoral Conflicts Trade offs Powered By Docstoc
					              Fish Out of Water?
           Inter-sectoral Conflicts,
    Trade-offs and Synergies in Freshwater
         Resource and Coastal Zone
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     Competition and Interactions
  • Fisheries and aquaculture compete for space
      and resources in the most contested and fastest-
      developing geographical areas on earth – coastal
      zones and river basins
  • Coastal zones and river basins provide globally
      significant environmental goods and services
  • While many of the interactions within the
      fisheries sector and between the sector and other
      activities are of a competitive or antagonistic
      nature, a number of complementary or
      synergistic interactions may also exist
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            Freshwater Resources
  • Inland fish production will continue to face
    increasing competition for water from other uses
  • Integration is required in order to facilitate
    sustainable inland fish production
  • Use allocation will require close liaison between
    user groups, transparency in the decision-making
    process, cross-sector education
  • An important focus is the evaluation and
    management of trade-offs associated with
    infrastructure development
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            Freshwater Resources
  • Inland fisheries are greatly undervalued in water
    management decisions
  • Better valuation methods that pay more attention
    to non-formal values, particularly those
    concerning livelihoods, biodiversity and food
    security are urgently needed
  • The ecosystem approach, with its focus on
    maintaining ecosystem functioning, is
    fundamental to managing water for inland
    fisheries and aquaculture
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            Freshwater Resources
  • Hydrological approaches to water management
    tend to focus on in-stream quantitative flows and
    often ignore the important impacts on quality and
    extent of adjacent floodplains and their
    associated wetlands
  • Fisheries and aquaculture can play an important
    role in effective water management across the
    continuum from rain fed to irrigated agriculture,
    and increase the resilience of poor communities

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              Coastal Resources
  • The livelihood of residents in coastal areas is
    usually directly linked to coastal resource use
  • The environments of coastal zones are
    influenced not only by human activity along the
    coastline and in adjoining seas, but also by
    activities inland and in associated watersheds
  • These issues are often complex and cross
    sectoral boundaries
  • They are difficult to resolve in a single-sector
    management regime.
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              Coastal Resources
  • Fisheries and aquaculture must be conceived as
    part of wider local, regional and national (scale)
    economic development and resource
    management strategies (nested)
  • The entire process is closely linked to the
    institutional and organizational context in which
    the fisheries and aquaculture sector operates
  • A major challenge is to modify the existing
    context in order to achieve preferred patterns of
    coastal resource use.
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              Coastal Resources
  • Marine protected areas (MPAs) can be considered
    components of ICM programs because they protect the
    biodiversity and ecological processes
  • MPAs have come to be advocated as the solution for
    all fisheries and ecosystem management problems
  • MPA management must be coordinated and integrated
    with coastal and fisheries management activities
    outside the boundaries and linked to development
    programs that address the needs of local people

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            Governance, Decisions
               and Trade-Offs
  • Improved governance processes are needed
    that facilitate compromise by stakeholders and
    favor integrated resource management
  • New institutional arrangements are needed to
    link decisions on upstream uses and resource
    management to those for managing downstream
    uses (integrated aquatic resource management)
  • Decentralization reforms to local levels
  • Clearly defined goals and responsibilities to
    address issues at different scales
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            Principles for Investment

  • Support institutional and governance reforms
    that link decision-making across sectors and
    across multiple scales of intervention
  • Integrate an ecosystem-based approach into
    infrastructure planning
  • Adopt multi-criteria analysis for water allocation
    and use environmental flow assessment as a
    way to quantify the environmental criteria

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            Principles for Investment

  • Strengthen watershed and coastal zone
    management bodies with strong civil society

  • Invest in local capacity to assess and weigh the
    livelihood implications of alternative resource
    management scenarios

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             Implementing the Principles

            Investing in integrated aquatic resource

  • Xiamen, China
  • Batangas Bay, Philippines
  • Tanzania

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            Implementing the Principles
  Xiamen, China

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       Implementing the Principles
 Xiamen, China
  • As a consequence of industrialization and urbanization;
      increased population growth; uses of coastal and
      marine resources diversified and intensified resulting in
      severe space competition, resource-use conflicts, and
  • weak institutional capability
  • lack of integrated planning and coordination
  • inadequate legislation for effective resolution of
      multiple resource-use conflicts
  • poor law enforcement
  • weak marine environmental consciousness
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            Implementing the Principles
  Xiamen, China
  • Lead: Xiamen Municipal Government with PEMSEA
    (GEF, UNDP) 1994-2008
  • Investment: demonstrate the application of integrated
    coastal management (ICM) for effective prevention,
    control and mitigation of marine pollution
  • Executive Committee involving over 20 government
  • Institutional mechanism for interagency consultation,
    coordination and review
  • A shared vision and commitment for change
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            Implementing the Principles
  Xiamen, China
  • Strategic environmental management plans
  • Marine Management and Coordination
  • Integrated law enforcement legislation
  • Sea-use zoning
  • Citizen participation and awareness building
  • Marine Pollution Monitoring Program

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            Implementing the Principles
  • Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership
  • National Environmental Management Council
    and URI-CRC (USAID) 1997-ongoing
  • Investment: improve the well being of coastal
    residents and their environment through the
    implementation and strengthening of the
    Tanzania National Coastal Strategy 2002

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            Implementing the Principles
  • Decentralization to districts for implementation
  • District ICM action plan integrated with
    collaborative fisheries management plan
  • Human and institutional capacity development
  • Mariculture and tourism guidelines
  • Broad participation of stakeholder
  • Establishment of MPAs

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            Implementing the Principles
  Batangas Bay, Philippines

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            Implementing the Principles
  Batangas Bay, Philippines
  • Industrial center and shipping hub
  • Inadequate and fragmented environmental and
    natural resource-use policies, plans and
  • Lack of legal and institutional mechanisms for
    integrated management
  • Limited knowledge and capability of local
    stakeholders on integrated environmental
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            Implementing the Principles
  Batangas Bay, Philippines

  • PEMSEA (GEF, UNDP) 1994-2004
  • Investment: demonstrate the application of
    integrated coastal management (ICM) for
    environmental protection
  • Batangas Integrated Environmental Protection
  • Private-public partnership
  • Strategic management plan
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            Implementing the Principles
  Batangas Bay, Philippines

  • Sustainable cost sharing mechanism with
    private sector
  • Sea use zoning
  • Public awareness and participation
  • Improvements in environmental quality and
    institutional coordination for management

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                      Scaling up
       Investment opportunities in integrated aquatic
                    resources management:
  •   Build interagency, intersectoral, and
      intergovernmental partnerships for sustainable
  •   Balance conservation and economic
  •   Strengthen technical and institutional capacities
  •   Improved water and coastal resource allocation
  •   Fuller participation of stakeholders
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