he New Pali Course Book 1 by cX6wvJ5


									The New Pali Course Book 1
Table of Contents
  1. Alphabet, Pronunciation, Parts of Speech, Declension,
     The Alphabet
     Parts of Speech
     Gender, Number and Case
     Declension of Nouns
     Conjugation of Verbs
     Conjugation of the Root "Paca"
  2. More conjugations, Masculine nouns, Past Tense
     Different Conjugations
     The Seventh Conjugation
     Masculine Stems Ending in i
     Past Tense
  3. Personal pronouns, Future Tense, Masculine nouns in ii and u
     Personal Pronouns
     Future Tense
     Masculine Nouns Ending in ii
     Masculine Nouns Ending in u
  4. Adjectival nouns, Masculine nouns in uu, Adverbs of time,
     Feminine nouns, Imperative mood, Optative mood,
     Indeclinable Past Participle
     Adjectival Nouns Ending in u
     Masculine Nouns Ending in uu
     Adverbs of Time
     Declension of Feminine Nouns
     The Imperative
     The Optative or Potential
     Feminine Stems Ending in i
     Feminine Stems Ending in ii
     Indeclinable Past Participle
  5. Feminine nouns in u, Adverbs of place, Neuter nouns, Infinitive
     Feminine Nouns Ending in u
     Adverbs of Place
     Neuter Gender
     The Infinitive
     Neuter Nouns Ending in i
     Neuter Nouns Ending in u
     Some More Particles
  6. Classification of nouns, Pronouns, Pronominal adjectives,
     Present participles
     Classification of Nouns
     Adjectives (Pronominal)
     The Demonstrative Pronoun "Ta"
     The Demonstrative Pronoun "Ima"
     The Verbal Adjectives or Participles
     The Present Participle
  7. Past participles, Usage of -to, Adjectives
     Past Participles
     "To" in the Sense of Ablative
  8. Numerals: Cardinal, Ordinal
     Declension of Numerals
     Ordinal Numerals
  9. Adverbs, Syntax, Concord
     Order of a Sentence
     How to Enlarge and Analyse a Sentence
  10.Passive voice, Passive participles, Causative
     Passive Voice
     Passive Participles
     Causal or Causative Verbs
     The Vocabulary: Pali-English | English-Pali
The New Pali Course
First Book
The Alphabet
1. The Pali alphabet consists of 41 letters, eight vowels and thirty-
three consonants.

a, aa, i, ii, u, uu, e, o

k, kh, g, gh, `n
c, ch, j, jh, ~n
.t, .th, .d, .dh, .n
t, th, d, dh, n
p, ph, b, bh, m
y, r, l, v, s, h, .l, .m
2. Of the vowels a, i, u are short; the rest are long.
Although e and o are included in long vowels they are often`sounded
short before a double consonant, e.g. mettaa, se.t.thii, okkamati,
[1] Wide Book II for further treatment of letters.
3. Pronunciation
a is pronounced like a in what or u in hut
aa is pronounced like a in father
i is pronounced like i in mint
ii is pronounced like ee in see
u is pronounced like u in put
uu is pronounced like oo in pool
e is pronounced like a in cage
o is pronounced like o in no
k is pronounced like k in kind
kh is pronounced like kh in blackheath
g is pronounced like g in game
gh is pronounced like gh in big house
`n is pronounced like ng in singer
c is pronounced like ch in chance
ch is pronounced like ch h in witch-hazel
jh is pronounced like dge h in sledge-hammer
~n is pronounced like gn in signore
.t is pronounced like t in cat
.th is pronounced like th in ant-hill
.d is pronounced like d in bad
.dh is pronounced like dh in red-hot
.n is pronounced like kn in know
t is pronounced like th in thumb
th is pronounced like th in pot-herb
d is pronounced like th in then
dh is pronounced like dh in adherent
ph is pronounced like ph in uphill
bh is pronounced like bh in abhorrence
y is pronounced like y in yes
s is pronounced like s in sight
.m is pronounced like ng in sing
j, n, p, b, m, r, l, v and h are pronounced just as they are pronounced
in English.
Parts of Speech
4. In English, there are 8 parts of speech. They are all found in Pali,
but the Pali grammarians do not classify them in the same way. Their
general classification is:
    1. Naama = noun
    2. Aakhyaata = verb
    3. Upasagga = prefix
    4. Nipaata = indeclinable particle
Pronouns and adjectives are included in the first group. Adjectives
are treated as nouns because they are declined like nouns.
Conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs and all other indeclinables are
included in the fourth group.
Gender, Number and Case
5. There are in Pali as in English three genders and two numbers.
    1. Pulli`nga = Masculine
    2. Itthili`nga = Feminine
    3. Napu.msakali`nga = Neuter
    1. Ekavacana = Singular
    2. Bahuvacana = Plural
6. Nouns which denote males are masculine; those which denote
females are feminine; but nouns which denote inanimate things and
qualities are not always neuter, e.g. rukkha (tree), canda (moon) are
masculine. Nadii (river), lataa (vine), pa~n~naa (wisdom) are
feminine. Dhana (wealth), citta (mind) are neuter.
Two words denoting the same thing may be, sometimes, in different
genders; paasaa.na and silaa are both synonyms for a stone, but the
former is masculine, and the latter is feminine. Likewise one word,
without changing its form, may possess two or more genders; e.g.
geha (house) is masculine and neuter, kucchi (belly) is masculine and
Therefore, it should be remembered that gender in Pali is a
grammatical distinction existing in words, it is called grammatical
7. There are eight cases, namely:
    1. Pa.thamaa = Nominative
    2. Dutiyaa = Accusative
    3. (a) Tatiyaa = Ablative of agent, and
        (b) Kara.na = Ablative of instrument
    4. Catutthii = Dative
    5. Pa~ncamii = Ablative of separation
    6. Cha.t.thii = Possessive or Genitive
    7. Sattamii = Locative
    8. Aalapana = Vocative
The Ablative in English is here divided into Tatiyaa, Kara.na and
Pa~ncamii. But, as Tatiyaa and Kara.na always have similar forms
both of them are shown under "Instrumental". Where only the
"Ablative" is given the reader must understand that all (3) forms of
the Ablative are included.
Declension of Nouns
8. Nouns in Pali are differently declined according to their gender
and termination.
Nara is a masculine stem, ending in -a.
It is to be declined as follows:-
Case          Singular                    Plural
Nominative naro = man                        naraa = men
Accusative     nara.m = man                  nare = men
               narena = by, with or          narebhi, narehi = by, with
               through man                   or through men
               naraaya, narassa = to or
Dative                                       naraana.m = to or for men
               for man
               naraa, naramhaa,              narebhi, narehi = from
               narasmaa = from man           men
Genitive       narassa = of man              naraana.m = of men
               nare, naramhi, narasmi.m
Locative                                     naresu = on or in men
               = on or in man
Vocative       nara, naraa = O man           naraa = O men
Some of the stems similarly declined are:-
     purisa = man
     manussa = human being
     hattha = hand
     paada = leg; foot
     kaaya = body
     rukkha = tree
     paasaa.na = rock; stone
     gaama = village
     Buddha = the Enlightened One
     dhamma = doctrine
     sa`ngha = community
     aaloka = light
     loka = world
     aakaasa = sky
     suriya = sun
     canda = moon
     magga = path
     putta = son
     kumaara = boy
     vaa.nija = merchant
       cora = thief
       mitta = friend
       daasa = slave
       bhuupaala = king
       kassaka = farmer
       lekhaka = clerk
       deva = god; deity
       vaanara = monkey
       vihaara = monastery
       diipa = island; lamp
       ma~nca = bed
       aahaara = food
       siiha = lion
       miga = deer; beast
       assa = horse
       go.na = ox
       sunakha = dog
       varaaha = pig
       saku.na = bird
       aja = goat
       kaaka = crow
9. Inflections or case-endings of the above declension are:
               Case           Singular         Plural
               Nominative o                    aa
               Accusative     .m               e
               Instrumental ena                ebhi; ehi
               Dative         aaya; ssa        aana.m
               Ablative       aa; mhaa; smaa ebhi; ehi
               Genitive       ssa              aana.m
               Locative       e; mhi; smi.m    esu
               Vocative       a; aa            aa
The last vowel of the stem should be elided before an inflection
which begins with a vowel.
Exercise 1
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Manussaana.m.
  2. Purise.
  3. Hattha.m.
  4. Paadamhi.
  5. Kaayena.
  6. Buddhesu.
  7. Dhamma.m.
  8. Sa`nghamhaa.
  9. Suriye.
Translate into Pali
  1. The dogs.
  2. Of the hand.
  3. On the men.
  4. From the tree.
  5. In the islands.
  6. With the foot.
  7. By the hands.
  8. To the lion.
  9. Of the oxen.
  10.From the birds.
  11.By the king.
  12.O deity.
  13.To the sun.
   14.In the sky.
   15.Through the body.
   16.On the bed.
   17.Of the moons.
   18.In the world.
   19.The monkey.
   20.Through the light.
Exercise 2
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Purisassa go.no.
   2. Manussaana.m hatthaa.
   3. Aakaasamhi saku.naa.
   4. Buddhassa dhammo.
   5. Ma~ncesu manussaa.
   6. Assaana.m paadaa.
   7. Rukkhe saku.no.
   8. Paasaa.namhi go.no.
   9. Lokasmi.m manussaa.
   10.Bhuupaalassa diipaa.
Translate into Pali
   1. The body of the ox.
   2. The bird on the tree.
   3. The island of the world.
   4. With the feet of the man.
   5. By the hand of the monkey.
   6. Of the birds in the sky.
   7. In the doctrine of the Buddha.
   8. The villages of the king.
   9. The birds from the tree.
   10.The horse on the path.
Remark. In translating these into Pali, the articles should be left out.
There are no parallel equivalents to them in Pali. But it should be
noted that the pronominal adjective "ta" (that) may be used for the
definite article, and "eka" (one) for the indefinite. Both of them take
the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. (See §§46
and 48).
Conjugation of Verbs
10. There are three tenses, two voices, two numbers, and three
persons in the conjugation of Pali verbs.
   1. Vattamaanakaala = Present Tense
   2. Atiitakaala = Past Tense
   3. Anaagatakaala = Future Tense
   1. Kattukaaraka = Active Voice
   2. Kammakaaraka = Passive Voice
   1. Pa.thamapurisa = Third Person
   2. Majjhimapurisa = Second Person
   3. Uttamapurisa = First Person
The first person in English is third in Pali.
Numbers are similar to those of nouns.
11. There is no attempt to conjugate the Continuous, Perfect, and
Perfect Continuous tenses in Pali; therefore only the indefinite forms
are given here.
Conjugation of the Root Paca (to cook)
12. Indicative, Present Active Voice
Person Singular                         Plural
Third    (So) pacati = he cooks         (Te) pacanti = they cook
Second (Tva.m) pacasi = thou cookest (Tumhe) pacatha = you cook
First    (Aha.m) pacaami = I cook       (Maya.m) pacaama = we cook
13. The base bhava (to be) from the root bhuu is similarly conjugated.
 Person Singular                      Plural
 Third    (So) bhavati = he is        (Te) bhavanti = they are
 Second (Tva.m) bhavasi = thou art (Tumhe) bhavatha = you are
 First    (Aha.m) bhavaami = I am (Maya.m) bhavaama = we are
The following are conjugated similarly:-
      gacchati = goes
      ti.t.thati = stands
     nisiidati = sits
     sayati = sleeps
     carati = walks
     dhaavati = runs
     passati = sees
     bhu~njati = eats
     bhaasati = says
     harati = carries
     aaharati = brings
     kii.lati = plays
     vasati = lives
     hanati = kills
     aaruhati = ascends
     hasati = laughs
     yaacati = begs
Exercise 3
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Naraa suriya.m passanti.
  2. Go.naa paasaa.ne ti.t.thanti.
  3. Manusso gaame carati.
  4. Saku.no rukkhe nisiidati.
  5. Buddho dhamma.m bhaasati.
  6. Aha.m diipa.m aaharaami.
  7. Maya.m go.ne haraama.
  8. Sa`ngho gaama.m gacchati.
  9. Tva.m siiha.m passasi.
  10.Bhuupaalaa asse aaruhanti.
  11.Devaa aakaasena gacchanti.
  12.Assaa diipesu dhaavanti.
  13.Tva.m paadehi carasi.
  14.Tumhe hatthehi haratha.
  15.Maya.m loke vasaama.
  16.Sunakhaa vaanarehi ki.lanti.
  17.Puriso ma~nce sayati.
  18.Varaahaa ajehi vasanti.
  19.Siihaa saku.ne hananti.
   20.Sunakhaa gaame caranti.
Translate into Pali
   1. The horse stands on the rock.
   2. The goats walk in the village.
   3. You see the sun.
   4. The moon rises in the sky.
   5. The men sleep in beds.
   6. The oxen run from the lion.
   7. People live in the world.
   8. Thou bringest a lamp.
   9. We live in an island.
   10.Thou art a king.
   11.You see the bird on the tree.
   12.The monkey plays with the pig.
   13.The king kills a lion.
   14.The deity walks in the sky.
   15.Trees are in the island.
   16.He carries the lamp.
   17.We see the body of the man.
   18.We eat with the hands.
The New Pali Course Book 1
Different Conjugations
14. There are seven different conjugations in Pali; they are called
dhaatuga.nas (= groups of roots). The Pali grammarians represent
roots with a final vowel, but it is often dropped or changed before the
conjugational sign. Each dhaatuga.na has one or more different
conjugational signs, which come between the root and the verbal
The seven conjugations and their signs are:
   1. 1st Conjugation = Bhuvaadiga.na: a
   2. 2nd Conjugation = Rudhaadiga.na: `m-a
   3. 3rd Conjugation = Divaadiga.na: ya
   4. 4th Conjugation = Svaadiga.na: .no, .nu, u.naa
   5. 5th Conjugation = Kiyaadiga.na: .naa
   6. 6th Conjugation = Tanaadiga.na: o, yira
   7. 7th Conjugation = Curaadiga.na: e, aya
A great number of roots are included in the first and the seventh
group. The roots paca and bhuu, given above, belong to the first
conjugation. The last vowel of "paca" is dropped before the
conjugation sign a.
The monosyllabic roots like bhuu do not drop their vowel. It is
gu.nated or strengthened before the conjugational sign:
       i or ii strengthened becomes e
       u or uu strengthened becomes o
e.g. Nii + a becomes Ne + a;
Bhuu + a becomes Bho + a
Then e followed by a is changed into ay
and o followed by a is changed into av
e.g. Ne + a becomes naya;
Bho + a becomes bhava
It is not necessary for a beginner to learn how these bases are formed.
But the bases will be given very often for the convenience of the
students. The base is the root with its conjugational sign combined.
The Seventh Conjugation
15. The special feature of the first conjugation is that the last vowel of
the base is strengthened before the First Personal endings.
The same rule is applied for the bases ending with a of the 2nd, 3rd,
6th and 7th conjugations, in addition to their special features.
The bases of the seventh conjugation are of two kinds as it has two
conjugational signs, e.g. from the root paala two bases paale and
paalaya are formed.
Conjugation of Paala (to protect or govern)
Indicative, Present, Active Voice
Base: Paale
                      Person Singular Plural
                      Third    paaleti    paalenti
                      Second paalesi      paaletha
                      First    paalemi paalema
Base: Palaya
                   Person Singular        Plural
                   Third    paalayati    paalayanti
                   Second paalayasi      paalayatha
                   First    paalayaami paalayaama
Some of the similarly conjugated are:
      jaaleti = kindles
      maareti = kills
      oloketi = looks at
      coreti = steals
      deseti = preaches
      cinteti = thinks
      puujeti = offers, respects
      u.d.deti = flies
      pii.leti = oppresses
      udeti = (the sun or moon) rises
      paateti = fells down
      .thapeti = keeps
16. The conjugational sign .naa of the fifth group is shortened in the
Third Person plural.
Base: Vikkina = To sell
                  Person Singular        Plural
                  Third    vikki.naati   vikki.nanti
                  Second vikki.naasi vikki.naatha
                  First    vikki.naami vikki.naama
The following are similarly conjugated:-
      ki.naati = buys
      jaanaati = knows
      su.naati = hears
      jinaati = wins
      mi.naati = measures
      ga.nhaati = takes
      ugga.nhaati = learns
      ocinaati = gathers (together), collects
Exercise 4
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Puttaa dhamma.m ugga.nhanti.
   2. Siiho miga.m maareti.
   3. Vaa.nijassa putto go.ne vikki.naati.
   4. Maya.m vaa.nijamhaa ma~nce ki.naama.
   5. Lekhako mittena magge gacchati.
   6. Daasaa mittaana.m sunakhe haranti.
   7. Kassako go.ne ki.naati.
   8. Kaakaa aakaase u.d.denti.
   9. Vaa.nijaa Buddhassa dhamma.m su.nanti.
   10.Coraa mayuure* corenti.
   11.Aha.m Buddha.m puujemi.
   12.Tva.m diipa.m jaalehi.
   13.Daaso gona.m pii.leti.
   14.Tumhe magge kassaka.m oloketha.
   15.Maya.m dhamma.m jaanaama.
Translate into Pali
   1. The robber steals an ox.
   2. The clerk's son buys a horse.
   3. Merchants sell lamps.
   4. He knows the friend's son.
   5. Boys learn in the village.
   6. Peacocks are on the road.
   7. The slave lights a lamp.
   8. Lions kill deer.
   9. The king governs the island.
   10.Birds fly in the sky.
   11.We see the sons of the merchant.
   12.Look at the hands of the man.
   13.You hear the doctrine of the Buddha.
   14.They respect (or make offerings to) the community.
   15.The monkey teases (or oppresses) the birds.
* Mayuura = peacock.
17. Masculine stems ending in i
Declension of Aggi (Fire)
Case                  Singular                     Plural
                       aggi                 aggi, aggayo
Accusative             aggi.m               aggii, aggayo
Instrumental           agginaa              aggiibhi, aggiihi
Dative, Genitive       aggino, aggissa      aggiina.m
                       agginaa, aggimhaa,   aggiibhi;
                       aggismaa             aggiihii
Locative               aggimhi, aggismi.m   aggiisu
The following are similarly declined:-
      muni = monk
      kavi = poet
      isi = sage; hermit
      ari = enemy
      bhuupati = king
      pati = husband; master
      gahapati = householder
      adhipati = lord; leader
      atithi = guest
      vyaadhi = sickness
      udadhi = ocean
      viihi = paddy
      kapi = monkey
      ahi = serpent
      diipi = leopard
      ravi = sun
      giri = mountain
      ma.ni = gem
      ya.t.thi = stick
      nidhi = hidden treasure
      asi = sword
      raasi = heap
      paa.ni = hand
      kucchi = belly
      mu.t.thi = fist, hammer
     bodhi = Bo-tree
More verbs conjugated like pacati:
     kha.nati = digs
     chindati = cuts
     likhati = writes
     labhati = gets
     aagacchati = comes
     aahi.n.dati = wanders
     vandati = bows down
     paharati = beats
     .dasati = bites
Exercise 5
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Muni dhamma.m bhaasati.
  2. Gahapatayo viihi.m mi.nanti.
  3. Ahi adhipatino hatta.m .dasati.
  4. Isi paa.ninaa ma.ni.m ga.nhaati.
  5. Diipayo girimhi vasanti.
  6. Ari asinaa pati.m paharati.
  7. Kavayo diipamhi nidhi.m kha.nanti.
  8. Tva.m atithiina.m aahaara.m desi.
  9. Tumhe udadhimhi kii.latha.
  10.Vyaadhayo loke manusse piilenti.
  11.Kapi ahino kucchi.m paharati.
  12.Kavino mu.t.thimhi ma.nayo bhavanti.
  13.Ravi girimhaa udeti.
  14.Aha.m viihiina.m raasi.m passaami.
  15.Maya.m gaame aahi.n.daama.
Translate into Pali
  1. Leopards kill deer.
  2. The sage comes from the mountain.
  3. There is* a sword in the enemy's hand.
  4. There are** gems in the householder's fist.
  5. We give food to the guest.
  6. The farmer's sons measure a heap of paddy.
  7. The serpent gets food from the poet.
   8. The monks kindle a fire.
   9. The householder gets a gem from the leader.
   10.The monkeys on the tree strike the leopard.
   11.The leader strikes the enemy with a sword.
   12.The sages look at the sun.
   13.We get paddy from the husband.
   14.The sickness oppresses the sons of the guest.
   15.I see the sun upon the sea.
* There is = bhavati.
** There are = bhavanti.
Past Tense
18. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)
Past Indefinite, Active
Person Singular                   Plural
         (So) apacii, pacii, apaci, (Te) apaci.msu, paci.msu, apacu.m,
         paci = he cooked           pacu.m = they cooked
         (Tva.m) apaco, paco =    (Tumhe) apacittha, pacittha = you
         thou didst cook          cooked
         (Aha.m) apaci.m,         (Maya.m) apacimha, pacimha,
         paci.m = I cooked        apacimhaa, pacimhaa = we cooked
The following are similarly conjugated:-
      gacchi = went
      ga.nhi = took
      dadi = gave
      khaadi = ate
      hari = carried
      kari = did
      aahari = brought
      dhaavi = ran
      ki.ni = bought
      vikki.ni = sold
      nisiidi = sat
      sayi = slept
      aaruhi = ascended; climbed
      acari = walked; travelled
The prefix a is not to be added to the bases beginning with a vowel.
19. The verbs of the seventh group are differently conjugated:
Past Indefinite, Active
Paala (to protect)
  Person Singular               Plural
  Third   paalesi, paalayi      paalesu.m, paalayu.m, paalayi.msu
  Second paalayo                paalayittha
  First   paalesi.m, paalayi.m paalayimha, paalayimhaa
The following are similarly conjugated:-
      maaresi = killed
      jaalesi = kindled
      desesi = preached
      aanesi = brought
      coresi = stole
      puujesi = offered; respected
      nesi = carried
      thapesi = kept
      cintesi = thought
      pii.lesi = oppressed
      kathesi = told
      paatesi = dropped down or felled
Exercise 6
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Munayo ma~ncesu nisiidi.msu.
  2. Aha.m diipamhi acari.m.
  3. Coraa gahapatino nidhi.m coresu.m.
  4. Maya.m bhuupatino asi.m olokayimha.
  5. Tva.m atithino odana.m adado.
  6. Adhipati vaa.nijamhaa ma.nayo ki.ni.
  7. Pati kassaka.m viihii.m yaaci.
  8. Isayo kaviina.m dhamma.m desesu.m.
  9. Kapayo girimhaa rukkha.m dhaavi.msu.
  10.Vaa.nijaa udadhimhi gacchi.msu.
  11.Maya.m maggena gaama.m gacchimha.
   12.Diipi kapi.m maaresi.
   13.Tumhe patino padiipe ga.nhittha.
   14.Aha.m Buddhassa paade puujesi.m.
   15.Kavayo kapiina.m odana.m dadi.msu.
   16.Arayo asii aanesu.m.
   17.Ahi kapino paa.ni.m dasi.
   18.Maya.m girimhaa canda.m passimha.
   19.Tumhe muniina.m aahaara.m adadittha.
   20.Bhuupati nidhayo paalesi.
Translate into Pali
   1. The slave struck the enemy with a sword.
   2. We got food from the householder.
   3. He carried a monkey to the mountain.
   4. The merchants went to the village by the road.
   5. Birds flew to the sky from the tree.
   6. The thieves stole the gems of the king.
   7. I gave food to the sages.
   8. The sons of the poet heard the doctrine from the monk.
   9. I saw the leopard on the road.
   10.The lion killed the deer on the rock.
   11.They saw the mountain on the island.
   12.The boy went to the sea.
   13.The dogs ran to the village.
   14.The merchant bought a horse from the leader.
   15.The guest brought a gem in (his) fist.
   16.The monkey caught the serpent by (its) belly.
   17.The householder slept on a bed.
   18.We dwelt in an island.
   19.The boy struck the monkey with (his) hands.
   20.I saw the king's sword.
N.B. -- The verbs implying motion govern the Accusative; therefore
"to the mountain" in the 3rd, and "to the village" in the 13th must be
translated with the Accusative as: giri.m, gaama.m.
But "to the sages" in the 7th must be in the Dative, because the person
to whom some thing is given is put in the Dative.
The New Pali Course Book 1
Personal Pronouns
20. Two personal pronouns amha and tumha are declined here
because of their frequent usage. There are of the common gender and
have no vocative forms.
      The First Personal "Amha"
Case        Singular                         Plural
Nom.        aha.m = I                        maya.m, amhe = we
                                             amhe, amhaaka.m, no =
Acc.        ma.m, mama.m = me
Ins.        mayaa, me                        amhebhi, amhehi, no
Dat.,       mama, mayha.m, me,
                                             amha.m, amhaaka.m, no
Gen.        mama.m
Abl.        mayaa                            amhebhi, amhehi
Loc.        mayi                             amhesu
        The Second Personal "Tumha"
Case        Singular                     Plural
Nom.        tva.m, tuva.m = thou         tumhe = you
            ta.m, tava.m, tuva.m =       tumhe, tumhaaka.m, vo =
            thee                         you
Ins.        tvayaa, tayaa, te            tumhebhi, tumhehi, vo
            tava, tuyha.m, te            tumha.m, tumhaaka.m, vo
Abl.        tvayaa, tayaa                tumhebhi, tumhehi
Loc.        tvayi, tayi                  tumhesu
N.B. -- Te, me and vo, no should not be used at the beginning of a
Note. -- The word for "not" in Pali is na or no; the word for "is not" or
"has not" is natthi.
Exercise 7
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Aha.m mayha.m puttassa assa.m adadi.m.
  2. Tva.m amhaaka.m gaamaa aagacchasi.
  3. Maya.m tava hatthe passaama.
  4. Mama puttaa giri.m aaruhi.msu.
  5. Tumhaaka.m sunakhaa magge sayi.msu.
  6. Amha.m mittaa cora.m asinaa pahari.msu.
  7. Tumha.m daasaa ariina.m asse hari.msu.
  8. Coro mama puttassa ma.nayo coresi.
  9. Isayo mayha.m gehe na vasi.msu.
  10.Kavi tava puttaana.m dhamma.m desesi.
  11.Amhesu kodho* natthi.
  12.Tumhe vaa.nijassa mayuure ki.nittha.
  13.Maya.m bhuupatino mige vikki.nimha.
  14.Gahapatino putto ma.m pahari.
  15.Adhipatino daasaa mama go.ne pahari.msu.
  16.Aha.m tumhaaka.m viihii na ga.nhi.m.
  17.Diipii gaamamhaa na dhaavi.
  18.Tumhe ahayo na maaretha.
  19.Maya.m atithiina.m odana.m pacimha.
  20.Kapayo ma.m aahaara.m yaaci.msu.
Translate into Pali
  1. I sold my gems to a merchant.
  2. We gave our oxen to the slaves.
  3. You bought a sword from me.
  4. (You) don't beat monkeys with your hands.
  5. The leader brought a lion from the mountain.
  6. The monk preached the doctrine to you.
  7. We gave food to the serpents.
  8. The slaves of the householder carried our paddy.
  9. You did not go to the sea.
  10.There are no gems in my fist.
  11.The poet's son struck the dog with a stick.
  12.Our sons learnt from the sage.
  13.Your monkey fell down from a tree.
  14.My dog went with me to the house.
  15.A serpent bit my son's hand.
  16.The leopard killed a bull on the road.
  17.My friends looked at the lions.
   18.We did not see the king's sword.
   19.I did not go to the deer.
   20.Thou buyest a peacock from the poet.
* kodha = anger (m)
Future Tense
21. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)
Future indicative, Active.
Person Singular                        Plural
Third    (so) pacissati = he will cook (te) pacissanti = they will cook
         (tva.m) pacissasi = thou wilt (tumhe) pacissatha = you will
         cook                          cook
         (aha.m) pacissaami = I shall (maya.m) pacissaama = we
         cook                         shall cook
The following are conjugated similarly:-
      gamissati = he will go
      bhu~njissati = he will eat
      harissati = he will carry
      vasissati = he will live
      dadissati = he will give
      karissati = he will do
      passissati = he will see
      bhaayissati = he will fear
All verbs given in the Present Tense may be changed into Future by
inserting issa between the base and the termination, and dropping
the last vowel of the base, e.g. bhu~nja + ti >> bhu~nj + issa + ti =
22. Declension of masculine nouns ending in ii
Pakkhii (Bird)
Case        Singular                              Plural
            pakkhii                               pakkhii, pakkhino
Acc.        pakkhina.m, pakkhi.m                  pakkhii, pakkhino
Ins.        pakkhinaa                             pakkhiibhi,
Dat., Gen. pakkhino, pakkhissa              pakkhiina.m
           pakkhinaa, pakkhimhaa,           pakkhiibhi,
           pakkhismaa                       pakkhiihi
Loc.       pakkhini, pakkhimhi, pakkhismi.m pakkhiisu
Some of the similarly declined are:-
     hatthii = elephant
     saamii = lord
     ku.t.thii = leper
     daa.thii = tusker
     bhogii = serpent
     paapakaarii = evil-doer
     diighajiivii = possessor of a long live
     se.t.thii = millionaire
     bhaagii = sharer
     sukhii = receiver of comfort, happy
     mantii = minister
     karii = elephant
     sikhii = peacock
     balii = a powerful person
     sasii = moon
     chattii = possessor of an umbrella
     maalii = one who has a garland
     saarathii = charioteer
     ga.nii = one who has a following
Exercise 8
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Mantii hatthina.m aaruhissati.
  2. Maya.m se.t.thino geha.m gamissaama.
  3. Tva.m saamino puttassa kapi.m dadissasi.
  4. Ga.nino sukhino bhavissanti.
  5. Amhaaka.m saamino diighajiivino na bhavanti.
  6. Paapakaarii ya.t.thinaa bhogi.m maaresi.
  7. Mama puttaa se.t.thino gaame vasissanti.
   8. Ku.t.thii saarathino paada.m ya.t.thinaa pahari.
   9. Sikhii chattimhaa bhaayissati.
   10.Saarathii asse gaamamhaa harissati.
   11.Tumhe maaliihi sasina.m olokessatha.
   12.Balii daa.thino kaaya.m chindissati.
   13.Amhaaka.m mantino balino abhavi.msu.
   14.Se.t.thino maalino passissanti.
   15.Maya.m gehe odana.m bhu~njissaama.
Translate into Pali
   1. Our lord went to the minister.
   2. The millionaire will be the possessor of a long life.
   3. Evil-doers will not become* receivers of comfort.
   4. The tusker will strike the leper.
   5. The minister will get a peacock from the lord.
   6. The charioteer will buy horses for the minister**.
   7. My peacocks will live on the mountain.
   8. The serpents will bite the powerful.
   9. The lord's sons will see the lions of the millionaire.
   10.We will buy a deer from the guest.
   11.The elephant killed a man with (its) feet.
   12.You will not be a millionaire.
   13.The king's sons will eat with the ministers.
   14.The monkeys will not fall from the tree.
   15.I will not carry the elephant of the charioteer.
* "will not become" = na bhavissanti.
** Dative must be used here.
23. Declension of masculine nouns ending in u
Garu (teacher)
   Case          Singular                         Plural
   Nom., Voc. garu                                garuu, garavo
   Acc.          garu.m                           garuu, garavo
   Ins.          garunaa                          garuubhi, garuuhi
   Abl.          garunaa, garumhaa, garusmaa garuubhi, garuuhi
   Dat., Gen.    garuno, garussa                  garuuna.m
    Loc.         garumhi, garusmi.m                  garuusu
Some of the similarly declined are:-
      bhikkhu* = monk
      bandhu = relation
      taru = tree
      baahu = arm
      sindhu = sea
      pharasu = axe
      pasu = beast
      aakhu = rat
      ucchu = sugar-cane
      ve.lu = bamboo
      ka.tacchu = spoon
      sattu = enemy
      setu = bridge
      ketu = banner
      susu = young one
* Bhikkhu has an additional form 'bhikkhave' in the vocative plural.
Some nouns of the same ending are differently declined.
24. Bhaatu (brother)
Case       Singular                Plural
Nom.       bhaataa                 bhaataro
Acc.       bhaatara.m              bhaatare, bhaataro
Ins.,                              bhaatarebhi, bhaatarehi,
Abl.                               bhaatuubhi, bhaatuuhi
Dat.,      bhaatu, bhaatuno,       bhaataraana.m, bhaataana.m,
Gen.       bhaatussa               bhaatuuna.m
Loc.       bhaatari                bhaataresu, bhaatusu
Voc.       bhaata, bhaataa         bhaataro
Pitu (father) is similarly declined.
25. Nattu (grandson)
    Case       Singular                     Plural
   Nom.        nattaa                    nattaaro
   Acc.        nattaara.m                nattaare, nattaaro
   Ins., Abl. nattaaraa                  nattaarebhi, nattaarehi
   Dat., Gen. nattu, nattuno, nattussa nattaaraana.m, nattaana.m
   Loc.        nattari                   nattaaresu
   Voc.        natta, nattaa             nattaaro
Some of the similarly declined are:-
      satthu = adviser, teacher
      kattu = doer, maker
      bhattu = husband
      gantu = goer
      sotu = hearer
      netu = leader
      vattu = sayer
      jetu = victor
      vinetu = instructor
      vi~n~naatu = knower
      daatu = giver
26. The prepositions saha (with) and saddhi.m (with) govern the
Instrumental case and are usually placed after the word governed by
them. The Instrumental alone sometimes gives the meaning "with".
The equivalent to the conjunction "and" is ca in Pali. Api or pi also is
sometimes used in the same sense.
The equivalent to "or" is vaa.
Exercise 9
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Bandhavo susuuhi saddhi.m amhaaka.m geha.m aaga missanti.
   2. Sattu pharasunaa tava taravo chindissati.
   3. Garu mayha.m susuuna.m ucchavo adadi.
   4. Bhikkhavo nattaaraana.m dhamma.m desessanti.
   5. Tva.m bandhunaa saha sindhu.m gamissasi.
   6. Assaa ca go.naa ca gaame aahi.n.dissanti.
   7. Tumhe pasavo vaa pakkhii vaa na maaressatha.
   8. Maya.m netaarehi saha satthaara.m puujessaama.
   9. Bhaataa ve.lunaa pakkhi.m maaresi.
   10.Amhaaka.m pitaro sattuuna.m ketavo aahari.msu.
   11.Jetaa daataara.m baahunaa pahari.
   12.Satthaa amhaaka.m netaa bhavissati.
   13.Maya.m pitaraa saddhi.m ve.lavo aaharissaama.
   14.Ahayo aakhavo bhu~njanti.
   15.Mama sattavo setumhi nisiidi.msu.
   16.Amha.m bhaataro ca pitaro ca sindhu.m gacchi.msu.
   17.Aha.m mama bhaataraa saha sikhino vikki.nissaami.
   18.Susavo ka.tacchunaa odana.m aahari.msu.
   19.Gaama.m gantaa taruusu ketavo passissati.
   20.Setu.m kattaa gaamamhaa ve.lavo aahari.
Translate into Pali
   1. I shall cut bamboos with my axe.
   2. The teachers will look at the winner.
   3. They carried sugar-canes for the elephants.
   4. Hearers will come to the monks.
   5. Leopards and lions do not live in villages.
   6. I went to see the adviser with my brother.
   7. Our fathers and brothers were merchants.
   8. My brother's son killed a bird with a stick.
   9. Our relations will buy peacocks and birds.
   10.Monkeys and deer live on the mountain.
   11.He struck my grandon's arm.
   12.Enemies will carry (away) our leader's banner.
   13.Builders of the bridges* bought bamboos from the lord.
   14.Rats will fear from the serpents.
   15.I gave rice to my relation.
   16.The giver brought (some) rice with a spoon.
   17.My father's beasts were on the rock.
   18.Our brothers and grandsons will not buy elephants.
   19.The teacher's son will buy a horse or an ox.
   20.My brother or his son will bring a monkey for the young ones.
* Builders of the bridges = setu.m kattaaro or setuno kattaaro.
27. Adjectival nouns ending in -vantu and -mantu are differently
declined from the above masculine nouns ending in -u.
   1. They are often used as adjectives; but they become substantives
      when they stand alone in the place of the person or the thing
      they qualify.
   2. There are declined in all genders. In the feminine, they change
      their final vowel, e.g. gu.navatii, siilavatii; gu.navantii,
The New Pali Course Book 1
28. Masculine ending in -u
Declension of Gu.navantu (virtuous)
Case    Singular                             Plural
Nom.    gu.navaa
Acc.    gu.navanta.m                         gu.navante
Ins.    gu.navataa, gu.navantena
Dat.,                                        gu.navata.m,
        gu.navato, gu.navantassa
Gen.                                         gu.navantaana.m
        gu.navataa, gu.navantamhaa,          gu.navantebhi,
        gu.navantasmaa                       gu.navantehi
        gu.navati, gu.navante,
Loc.                                         gu.navantesu
        gu.navantamhi, gu.navantasmi.m
Voc.    gu.nava.m, gu.nava, gu.navaa
The following are declined similarly:-
      dhanavantu = rich
      balavantu = powerful
      bhaanumantu = sun
      bhagavantu = the Exalted One, fortunate
      pa~n~navantu = wise
      yasavantu = famous
      satimantu = mindful
      buddhimantu = intelligent
      pu~n~navantu = fortunate
      kulavantu = of high caste
      phalavantu = fruitful
      himavantu = the Himalaya, possessor of ice
      cakkhumantu = possessor of eyes
      siilavantu = virtuous, observant of precepts
      bandhumantu = with many relations
Those ending in -mantu should be declined as: cakkhumaa,
cakkhumanto, cakkhumataa and so on.
29. Declension of masculine nouns ending in uu
Viduu (wise man or knower)
          Case         Singular       Plural
          Nom., Voc. viduu            viduu, viduno
          Acc.         vidu.m         viduu, viduno
          Ins.         vidunaa        viduubhi, viduuhi
          Dat., Gen.   viduno, vidussa viduuna.m
The rest are similar to those of garu.
The following are declined similarly:-
      pabhuu = over-lord
      sabba~n~nuu = the omniscient one
      attha~n~nuu = knower of the meaning
      vada~n~nuu = charitable person
      vi~n~nuu = wise man
      matta~n~nuu = temperate, one who knows the measure
30. Adverbs of time
      kadaa = when?
      tadaa = then
      sadaa = ever, always
      idaani = now
      ajja = today
      suve = tomorrow
      hiiyo = yesterday
      yadaa = when, whenever
      ekadaa = one day, once
     pacchaa = afterwards
     puraa = formerly, in former days
     saaya.m = in the evening
     paato = in the morning
     parasuve = day after tomorrow
     parahiiyo = day before yesterday
Exercise 10
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Bhagavaa ajja sotaaraana.m dhamma.m desessati.
  2. Bhikkhavo bhagavanta.m vandi.msu.
  3. Cakkhumanto sadaa bhaanumanta.m passanti.
  4. Tadaa balavanto ve.luuhi arii pahari.msu.
  5. Kadaa tumhe dhanavanta.m passissatha?
  6. Suve maya.m siilavante vandissaama.
  7. Bhagavanto sabba~n~nuno bhavanti.
  8. Viduno kulavato geha.m gacchi.msu.
  9. Himavati kapayo ca pakkhino ca isayo ca vasi.msu.
  10.Pu~n~navato nattaa buddhimaa bhavi.
  11.Kulavata.m bhaataro dhanavanto na bhavi.msu.
  12.Aha.m Himavantamhi phalavante rukkhe passi.m.
  13.Puraa maya.m Himavanta.m gacchimha.
  14.Hiiyo saaya.m bandhumanto yasavata.m gaama.m gacchi.msu.
  15.Vi~n~nuno pacchaa pabhuno gehe vasissanti
Translate into Pali
  1. Sons of the wealthy are not always wise.
  2. One who has relations does not fear enemies.
  3. The brothers of the virtuous will bow down to the Exalted One.
  4. Your grandsons are not intelligent.
  5. Tomorrow the wise men will preach to the men of the high
  6. Today the rich will go to a mountain in the Himalayas.
  7. There are fruitful trees, lions and leopards in the garden of the
     rich man.
  8. When will the famous men come to our village?
  9. The sons of the powerful will always be famous.
  10.Once, the wise man's brother struck the virtuous man.
   11.Formerly I lived in the house of the over-lord.
   12.Yesterday there were elephants and horses in the garden.
   13.Now the man of high caste will buy a lion and a deer.
   14.Our fathers were mindful.
   15.Once we saw the sun from the rich man's garden.
Declension of Feminine Nouns
31. There are no nouns ending in -a in feminine.
Vanitaa (woman)
      Case       Singular                Plural
      Nom.       vanitaa                 vanitaa, vanitaayo
      Acc.       vanita.m                vanitaa, vanitaayo
      Abl., Ins. vanitaaya               vanitaabhi, vanitaahi
      Dat., Gen. vanitaaya               vanitaana.m
      Loc.       vanitaaya.m, vanitaaya vanitaasu
      Voc.       vanite                  vanitaa, vanitaayo
The following are declined similarly:-
      ka~n~naa = girl
      ga`ngaa = river
      naavaa = ship
      ammaa = mother
      disaa = direction
      senaa = army, multitude
      saalaa = hall
      bhariyaa = wife
      vasudhaa = earth
      vaacaa = word
      sabhaa = society
      daarikaa = girl
      lataa = creeper
      kathaa = speech
      pa~n~naa = wisdom
      va.lavaa = mare
      la`nkaa = Ceylon
      pipaasaa = thirst
      khudaa = hunger
      niddaa = sleep
      puujaa = offering
      parisaa = following, retinue
      giivaa = neck
      jivhaa = tongue
      naasaa = nose
      ja`nghaa = calf of the leg shank
      guhaa = cave
      chaayaa = shadow, shade
      tulaa = scale, balance
      silaa = stone
      vaalukaa = sand
      ma~njuusaa = box
      maalaa = garland
      suraa = liquor, intoxicant
      visikhaa = street
      saakhaa = branch
      sakkharaa = gravel
      devataa = deity
      dolaa = palanquin
      godhaa = iguana
The Imperative
32. The Imperative Mood is used to express command, prayer, advice
or wish. This is called Pa~ncamii in Pali and includes the Benedictive.
Paca (to cook)
Person Singular                            Plural
3rd     (so) pacatu = let him cook         (te) pacantu = let them cook
        (tva.m) paca, pacaahi = cookest
2nd                                     (tumhe) pacatha = cook you
                                           (maya.m) pacaama = let us
1st     (aha.m) pacaami = let me cook
The following are conjugated similarly:-
      hotu = let it be
      pivatu = let him drink
      jayatu = let him conquer
      rakkhatu = let him protect
      .thapetu = let him keep
      bhavatu = let it be
      gacchatu = let him go
      pakkhipatu = let him put in
      bhaasatu = let him say
The Optative or Potential
33. The Potential Mood - called "Sattami" in Pali - expresses
probability, command, wish, prayer, hope, advice and capability. It is
used in conditional or hypothetical sentences in which one statement
depends upon another.
Verbs containing auxiliary parts may, might, can, could, should and
would are included in this mood.
Paca (to cook)
Case Singular                          Plural
      (So) paceyya = if he (would)     (Te) paceyyu.m = if they
      cook                             (would) cook
      (Tva.m) paceyyaasi = if thou     (Tumhe) paceyyaatha = if you
      (wouldst) cook                   (would) cook
      (Aha.m) paceyyaami = if I        (Maya.m) paceyyaama = if we
      (would) cook                     (would) cook
The following are conjugated similarly:-
      bhu~njeyya (if he eats)
      nahaayeyya (if he bathes)
      katheyya (if he says)
      aahareyya (if he brings)
      .thapeyya (if he keeps)
      bhaveyya (if he becomes; if he would be)
Note. Equivalents to "if" are sace, yadi and ce; but ce should not be
used at the beginning of a sentence.
Exercise 11
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Vanitaayo naavaahi ga`ngaaya.m gacchantu.
   2. Tva.m saalaaya.m ka~n~naana.m odana.m pacaahi.
   3. Sace tumhe nahaayissatha, aha.m pi nahaayissaami.
   4. Yadi so sabhaaya.m katheyya, aha.m pi katheyyaami.
   5. La`nkaaya bhuupatino senaayo jayantu.
   6. Devataa vasudhaaya.m manusse rakkhantu.
   7. Sace te vaaluka.m aahareyyu.m aha.m (ta.m) ki.nissaami.
   8. Tumhe daarikaaya hatthe maala.m .thapetha.
   9. Saalaaya chaayaa vasudhaaya patati.
   10.Coraa ma~njuusaayo guha.m hari.msu.
   11.Ka~n~naayo godha.m sakkharaahi pahari.msu.
   12.Hatthii so.n.daaya taruno saakha.m chindi.
   13.Sace maya.m guhaaya.m sayeyyaama pasavo no haneyyu.m.
   14.Tumhe mittehi saha sura.m maa pivatha*.
   15.Maya.m parisaaya saddhi.m odana.m bhu~njissaama.
   16.Bhaanumato pabhaa sindhumi bhavatu.
   17.Daarikaa ka~n~naaya naasaaya.m sakkhara.m pakkhipi.
   18.Tumhe parisaahi saddhi.m mama katha.m su.naatha.
   19.Amhaaka.m ammaa dolaaya gaama.m agacchi.
   20.Sace tva.m va.lava.m ki.neyyaasi, aha.m assa.m ki.nissaami.
* Maa pivatha = do not drink. Particle maa should be used in such a
place instead of na.
Translate into Pali
   1. The robber carried the box to the cave.
   2. Go to your village with your mothers.
   3. Let the women go along the river in a ship.
   4. If he buys a deer I will sell my mare.
   5. We heard the speech of the girl at the meeting.
   6. We utter words with our tongues.
   7. Do not strike the iguana with pebbles.
   8. May my following be victorious in the island of La`nkaa.
   9. May our offerings be to the wise.
   10.Adorn* the maiden's neck with a garland.
   11.The shadow of the creeper falls on the earth.
   12.The woman brought a scale from the hall.
   13.Do not drink liquor with girls and boys.
   14.If you will cook rice I will give food to the woman.
   15.May the deities protect our sons and grandsons.
   16.The girls brought sand from the street.
   17.My following cut the branches of the tree.
   18.Let the elephant bring a stone to the street.
   19.The beasts will kill him if he will sit in the cave.
   20.There are gems in the maiden's box.
* Adorn -- ala.nkarohi.
34. Declension of feminine stems ending in -i
Bhuumi (earth, ground or floor)
   Case          Singular                     Plural
   Nom., Voc. bhuumi                          bhuumi, bhuumiyo
   Acc.          bhuumi.m                     bhuumi, bhuumiyo
   Abl., Ins.    bhuumiyaa, bhuumyaa          bhuumiibhi, bhuumiihi
   Dat., Gen.    bhuumiyaa                    bhuumiina.m
   Loc.          bhuumiya.m, bhuumiyaa bhuumiisu
The following are declined similarly:-
      ratti = night
      a.tavi = forest
      do.ni = boat
      asani = thunder-bolt
      kitti = fame
      yuvati = maiden
      sati = memory
      mati = wisdom
      khanti = patience
      a`nguli = finger
      patti = infantry
      vu.t.thi = rain
      ya.t.thi = (walking) stick
      naa.li = corn-measure
      dundubhi = drum
      dhuuli = dust
      vuddhi = increase, progress
35. Declension of feminine stems ending in -ii
Kumaarii (girl, damsel)
  Case         Singular                  Plural
  Nom., Voc. kumaarii                    kumaarii, kumaariyo
  Acc.         kumaari.m                 kumaarii, kumaariyo
  Abl., Ins.   kumaariyaa                kumaariibhi, kumaariihi
  Dat., Gen.   kumaariyaa                kumaariina.m
  Loc.         kumaariya.m, kumaariyaa kumaariisu
The following are declined similarly:-
      naarii = woman
      taru.nii = young woman
      raajinii = queen
      itthii = woman
      sakhii = woman-friend
      braahma.nii = brahman woman
      bhaginii = sister
      daasii = slave woman
      devii = queen, goddess
      saku.nii = bird (female)
      migii = deer (female)
      siihii = lioness
      kukku.tii = hen
      kaakii = she-crow
      nadii = river
      vaapii = tank
      pokkhara.nii = pond
      kadalii = plantain
      gaavii = cow
      mahii = earth, the river of that name
      hatthinii = she-elephant
Absolutives or so-called Indeclinable Past Participles
36. The words ending in tvaa, tvaana, tuuna and ya, like katvaa
(having done), gantvaana (having gone), and aadaaya (having taken),
are called Absolutives, which cannot be declined. All other
participles, being verbal adjectives, are declined.
Some European Pali scholars have called them "gerunds"; but, as the
Past Participles may be used in their place without affecting the
sense, they resemble more in the Active Past Participle, e.g.,
In the sentence: So gaama.m gantvaa bhatta.m bhu~nji (Having gone
to the village, he ate rice)...
... "gantvaa" may be replaced by Past Participle gato.
In analysing a sentence, these go to the extension of the predicate,
which in fact shows that they are neither gerunds nor participles.
       pacitvaa = having cooked
       bhu~njitvaa = having eaten
       pivitvaa = having drunk
       sayitvaa = having slept
       .thatvaa = having stood
       pacituuna = having cooked
       aadaaya = having taken
       vidhaaya = having commanded or done
       pahaaya = having left
       nahaatvaa = having bathed
       kii.litvaa = having played
       okkamma = having gone aside
A. Tvaa, tvaana and tuuna may be optionally used, and they are
added to the base by means of a connection vowel i, when the base is
not ending in a long aa.
B. "Ya" is mostly added to the roots compounded with prefixes, e.g.
aa + daa + ya = aadaaya, vi + dhaa + ya = vidhaaya.
In other cases it is sometimes assimilated with the last consonant of
the base or sometimes interchanged with it, e.g.,
(1) Assimilated:
aa + gam + ya = aagamma (having come)
ni + kham + ya = nikkhamma (having come out)
(2) Interchanged:
aa + ruh + ya = aaruyha (having ascended)
pa + gah + ya = paggayha (having raised up)
o + ruh + ya = oruyha (having descended)
Exercise 12
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Braahma.nii kumaariyaa saddhi.m nadiya.m nahaatvaa geha.m
   2. Naariyo odana.m pacitvaa bhu~njitvaa kukku.tiina.m pi
   3. Kumaariyo sakhiihi saha vaapi.m gantvaa nahaayissanti.
   4. Raajinii diipaa nikkhamma naavaaya gamissati.
   5. Vaanarii itthiyo passitvaa taru.m aaruyha nisiidi.
   6. Taru.nii hatthehi saakha.m aadaaya aaka.d.dhi*.
   7. Tumhe vaapi.m taritvaa** a.tavi.m pavisatha***.
   8. Diipayo a.taviisu .thatvaa migii maaretvaa khaadanti.
   9. Yuvatiina.m pitaro a.taviyaa aagamma bhu~njitvaa sayi.msu.
   10.Hatthinii pokkhara.ni.m oruyha nahaatvaa kadaliyo khaadi.
   11.Siihii migi.m maaretvaa susuuna.m dadissati.
   12.Gaaviyo bhuumiya.m sayitvaa u.t.thahitvaa**** a.tavi.m
   13.Mama maatulaanii puttassa dundubhi.m aanessati.
   14.Saku.nii mahiya.m aahi.n.ditvaa aahaara.m labhati.
   15.Kaakii taruno saakhaasu nisiiditvaa ravitvaa***** aakaasa.m
* Pulled; dragged.
** Having crossed.
*** (you) enter.
**** Having risen.
***** Having crowed or having made a noise.
Translate into Pali
   1. Having killed a deer in the forest the lioness ate it.
   2. Having gone to the village the brahman woman bought a hen
   3. The damsels went to the tank, and having bathed and played
      there, came home.
   4. The she-monkey, having climbed the tree, sat on a branch.
   5. The brothers of the girl, having played and bathed, ate rice.
   6. Sisters of the boys, having bought garlands, adorned the neck
      of the queen.
    7. Having crossed the river, the she-elephant ate plantain (trees)
       in the garden of a woman.
    8. Having brought a boat, our sisters will cross the tank and enter
       the forest.
    9. Having cooked rice for the father, the maiden went to the pond
       with her (female) friends.
    10.Having come from the wood, the damsel's father fell on the
    11.The cows and oxen of the millionaire, having drunk from the
       tank, entered the forest.
    12.Having bought a drum, the woman's sister gave (it) to her
    13.Having gone to the forest along the river, our brothers killed a
    14.The queen, having come to the king's tank, bathed there* with
       her retinue and walked in the garden.
    15.The she-crow, having sat on the branch slept there* after
* There = tattha.
** "Ravitvaa" may be used for "after crowing".
The New Pali Course Book 1
37. Feminine nouns ending in -u
Dhenu (cow [of any kind])
     Case         Singular                 Plural
     Nom., Voc. dhenu                      dhenuu, dhenuyo
     Acc.         dhenu.m                  dhenuu, dhenuyo
     Abl., Ins.   dhenuyaa                 dhenuubhi, dhenuuhi
     Dat., Gen.   dhenuyaa                 dhenuuna.m
     Loc.         dhenuya.m, dhenuyaa dhenuusu
Some of the similarly declined are:-
     yaagu = rice gruel
     kaasu = pit
     vijju = lightning
     rajju = rope
     daddu = eczema
     kacchu = itch
     ka.neru = she-elephant
     dhaatu = element
     sassu = mother-in-law
38. Maatu is differently declined from the above.
Maatu (mother)
Case         Singular         Plural
Nom.         maataa           maataro
Acc.         maatara.m        maatare, maataro
             maataraa,        maatarebhi, maaterehi, maatuubbhi,
Abl., Ins.
             (maatuyaa)       maatuuhi
Dat.,                         maataraana.m, maataana.m,
Gen.                          maatuuna.m
Loc.         maatari          maataresu, maatusu
             maata, maataa,
Voc.                          maataro
Dhiitu (daughter) and duhitu (daughter) are declined like maatu.
39. Adverbs of Place
     tattha = there
     ettha = here
     idha = here
     upari = up, over
     tiriya.m = across
     kattha = where?
     tatra = there
     kuhi.m = where?
     anto = inside
     antaraa = between
     sabbattha = everywhere
     ekattha = in one place
     kuto = from where?
     tato = from there
Exercise 13
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Daasiyaa maataa dhenu.m rajjuyaa bandhitvaa aanesi.
   2. Mayha.m maatulaanii yaagu.m pacitvaa dhiitaraana.m
   3. Ka.neruyo a.taviya.m aahi.n.ditvaa tattha kaasuusu pati.msu.
   4. Dhanavatiyaa sassu idha aagamma bhikkhuu vandissati.
   5. Raajiniyaa dhiitaro aaraama.m gantvaa satthaara.m maalaahi
   6. Ka~n~naana.m pitaro dhiitaraana.m vuddhi.m icchanti.
   7. Kuto tva.m dhenuyo ki.nissasi?
   8. Kattha tava bhaginiyo nahaayitvaa pacitvaa bhu~nji.msu?
   9. Te gehassa ca rukkhassa ca antaraa kii.li.msu.
   10.Naariyaa duhitaro gehassa anto ma~ncesu sayissanti.
   11.Dhiituyaa ja`nghaaya.m daddu atthi.
   12.Yuvatii maalaa pilandhitvaa sassuyaa geha.m gamissati.
   13.Amhaaka.m maataraana.m gaaviyo sabbattha caritvaa
      bhu~njitvaa saaya.m ekattha sannipatanti*.
   14.Dhanavatiyaa nattaaro magge tiriya.m dhaavitvaa a.tavi.m
      pavisitvaa niliiyi.msu**.
   15.Asani rukkhassa upari patitvaa saakhaa chinditvaa taru.m
* Sannipatati = assembles; comes together.
** Niliiyati = hides oneself.
Translate into Pali
   1. The girl's mother gave a garland to the damsel.
   2. Having tied the cows with ropes the woman dragged (them) to
      the forest.
   3. Having wandered everywhere in the island, the damsel's sister
      came home and ate (some) food.
   4. Where does your mother's sister live?
   5. My sister's daughters live in one place.
   6. When will they come to the river?
   7. The queen's mother-in-law came* here yesterday and went
      back** today.
   8. Having bathed in the tank, the daughters of the rich woman
      walked across the garden.
   9. Our aunts will cook* rice-gruel and drink it with women
   10.The cows of the mother-in-law walk between the rock and the
   11.When will your mothers and daughters go to the garden and
      hear the words of the Buddha?
   12.From where did you bring the elephant?
   13.Sons of the queen went* along the river*** to a forest and there
      fell in a pit.
   14.There is itch on the hand of the sister.
   15.The thunder-bolt fell* on a rock and broke it into two****.
* Use absolutives like gantvaa.
** Went back = pa.tinivatti or paccaayami.
*** Along the river = nadi.m anu or nadii passena.
**** Breaks into two = dvidhaa bhindati.
Neuter Gender
40. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a
Nayana (eye)
  Case Singular                                Plural
  Nom. nayana.m                                nayanaa, nayanaani
  Acc.   nayana.m                              nayanaa, nayanaani
  Ins.   nayanena                              nayanebhi, nayanehi
  Dat.   nayanaaya, nayanassa                  nayanaana.m
  Abl.   nayanaa, nayanamhaa, nayanasmaa nayanebhi, nayanehi
  Gen. nayanassa                               nayanaana.m
  Loc.   nayane, nayanamhi, nayanasmi.m        nayanesu
  Voc.   nayana, nayanaa                       nayanaani
The following are declined similarly:-
      dhana = wealth
      phala = fruit
      daana = charity, alms
      siila = precept, virtue
      pu~n~na = merit, good action
paapa = sin
ruupa = form, image
sota = ear
ghaana = nose
pii.tha = chair
vadana = face, mouth
locana = eye
mara.na = death
ceti = shrine
paduma = lotus
pa.n.na = leaf
susaana = cemetery
aayudha = weapon
amata = ambrosia
ti.na = grass
udaka = water
jala = water
pulina = sand
sopaa.na = stair
hadaya = heart
ara~n~na = forest
vattha = cloth
suva.n.na = gold
sukha = comfort
dukkha = trouble, pain
muula = root, money
kula = family, caste
kuula = bank (of a river, etc.)
bala = power, strength
vana = forest
puppha = flower
citta = mind
chatta = umbrella
a.nda = egg
kaara.na = reason
~naa.na = wisdom
khiira = milk
       nagara = city
The Infinitive
41. The sign of the infinitive is -tu.m. It is used as in English:
       pacitu.m = to cook
       pivitu.m = to drink
       bhottu.m or bhu~njitu.m = to eat
       laddhu.m or labhitu.m = to get
       daatu.m = to give
       paatu.m = to drink
       gantu.m = to go
       kaatu.m = to do
       haritu.m = to carry
       aaharitu.m = to bring
Tu.m is simply added to the roots of one syllable to form the
infinitive. An extra -i- is added before tu.m in the case of the bases
consisting of more than one syllable.
Exercise 14
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Dhanavanto bhaataraana.m dhana.m daatu.m na icchanti.
   2. Daana.m datvaa siila.m rakkhitvaa sagge* nibbattitu.m**
   3. Kumaarii alaata.m aanetvaa bhatta.m pacitu.m aggi.m
   4. Naariyo nagaraa nikkhamma udaka.m paatu.m vaapiyaa
       kuula.m gacchi.msu.
   5. Nattaaro ara~n~naa phalaani aaharitvaa khaaditu.m
   6. Siilavaa isi dhamma.m desetu.m pii.the nisiidi.
   7. Coro aayudhena paharitvaa mama pituno a`nguli.m chindi.
   8. Yuvatiyo padumaani ocinitu.m***** nadi.m gantvaa kuule
   9. Maya.m chattaani aadaaya susaana.m gantvaa pupphaani
   10.Ka~n~naa vattha.m aanetu.m aapa.na.m gamissati.
   11.Tumhe vana.m gantvaa gaaviina.m daatu.m pa.n.naani
   12.Maya.m locanehi ruupaani passitvaa sukha.m dukkha.m ca
   13.Tva.m sotena su.nitu.m ghaa.nena ghaayitu.m****** ca sakkosi.
   14.Kukku.tiyaa a.n.daani rukkhassa muule santi.
   15.Viduno amata.m labhitvaa mara.na.m na bhaayanti.
   16.Manussaa cittena cintetvaa******* pu~n~naani karissanti.
   17.Tumhe dhamma.m sotu.m aaraama.m gantvaa puline
   18.Dhanavanto suva.n.na.m datvaa ~naa.na.m laddhu.m na
   19.Daarako chatta.m ga.nhitu.m******** sopaa.na.m aaruhi.
   20.Mama bhaginii pu~n~na.m labhitu.m siila.m rakkhissati.
* Sagga = heaven.
** To be born.
*** Are able.
**** Began.
***** To gather, to collect.
****** To smell.
******* Having thought.
******** To take.
Translate into Pali
   1. The boys went to the foot of the tree to eat fruits.
   2. The maiden climbed the tree to gather flowers.
   3. I went into the house to bring an umbrella and a cloth.
   4. The girl asked for a fire-brand to make a fire.
   5. We are able to see objects (=forms) with our eyes.
   6. You smell with your nose and hear with your ears.
   7. Having gone to hear the doctrine, they sat on the sand.
   8. People are not able to purchase wisdom with (their) gold.
   9. Having divided* his wealth the rich man gave (them) to his
       sons and daughters.
   10.The maidens went out of the city (in order) to bathe in the river.
   11.There were umbrellas in the hands of the women on the road.
   12.Having struck her with a weapon, the enemy wounded** the
       hand of my mother-in-law.
   13.Having gone to the garden they brought flowers and fruits for
       the boys.
   14.He will go to the forest in order to bring leaves and grass for
      the cows.
   15.The girls and boys brought lotuses from the pond (in order) to
      offer to the shrine.
   16.Having bathed in the tank, our sisters and brothers came home
      to eat and sleep.
   17.Having seen a leopard the boy ran across the garden and
      crossed*** the river.
   18.You get merit through charity and virtue.
   19.Having grazed (eaten grass) in the cemetery, my aunt's cows
      went to the tank in order to drink water.
   20.The maidens bought flowers in order to make**** garlands for
      (their) sisters.
* Bhaajetvaa.
** Va.nita.m akasi.
*** Tari.
**** Kaatu.m; pa.tiyaadetu.m.
42. Neuter nouns ending in -i
A.t.thi (bone, seed)
 Case         Singular                              Plural
 Nom., Voc. a.t.thi                                 a.t.thii, a.t.thiini
 Acc.         a.t.thi.m                             a.t.thii, a.t.thiini
 Ins.         a.t.thinaa                            a.t.thiibhi, a.t.thiihi
 Dat., Gen.   a.t.thino, a.t.thissa                 a.t.thiina.m
 Abl.         a.t.thinaa, a.t.thimhaa, a.t.thismaa a.t.thiibhi, a.t.thiihi
 Loc.         a.t.thini, a.t.thimhi, a.t.thismi.m   a.t.thisu, a.t.thiisu
The following are similarly declined:
      vaari = water
      akkhi = eye
      sappi = ghee
      dadhi = curd
      acci = flame
      satthi = thigh
43. Neuter nouns ending in -u
Cakkhu (eye)
          Case         Singular     Plural
          Nom., Voc. cakkhu         cakkhuu, cakkhuuni
          Acc.         cakkhu.m cakkhuu, cakkhuuni
          Ins.         cakkhunaa cakkhuubhi, cakkhuuhi
The rest are similar to those of garu.
The following are declined similarly:-
      aayu = age
      dhanu = bow
      madhu = honey
      assu = tear
      jaanu, ja.n.nu = knee
      daaru = firewood
      ambu = water
      tipu = lead
      vasu = wealth
      vapu = body
      vatthu = ground, base
      jatu = sealing wax
44. Some more particles
Particles, named avyaya in Pali, consists of adverbs, conjunctions,
prepositions, indeclinable past participles ending in tvaa, tvaana,
tuuna and ya, and infinitives.
      aama = yes
      eva.m = thus, yes
      addhaa = certainly
      vaa, athavaa = or
      puna = again
      tathaa = in that way
      saki.m = once
      sanika.m = slowly
      siigha.m = quickly, soon
      purato = in the front of, before
      yaava, taava = till then, so long
      naanaa = separately
      vinaa = without
      katha.m = how?
      kasmaa = why?
Exercise 15
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Maya.m gaaviyaa khiira.m, khiiramhaa dadhi.m, dadhimhaa
      sappi~n ca labhaama.
   2. Maataa dhiituyaa akkhiisu assuuni disvaa (tassaa)* vadana.m
      vaarinaa dhovi.
   3. Kasmaa tva.m ajja vaapi.m gantvaa puna nadi.m gantu.m
   4. Katha.m tava bhaataro nadiyaa padumaani ocinitvaa
   5. Addhaa te dhanuuni aadaaya vana.m pavisitvaa miga.m
      maaretvaa aanessanti.
   6. Amhaaka.m pitaro tadaa vanamhaa madhu.m aaharitvaa
      dadhinaa saha bhu~nji.msu.
   7. Maya.m suve tumhehi** vinaa ara~n~na.m gantvaa daaruuni
   8. Kumaaraa siigha.m dhaavitvaa vaapiya.m kiilitvaa sanika.m
      gehaani agami.msu.
   9. Tumhe khiira.m pivitu.m icchatha, athavaa dadhi.m
   10.Yaava mayha.m pitaa nahaayissati taava aha.m idha ti.t.thaami.
   11.Yathaa bhuupati aa.naapeti tathaa tva.m kaatu.m icchasi?
   12.Aama, aha.m bhuupatino vacana.m atikkamitu.m**** na
* Of her.
** Ablative must be used with "vinaa".
*** Bha~njati = breaks.
**** To surpass.
Translate into Pali
   1. Do you like to drink milk or to eat curd?
   2. First* I will drink gruel and then eat curd with honey.
   3. Go quickly to the market to bring some ghee.
    4. Having bathed in the sea why do you like to go again there
    5. Do you know how our fathers gathered honey from the forests?
    6. I will stay on the river bank till you cross the river and come
    7. My mother-in-law went to the city without her retinue and
       returned with a sister.
    8. The millionaire fell on (his) knees** before the king and bowed
       down at his feet.
    9. Is your horse able to run fast?
    10.Yes, certainly it will run fast.
    11.Having gone to the forest, with bows in hands, our brothers
       killed an elephant and cut its tasks.
    12.Why does your father walk slowly on the sand?
* Pa.thama.m, adv.
** Jaanuuhi patitvaa (don't use the locative).
The New Pali Course Book 1
Classification of Nouns
45. Nouns are divided into 5 classes, viz:-
    1. Naamanaama = substantives and proper nouns
    2. Sabbanaama = pronouns
    3. Samaasanaama = compound nouns
    4. Taddhitanaama = derivatives from nouns or substantives
    5. Kitakanaama = verbal derivatives
[3] Compound nouns are formed by the combination of two or more
words, e.g.,
       niiluppala = blue water-lily
       raajaputta = king's son
       hattha-paada-siisaani = hands, feet and the head
[4] Verbal derivatives, otherwise called Primary Derivatives, are
formed from the verbal root itself by adding suffixes, e.g.,
       paca (to cook) + .na = paaka (cooking)
       daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver)
       nii (to lead) + tu = netu (leader)
[5] Taddhita nouns or Secondary Derivatives are formed from a
substantive or primary derivative by adding another suffix to it, e.g.,
      naavaa (ship) + ika (in the meaning of engaged) = naavika
[1] The first group of this classification includes concrete, common,
proper, and abstract nouns other than that of Primary and Secondary
46. Pronouns admit of all genders as they stand for every person or
thing which are in different genders. They become adjectives when
they qualify other nouns. They have no vocative forms.
Declension of relative pronoun ya (which, who)
           Case        Singular              Plural
           Nom.        yo                    ye
           Acc.        ya.m                  ye
           Ins.        yena                  yebhi, yehi
           Dat., Gen. yassa                  yesa.m, yesaana.m
           Abl.        yamhaa, yasmaa yebhi, yehi
           Loc.        yamhi, yasmi.m yesu
         Case        Singular               Plural
         Nom.        yaa                    yaa, yaayo
         Acc.        ya.m                   yaa, yaayo
         Ins., Abl. yaaya                   yaabhi, yaahi
         Dat., Gen. yassaa, yaaya           yaasa.m, yaasaanaa.m
         Loc.        yassa.m, yaaya.m yaasu
                       Case Singular Plural
                       Nom. ya.m            ye, yaani
                       Acc.     ya.m        ye, yaani
The rest is similar to that of masculine.
Similarly declined are:
       sabba = all
       pubba = former, eastern
       itara = the other
       a~n~natara = certain
       a~n~na = other, another
       katara = which (of the two)
       katama = which (of the many)
       apara = other, western
       ubhaya = both
       para = other, the latter
       ka (ki.m) = who, which
Adjectives (Pronominal)
47. Adjectives in Pali are not treated separately from nouns, as they
take all the inflections of the nouns. Almost all pronouns become
adjectives when they are used before a substantive of the same
gender, number and case. They are pronouns when they stand alone
in a sentence. This difference will become clear from the following
Exercise 16
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Sabbesa.m nattaaro pa~n~navanto na bhavanti.
   2. Sabbaa itthiyo vaapiya.m nahaatvaa padumaani pi.landhitvaa
   3. A~n~no vaa.nijo sabba.m dhana.m yaacakaana.m datvaa
       geha.m pahaaya pabbaji*.
   4. Maataa ubhayaasa.m pi dhiitaraana.m vatthaani ki.nitvaa
   5. Ko nadiyaa vaapiyaa ca antaraa dhenu.m harati?
   6. Kassa putto dakkhi.na.m disa.m gantvaa viihi.m aaharissati?
   7. Ye paapaani karonti te niraye** nibbattitvaa dukkha.m
   8. Kaasa.m dhiitaro vanamhaa daaruuni aaharitvaa odana.m
   9. Katarena maggena so puriso nagara.m gantvaa bha.n.daani**
   10.Itaraa daarikaa vanitaaya hatthaa pupphaani gahetvaa cetiya.m
   11.Paresa.m dhana.m dha~n~na.m vaa ga.nhitu.m maa cintetha.
   12.Aparo a~n~nissa.m vaapiya.m nahaatvaa pubbaaya disaaya
       nagara.m paavisi***.
* Left the household life; became a monk.
** Bha.n.da = (n) goods.
*** Entered.
Translate into Pali
   1. All entered the city (in order) to see gardens, houses and
   2. The daughters of all the women in the village walked along the
       path to the shrine.
   3. Another maiden took a lotus and gave (it) to the farmer.
   4. Which man will bring some milk for me?
   5. Who stands on the bank of the river and looks in the southern
   6. Sons of all rich men do not always become wealthy.
   7. Whose grandsons brought the cows here and gave (them) grass
       to eat?
   8. Tomorrow, all women in the city will come out from there and
       wander in the forest.
   9. The other woman, having seen a leopard on the street, ran
       across the garden.
   10.Whosoever* acquires merit through charity will be born in
   11.A certain man brought lotuses from the pond, another man
       carried (them) to the market to sell.
   12.My brother's son broke the branches of the other tree (in order)
       to gather flowers, leaves and fruits.
* Yo koci.
48. Declension of demonstrative pronoun ta (that)
Case      Singular                   Plural
Nom.      so (he)                    te (they)
Acc.       ta.m, na.m (him)              te, ne (them)
           tena (by, with or through tebhi, tehi (by, with or through
           him)                      them)
           tassa (to him, his)           tesa.m, tesaana.m
Abl.       tamhaa, tasmaa                tebhi, tehi
Loc.       tamhi, tasmi.m                tesu
         Case         Singular          Plural
         Nom.         saa (she)         taa, taayo (those women)
         Acc.         ta.m, na.m (her) taa, taayo (them)
         Ins., Abl. taaya               taabhi, taahi
         Dat., Gen. tassaa, taayo       taasa.m, taasaana.m
         Loc.         tassa.m, taaya.m taasu
                Case Singular Plural
                Nom. ta.m (it) te, taani (those things)
                Acc.     ta.m (it) te, taani (those things)
The rest is similar to that of the masculine.
Eta (that or this) is declined like ta. One has only to prefix an "e" to
the forms of ta, e.g. eso, ete, eta.m, ena.m, and so on.
49. Declension of demonstrative pronoun ima (this)
Case       Singular                    Plural
Nom.       aya.m = this (man)          ime = these (men)
Acc.       ima.m                       ime
Ins.       anena, iminaa               ebhi, ehi, imebhi, imehi
Dat.,      assa, imassa                esa.m, esaana.m, imesa.m,
Gen.                                  imesaana.m
           asmaa, imamhaa,
Abl.                                  ebhi, ehi, imebhi, imehi
           asmi.m, imamhi,
Loc.                                  esu, imesu
Case       Singular                           Plural
                                              imaa, imaayo = these
Nom.       aya.m = this (woman)
Acc.       ima.m                              imaa, imaayo
           imaaya                             imaabhi, imaahi
Dat.,      assaa, assaaya, imissaa,
                                              imaasa.m, imaasaana.m
Gen.       imissaaya, imaaya
Loc.       assa.m, imissa.m, imaaya.m         imaasu
    Case Singular                       Plural
    Nom. ida.m, ima.m = this (thing) ime, imaani = these (things)
    Acc.   ida.m, ima.m                 ime, imaani
The rest is similar to that of the masculine.
Exercise 17
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Aya.m siiho tamhaa vanamhaa nikkhamma imasmi.m magge
      .thatvaa eka.m itthi.m maaresi.
  2. So taasa.m yuvatiina.m taani vatthaani vikki.nitvaa taasa.m
      santikaa* muula.m labhissati.
  3. Imissaa dhiitaro tamhaa vanamhaa imaani phalaani
      aahari.msu, a~n~naa naariyo taani khaaditu.m ga.nhi.msu.
  4. Imaa sabbaa yuvatiyo ta.m aaraama.m gantvaa dhamma.m
      sutvaa Buddha.m padumehi puujessanti.
   5. Ime manussaa yaani pu~n~nani vaa paapaani vaa karonti taani
       te anugacchanti***.
   6. Tassaa ka~n~naaya maataa dakkhi.naaya disaaya ima.m
       gaama.m aagantvaa idha cira.m**** vasissati.
   7. Tassa nattaa imassa bhaataraa saddhi.m
       Ko.lambanagara.m***** gantvaa taani bhan.daani vikki.nissati.
   8. Taa naariyo etaasa.m sabbaasa.m kumaariina.m hatthesu
       padumaani .thapesu.m******, taa taani haritvaa cetiya.m
   9. Tassaa raajiniyaa etaa daasiyo imehi rukkhehi pupphaani
       ocinitvaa imaa maalaayo kari.msu.
   10.Kesa.m so ima.m dhana.m datvaa sukha.m labhissati?
   11.Yo magge gacchati, tassa putto sura.m pivitvaa ettha sayati.
   12.Ke ta.m khetta.m******* gantvaa ti.na.m aaharitvaa imaasa.m
       gaaviina.m datvaa khiira.m labhitu.m icchanti?
* Santika = near (but here: taasa.m santikaa = from them).
** Muula (n) money, cash.
*** Anugacchati = follows.
**** Cira.m (m) for a long time.
***** Ko.lambanagara = Colombo.
****** 3rd person plural of the Past Tense.
******* Khetta (n) field.
Translate into Pali
   1. A certain man having gone to that cemetery gathered those
       flowers and brought them here.
   2. This lioness having come out from those forest killed a cow in
       this place*.
   3. The husband of that woman bought these clothes from that
       market and gave them to his grandsons.
   4. Whose servants will go to Colombo to buy goods for you and
   5. Tomorrow his brothers will go to that forest and collect honey
       and fruits.
   6. Her sisters went to that field (in order) to bring grass for these
   7. I got these lotuses and flowers from a certain woman of that
   8. Today all maidens of this city will go to that river and will
      bathe in it.
   9. They brought those goods to a merchant in that market.
   10.Having sold those cows to the merchants, they bought clothes,
      garlands and umbrellas with that money.
   11.Who are those men that** killed a lion yesterday in this forest?
   12.Which woman stole her garland and ran through this street?
* Place = .thaana (n).
** Use the relative pronoun "ya".
The Verbal Adjectives or Participles
50. Participles are a kind of adjectives formed from the verbal bases.
Like verbs they are divided into Present, Past and Future; and each
group is again divided into Active and Passive. Being adjectives they
are declined in all the genders.
The Present Active Participles are formed by adding "nta" or "maana"
to the verbal base, e.g.,
      gaccha + nta = gacchanta = going
      gaccha + maana = gacchamaana = going
      paca + nta = pacanta = cooking
      paca + maana = pacamaana = cooking
51. Declension of the Present Participle
Gacchanta (going)
Case     Singular                               Plural
Nom.     gaccha.m, gacchanto
Acc.     gacchanta.m                            gacchante
Ins.     gacchataa, gacchantena
Dat.,                                           gacchata.m,
         gacchato, gacchantassa
Gen.                                            gacchataana.m
         gacchataa, gacchantamhaa,              gacchantebhi,
         gacchantasmaa                          gacchantehi
Loc.     gacchati, gacchante, gacchantamhi,     gacchantesu
Voc.     gaccha.m, gaccha, gacchaa
        Case          Singular     Plural
        Nom., Voc. gacchantii      gacchantii, gacchantiyo
        Acc.          gacchanti.m gacchantii, gacchantiyo
        Ins., Abl.    gacchantiyaa gacchantiibhi, gacchantiihi
and so on like kumaarii.
            Case Singular        Plural
            Nom. gaccha.m        gacchantaa, gacchantaani
            Acc.     gacchanta.m gacchante, gacchantaani
The rest is similar to that of the masculine.
Remark: Here one should note that these participles change their
endings in the feminine.
The following are declined similarly:-
      pacanta = cooking
      karonta = doing
      caranta = walking
      dhaavanta = running
      nahaayanta = bathing
      hasanta = laughing
      bhu~njanta = eating
      sayanta = sleeping
      passanta = looking at, seeing
      nisiidanta = sitting
      haranta = carrying
      ki.nanta = buying
      ti.t.thanta = standing
      aaharanta = bringing
      viharanta = living, residing
      vikki.nanta = selling
      dadanta = giving
      rodanta = crying
52. A. All of these have another form ending in -maana, like
gacchamaana. In that form, they are declined like nara in the
masculine, vanitaa in the feminine, and nayana in the neuter.
B. These participles take the gender, number and case of the
substantive in forming sentences, e.g.
      Ti.t.thanto go.no ti.na.m khaadati = The bull which is standing
      eats grass, or
      Go.no ti.t.tha.m ti.na.m khaadati = The bull eats the grass
C. Active Participles formed from the transitive bases often take an
object, e.g.
Bhatta.m bhu~njanto = eating rice.
Exercise 18
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Gaama.m gacchanto daarako eka.m go.na.m disvaa bhaayi.
   2. Daarikaa rodantii ammaaya santika.m gantvaa pii.the nisiidati.
   3. Vaa.nijaa bha.n.daani vikki.nantaa nadiya.m nahaayante
      manusse passi.msu.
   4. Kaa~n~naayo hasamaanaa nahaayantiyo gacchanti.m vanita.m
   5. Puriso hasanto rukkha.m aaruhitvaa phalaani khaadanto*
      saakhaaya.m nisiidi.
   6. Bhagavaa Saavatthiya.m** viharanto devaana.m manussaana.m
      ca dhamma.m desesi.
   7. Saa sayanti.m itthi.m u.t.thaapetvaa*** hasamaanaa tamhaa
      .thaanaa apagacchi****.
   8. Tumhe bhuumiya.m kii.lamaana.m ima.m daaraka.m
      ukkhipitvaa***** ma~nce .thapetha.
   9. Siiha.m disvaa bhaayitvaa dhaavamaanaa te migaa asmi.m
      vane aavaa.tesu pati.msu.
   10.Imasmi.m gaame vasantaana.m purisaana.m eko pharasu.m
      aadaaya vana.m gacchanto ekaaya kaasuya.m pati.
   11.Nisiidantiyaa naariyaa putto rodamaano tassaa santika.m
    12.Yaacakaa bhatta.m pacanti.m itthi.m disvaa ta.m aahaara.m
       yaacantaa****** tattha nisiidi.msu.
    13.Vanamhaa daaruunii aaharantii ka~n~naa ekasmi.m paasaa.ne
       udaka.m pivamaanaa******* niisiidi.
    14.Vaa.nijaa bha.n.daani ki.nantaa vikki.nantaa ca gaamesu
       nagaresu ca aahi.n.danti.
    15.Daana.m dadanto so dhanavaa siilavante gavesati********.
* Khaada = to eat hard food. "Bhu~nja" is used in eating soft food.
** In the city of Saavatthi.
*** Having awakened or raised.
**** Went away, moved aside.
***** Having raised up.
****** Begging.
******* Drinking.
******** Seeks.
Translate into Pali
    1. Going to the river the slave sat at the foot of a tree, eating
       (some) fruits.
    2. The mother, having raised the crying girl, gave her (some) milk.
    3. Walking on the river-bank we saw (some) people bathing in the
    4. Seeing us there a deer began to run and fell in a pit.
    5. Coming out of the forest the lion saw a cow eating grass on that
    6. Bringing firewood from this forest the maiden drank water
       from that tank.
    7. A certain man living in this village saw a leopard running to
       that mountain.
    8. Our fathers and brothers will wander through villages and
       towns, (while) selling and buying goods.
    9. Standing on the mountain that day, I saw a lioness sleeping in a
    10.The boy came to see me, laughing and running.
    11.Carrying a drum for his aunt, the farmer sat on this rock,
       looking at these trees and fields.
    12.The Buddha, living in Saavatthi for a long time, preached His
       doctrine to the people of that city.
   13.While cooking (some) rice, his sister sat singing* on a chair.
   14.Giving alms to the beggars the millionaire spent** all his
   15.Playing on the road the boys saw a man running from there.
* (Giita.m) gaayantii.
** Vissajjesi.
The New Pali Course Book 1
Past Participles
53. The Past Participles are formed in many ways. Their formation
will be shown in the second book; only a few examples are given
       gata = gone
       aagata = come
       kata = done, made
       vutta = told, said
       bhinna = broken
       oti.n.na = descended
       aaha.ta = brought
       paha.ta = beaten
       ha.ta = carried
       mata = dead
       sutta, sayita = slept
       .thita = stood
       nisinna = sat
       vuttha = lived
       da.t.tha = bitten
       pakka, pacita = cooked
       laddha = received
       kiita = bought
       bhutta = eaten
       vandita = worshipped
       hata = killed
       chinna = cut
       kuddha = enraged
N.B. -- These Participles are often used as complements of verbs, e.g.,
So Kaalakato (hoti) = he is dead. Sometimes the verb is understood.
"To" in the Sense of Ablative of Separation
54. Suffix "to" is sometimes added to the nominal bases to denote the
ablative of separation. There is no distinction between the singular
and plural in that form. These are included in the indeclinables:
      rukkhato = from the tree or trees
      gaamato = from the village or villages
      purisato = from the man or men
      tato = from there, (therefore)
      kuto = from where?
      sabbato = from everywhere
Exercise 19
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Hiiyo ara~n~na.m gato so puriso ahinaa da.t.tho mari.
   2. Rukkhato oti.n.naa pakkhii daarakena sakkharaahi hataa honti.
   3. Purisena pharasunaa chinno so rukkho tassa gehassa upari
   4. Gaamato nikkhantaa* taa gaaviyo khette ti.na.m khaaditvaa
      vaapito jala.m pivissanti.
   5. Vaa.nijehi nagarato aaha.taani bha.n.daani imesu gaamesu
      manussehi kiitaani (honti).
   6. Taaya ka~n~naaya pakka.m odana.m a.tavito aagataa tassaa
      bhaataro bhu~njitvaa sayissanti.
   7. Pitaaraa vutta.m anussarantii** saa yuvatii taaya laddha.m
      dhana.m ga.nhitu.m na icchi.
   8. Ekena hatthinaa chinna.m saakha.m a~n~naa hatthiniyo
      gahetvaa khaadi.msu.
   9. Kuto tumhehi imaani vatthaani taani padumaani ca kiitaani?
   10.Kuddho so bhuupati tasmi.m nagare vutthe sabbe manusse tato
   11.Sappena da.t.tho vaa.nijassa putto tassa daasehi ekassa
      vejjassa**** santika.m niito***** hoti.
   12.Idha imasmi.m pii.the nisinna.m kumaari.m gehato aagataa
      a~n~naa daarikaa pahari.
   13.Taaya paha.taa saa ka~n~naa tassaa maatuyaa santika.m gataa
      rodantii a.t.thaasi.
   14.Magge gacchantaa te purisaa taaya dhenuyaa bhinna.m
      gha.ta.m****** passi.msu.
   15.Bhuupati tehi manussehi kataani gehaani passitvaa tesa.m
       muula.m adaasi.
* That have come out.
** Remembering.
*** Ejected.
**** Vejja (m) doctor, physician.
***** Carried.
****** Gha.ta (m) water-pot.
Translate into Pali
   1. The peacock, having descended from the tree, has gone now to
       the rock.
   2. Having been bitten by a serpent the boy was carried to a
   3. This woman does not like to take the money recieved from her
   4. The man who has come* from that village bought (some) goods
       from this market.
   5. Remembering his mother's words the boy did not go to the
       dead man.
   6. My aunt's cows will come out of the forest and will eat the
       grass mowed and brought by the slave woman.
   7. Having seen a man sleeping on the bed the householder told
       his boys not to go near him.
   8. A deer was seen by the maiden who was cooking rice** for her
   9. The rice that was cooked by her is given to beggars and crows.
   10.The house made by them was broken by an elephant.
   11.The enraged king killed all men who came to the city.
   12.The branch broken by the elephant fell on the ground, and
       afterwards your cows ate its leaves.
   13.The garland received from the queen by that girl is given to
       another girl.
   14.The rice given to them was eaten by the slaves and the beggars.
   15.The horse bought by the millionaire is carried by a charioteer.
* Has come = aagata.
** Who was cooking rice = bhatta.m pacantiyaa.
55. Pronominal (§47) and verbal adjectives (§50) are shown above.
Ordinary adjectives are seta (=white), rassa (=short), mahanta (=big),
and so on. As the adjectives qualify nouns, which are of different
genders and numbers, they must agree with their substantives in
gender, number and case.
            Adj.   Noun        Adj.      Noun       Verb
         1. Ratto go.no        rassaani ti.naani    khaadati
            (= The red ox eats some short grasses.)
         2. Setaa ka~n~naa niila.m       vattha.m paridahati
            (= The fair girl wears a blue cloth.)
Here is a list of adjectives which are frequently used:
     khuddaka = small
     mahanta = big, huge
     diigha = long
     rassa = short, dwarf
     ucca = high, tall
     niica = low, vulgar
     majjhima = medium
     appaka = few, a little
     bahu, bahuka = many, much
     aama = unripe
     pakka = ripe
     dahara = young
     mahallaka = elderly, old
     vitthata = wide, broad
     seta = white
     niila = blue
     ratta = red
     kaa.la = black
     piita = yellow
     uttaana = shallow
     gambhiira = deep
     khara = rough, coarse
     mudu = soft
      baala = foolish, young
      pa.n.dita = wise
      balavantu = powerful
      dubbala = feeble
      suruupa, dassaniiya = beautiful, handsome
56. The declension of adjectives will present no difficulties to the
student who has mastered the declension of nouns.
The declension of verbal and pronominal adjectives and those of
ending in -vantu and -mantu is given above. The others are declined
like nouns (in various genders) according to their endings.
For instance: diigha, rassa and others ending in -a of the above list are
declined in the masculine like nara, and in the neuter like nayana. In
the feminine they lengthened their last vowel, and are declined like
Those ending in -u, such as bahu and mudu are declined like garu,
dhenu and cakkhu. Sometimes these, ending in -u, add kaa to their
feminine stem, and then they are declined like vanitaa, e.g., mudu =
mudukaa, bahu = bahukaa.
The words ending in ii, like maalii (one who has a garland), take -inii
instead of ii in forming feminine stems, e.g.,
(Masculine) maalii ... (Feminine) maalinii
Maalinii and such others are declined like kumaarii.
Exercise 20
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Rattaa gaaviyo khette aahi.ndantiyo bahu.m ti.na.m
   2. Uccaa kumaarii niila.m vattha.m paridahitvaa* mahanta.m
      nagara.m gamissati.
   3. Bahavo manussaa diighaahi rajjuuhi setaa dhenuyo bandhitvaa
      gambhiira.m nadi.m hari.msu.
   4. Amhaaka.m bahuuna.m bandhavaana.m puttaa dubbalaa
   5. Pa.n.ditassa purisassa saa baalaa bhaginii pakkaani phalaani
      ocinitvaa appakaana.m daarakaana.m adaasi.
   6. Tassaa mahallikaaya itthiyaa daharo nattaa uttaane jale
   7. Tasmi.m ucce rukkhe .thito vaanaro imasmi.m niice tarumhi
      nisinne pakkhino oloketi.
   8. Maalinii naarii rassena maggena khuddaka.m gaama.m gacchi.
   9. Daharaa ka~n~naa mudunaa hatthena rattaani padumaani
   10.Balavanto appaka.m pi dhana.m labhitvaa dubbale manusse
   11.Balavantaa kaa.laa go.naa uccesu giriisu aahi.n.ditvaa bahuuni
      ti.naani khaadanti.
   12.Bahunna.m*** baalaana.m puttaa tassaa nadiyaa gambhiire jale
      patitvaa mari.msu.
   13.Mama bhaataraana.m majjhimo niice pii.the nisiiditvaa aama.m
      phala.m khaadati.
   14.Maya.m suve majjhima.m vaapi.m gantvaa setaani padumaani
      niilaani uppalaani**** ca aaharissaama.
   15.Tumhe mahallake dubbale ca purise disvaa maa hasatha.
* Paridahati (v) wears.
** Hoti (v) is.
*** There are two forms: "bahuuna.m" and "bahunna.m".
**** Uppala (n) lily.
Translate into Pali
   1. A white cow drank much water from that big tank.
   2. Wearing red clothes many girls are going to the big market in
      that large city.
   3. The sons of that elderly woman are neither powerful nor rich*.
   4. Our young ones always like to eat many unripe fruits.
   5. That foolish woman went to that long river and fell in its deep
   6. Water in this pond is not deep but shallow.
   7. My old (elderly) aunt brought a long rope to bind that red cow.
   8. The powerful man cut many tall and dwarf trees in that small
   9. Sitting on a low chair the young girl eats a ripe mango** she got
      from her mother.
   10.Much grass is brought by the slaves from that small field on the
      bank of that wide river.
   11.White lotuses and blue lilies are bought by that feeble maiden
      from the elderly man.
   12.The black oxen are sleeping on the rough ground near that high
   13.The young boy's soft hand is burnt by the flame of that small
   14.Many people will cross the great ocean and come to see this
      beautiful little island.
   15.In this beautiful city there are big houses, wide streets, long
      paths, and many gardens.
* Neither ... nor = "vaa ... na": balavanto vaa dhanavanto vaa na honti.
** Mango (m,n) amba.
The New Pali Course Book 1
57. Cardinals
   1. Eka (= eka.m)
   2. Dvi (= dve)
   3. Ti (= tayo)
   4. Catu (= cattaaro)
   5. Pa~nca
   6. Cha
   7. Satta
   8. A.t.tha
   9. Nava
   12.Dvaadasa; baarasa
   13.Te.lasa; terasa
   14.Cuddasa; catuddasa
   15.Pa.n.narasa; pa~ncadasa
   17.Sattarasa; sattadasa
   18.A.t.thaarasa; a.t.thaadasa
   22.Dvaaviisati; baaviisati
   30.Ti.msati; ti.msaa
   32.Dvatti.msati; batti.msati
   40.Cattaa.liisati; cattaa.liisaa
   50.Pa~n~naasaa; pa.n.naasaa; pa~n~naasati; pa.n.naasati
   62.Dvesa.t.thi; dvaasa.t.thi; dvisa.t.thi
   82.Dveasiiti; dvaasiiti; dviyaasiiti
   83.Teasiiti; tiyaasiiti
   92.Dvenavuti; dvaanavuti; dvinavuti
   100.      Sata.m
1000 = Sahassa.m
10,000 = Dassahassa.m
100,000 = Satasahassa.m; lakkha.m
1,000,000 = Dasalakkha.m
10,000,000 = Ko.ti
100,000,000 = Dasako.ti
1,000,000,000 = Satako.ti
58. Some of these numerals take all the genders, and some have their
   A. The stems eka, ti, catu are of all genders and declined
      differently in each gender.
   B. The stem dvi and those from pa~nca to a.t.thaarasa do not
      show different inflections in different genders though they take
      all the genders.
   C. From viisati to navuti the numbers are feminine. So is ko.ti.
   D. Stems sata, sahassa and the compounds ending with them are
   E. Eka (one) has only singular forms. The plural forms of it are
      used to express the meaning "some", e.g. eke manussaa = some
   F. The stems from dvi to a.t.thaarasa have only the plural forms.
      From viisati upwards to navuti and from sata upwards to ko.ti
      are in singular. But they take the plural form when it is
      required to show separate quantities, e.g. cattaari sataani = four
      (quantities) of hundred.
   G. Numerals are more often used as adjectives.
Declension of Numerals
59. "Eka" is declined like the relative pronoun "ya" given above (§46).
Declension of Dvi (= two)
                               Plural (common to all genders)
              Nom., Acc. dve, duve
              Abl., Ins.       dviibhi, dviihi
              Dat., Gen.       dvinna.m, duvinna.m
              Loc.             dviisu
Declension of Ti (= three)
               Masculine                 Feminine      Neuter
 Nom., Acc. tayo                         tisso         tiini
 Abl., Ins.    tiibhi, tiihi             tiibhi, tiihi tiibhi, tiihi
 Dat., Gen.   tinna.m, tinnanna.m tissanna.m tinna.m, tinnanna.m
 Loc.         tiisu                   tiisu        tiisu
Declension of Catu (= four)
              Masculine            Feminine            Neuter
 Nom., Acc. cattaaro, caturo       catasso             cattaari
 Abl., Ins.   catuubhi, catuuhi catuubhi, catuuhi catuubhi, catuuhi
 Dat., Gen.   catunna.m            catassanna.m        catunna.m
 Loc.         catusu               catusu              catusu
Declension of Pa~nca (= five)
                             Plural (similar in all genders)
              Nom., Acc. pa~nca
              Abl., Ins.     pa~ncabhi, pa~ncahi
              Dat., Gen.     pa~ncanna.m
              Loc.           pa~ncasu
Cha, satta, a.t.tha and all up to a.t.thaadasa are declined like pa~nca,
                 Nom. Acc. Abl.        Dat., Gen. Loc.
                 cha       cha chahi channa.m chasu
60. Viisati and other numerals ending in -i are declined like bhuumi
(§34). Ti.msaa and others ending in -aa are declined like vanitaa.
Viisati itself has another form ending in -aa, i.e., viisaa.
"Sata" (100) and "sahassa" (1000) are declined like nayana (§40).
Exercise 21
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Cattaaro purisaa catuuhi pharasuuhi cattaari rukkhaani
       chinditvaa aaharissanti.
   2. Taa tisso itthiyo imehi tiihi maggehi ta.m a.tavi.m gantvaa
       tissanna.m ka~n~naana.m tii.ni phalaani ada.msu.
    3. Ekissa.m saalaaya.m sata.m purisaa, pa~n~naasaa itthiyo ca
    4. Maya.m ito navahi divasehi* pa~ncahi kumaarehi saddhi.m
       Ko.lambanagara.m gamissaama.
    5. Pa~nca daasaa dasanna.m assaana.m bahu.m ti.na.m, appaka.m
       udaka~nca aahari.msu.
    6. Viisati purisaa dasahi go.nehi cattaari khettaani kasanti.
    7. Vaa.nijo kahaapa.naana.m** dviihi satehi*** a.t.tha asse
       ki.nitvaa te catunna.m dhanavantaana.m vikki.ni.
    8. Taasa.m channa.m itthiina.m cha bhaataro mahanta.m
       pabbata.m aaruhitvaa cha kapayo aanesu.m.
    9. Taasa.m maataa dasa ambe ki.nitvaa catassanna.m
       dhiitaraana.m dadissati.
    10.Idaani La`nkaaya.m pa~nca-cattaa.liisa-satasahassa.m
       manussaa vasanti.
    11.Pubbe Saavatthinagare manussaana.m satta ko.tiyo****
    12.Tumhe ito dviihi vassehi Anuraadhapura.m***** gantvaa tattha
       nava divase vasantaa mahante cetiye passissatha.
    13.Daaso ekena hatthena dve naa.likere****** itarena eka.m
       panasa~nca******* harati.
    14.Aha.m cattaari vassaani********* nagare vasitvaa tato pacchaa
       tayo maase********* gaame vasissaami.
* After nine days.
** 'Kahaapa.na' is a square coin extensively used in former days, the
purchasing power of which is said to have been about that of a florin
(2 shillings).
*** With two hundreds (of kahaapa.nas).
**** Seven crores of people.
***** The sacred city of the Buddhists in Ceylon.
****** Naa.likere (m/n) coconut.
******* Panasa (m/n) jackfruit.
******** Vassa (m/n) year.
********* Maasa (m) month,
Translate into Pali
    1. Four women bought eight mangoes and gave them to the two
   2. Tomorrow five men will go to the forest and cut ten trees with
      their five axes.
   3. Three girls went separately* to three tanks and each** brought
      thirty flowers.
   4. In this hall there are five hundred men and three hundred
   5. There are five thousand people, one thousand cattle*** and five
      hundred houses in this town.
   6. The seven brothers of the five girls went to that forest and
      killed eight deer.
   7. We lived in Colombo for eight years and nine months.
   8. They will go to live there again three years and two months
   9. Having bought three clothes the father gave them to his three
   10.Ten men with twenty oxen are ploughing these five fields.
   11.Sixty elephants came out of the city and thirty of them entered
      the forest.
   12.Of the twelve horses bought by me one is sold to another man.
   13.The slave having brought 25 coconuts sold 20 of them to a
   14.Two merchants bought two horses for three hundred**** pieces
      (of kahaapa.nas).
   15.Five million people live in the island of Ceylon.
* Visu.m.
** Ek'ekaa.
*** Gaavo.
**** Use the Instrumental.
61. Ordinal Numerals
      Pa.thama = first
      Dutiya = second
      Tatiya = third
      Catuttha = fourth
      Pa~ncama = fifth
      Cha.t.tha = sixth
      Sattama = seventh
      A.t.thama = eighth
      Navama = ninth
      Dasama = tenth
      Ekaadasama = Eleventh
      Dvaadasama = twelfth
      Terasama = thirteenth
      Cuddasama = fourteenth
      Viisatima = twenieth
      Ti.msatima = thirtieth
      Cattaa.liisatima = fortieth
      Pa.n.naasatima = fiftieth
      Sa.t.thima = sixtieth
      Sattatima = seventieth
      Asiitima = eightieth
      Navutima = ninetieth
      Satama = hundredth
All these are treated as adjectives.
In the masculine they are declined like nara. In the feminine their last
vowel is changed into aa or ii and are declined like vanitaa and
kumaarii respectively. Their declension in the neuter is like that of
Remark. "The first among the eight men" and such other phrases
should be translated with the locative or genitive forms, as:
(1) A.t.thasu purisesu pa.thamo or
(2) A.t.thanna.m purisaana.m pa.thamo.
Exercise 22
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Gacchantesu dasasu purisesu sattamo vaa.nijo hoti.
   2. Tassa sattamaa dhiitaa a.t.thamaaya eka.m vattha.m adaasi.
   3. Catassanna.m yuvatiina.m tatiyaaya bhaataa pa~nca asse
   4. Mayha.m pitaa sattatime vasse pa~ncame maase kaala.m
   5. Maya.m ito cha.t.the divase catuuhi purisehi saddhi.m
      dutiya.m nagara.m gamissaama.
   6. Idaani a.t.thamo Edwardnaamo bhuupati rajja.m karoti**.
   7. Pubbe cha.t.tho Parakkamabaahu-bhuupati Jayavaddhanapure
       rajja.m kari.
   8. Paa.thasaalaaya*** asiitiyaa sissesu pa~ncaviisatimo hiiyo
       gambhiire udake pati.
   9. Amhaaka.m pitaaro ito pa~ncame vasse bahuuhi manussehi
       Anuraadhapura.m gamissanti.
   10.Dviisu paa.thasaalaasu pa.thamaaya tisata.m sissaa****
   11.Dvinna.m dhanavantaana.m dutiyo ti.msatiyaa yaacakaana.m
       daana.m adaasi.
   12.Nahaayantiisu pa~ncasu naariisu tatiyaaya bhaataa dhanavaa
   13.Bhatta.m pacantiina.m tissanna.m itthiina.m dutiyaa
       nahaayitu.m gamissati.
   14.Bhagavaa pa.thama.m vassa.m Baaraa.nasiya.m
       Isipatanaaraame vihari.
   15.Tadaa so pa~ncanna.m bhikkhuuna.m bahunna.m
       manussaana~nca dhamma.m desesi.
* Kaala.m karoti = dies.
** Rajja.m karoti = reigns.
*** Paa.thasaalaa (f) school.
**** Sissa (m) student.
Translate into Pali
   1. The fifth of the ten merchants will buy the gem.
   2. On the third day the four rich men will give alms to a hundred
   3. There are eight hundred students in the first of the three
   4. My fourth brother lives in the sixth house of the fifth street in
   5. We will go to the city in the third month of the second year.
   6. His tenth son will come here on the 25th day of this month.
   7. The sixth of the seven women wears a red cloth, and the fifth a
       blue one.
   8. King Edward VII died 26 years ago*.
   9. His son, King George V reigned for 25 years and 10 months.
   10.I will buy the second of these ten horses with one hundred
   11.Out of the eighty students in this school the 20th died
   12.His dead body was carried to the cemetery by 15 students.
   13.My sixth brother will come here with the fourth one.
   14.His third brother's second daughter learns at this school.
   15.The first sister of the queen will visit Anuraadhapura after
      three months.
* Ago (ni) upari. Use the genitive with this.
The New Pali Course Book 1
62. The adverb proper in Pali is stated to be in the accusative singular
of the neuter, e.g.,
      "Sukha.m sayati" = sleeps comfortably.
      "Saadhuka.m karoti" = does (it) well.
But many other indeclinables like tadaa (then) may be taken under
this heading.
Of the numerical adverbs ordinals take the form of the neuter
singular, e.g.
      Pa.thama.m = at first; for the first time.
      Dutiya.m = for the second time.
Cardinals form their adverbs by adding suffixes -kkhattu.m and
      Catukkhattu.m = four times.
      Catudhaa = in four ways.
A List of Adverbs
      visu.m = severally, separately
      dukkha.m = with difficulty
      sama.m = evenly
      sanika.m = slowly
      siigha.m = quickly
      eva.m = thus, so
      sahasaa = suddenly
      da.lha.m = tightly, strictly
      ekadhaa = in one way
      dvikkhattu.m = twice
      saki.m = once
      pa~ncadhaa = in five ways
      katha.m = how?
      tathaa = in that way
      saadhuka.m = well
      abhi.nha.m = constantly
      ekamanta.m = aside
Exercise 23
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Imesa.m dasanna.m dhanavantaana.m pa~ncamo sukha.m
   2. Aya.m diipi sanika.m aagantvaa sahasaa gaaviyaa upari pati.
   3. A.t.thanna.m ka~n~naana.m cha.t.thaa gaavi.m da.lha.m
      bandhitvaa vaapi.m nesi.
   4. Ime pa~nca daarakaa abhinha.m magge dhaavantaa kii.lanti.
   5. Imesu navasu sissesu sattamo saadhuka.m ugga.nhaati.
   6. Bhikkhuu Bhagavato santika.m aagantvaa ta.m vanditvaa
      ekamanta.m nisiidi.msu.
   7. So se.t.thii (attano*) dhana.m pa~ncadhaa vibhajitvaa
      pa~ncanna.m dhiitaraana.m adadi.
   8. Tassa cha.t.thaaya dhiituyaa putto dvikkhattu.m ima.m
      nagara.m aagacchi.
   9. Pa.thama.m te assaa ratha.m sama.m aaka.d.dhi.msu, dutiya.m
      siigha.m dhaavi.msu.
   10.Mama a.t.thanna.m bhaataraana.m catuttho dukkha.m jiivati.
   11.Katha.m te cattaaro vaa.nijaa tattha vasanti?
   12.So dhiitara.m eva.m vatvaa sahasaa tato a~n~na.m .thaana.m
* His own.
Translate into Pali
   1. Those ten boys are constantly playing at this place.
   2. The fifth of these seven merchants lives happily (or
   3. The king twice came out of the city and once bathed in this
   4. The horses will run quickly drawing evenly the carriages after
   5. The fourth of the seven monks does not observe* the precepts**
   6. These twelve merchants went to the Buddha and sat aside to
       hear His preaching***.
   7. Suddenly a thief came to me and tried**** to take my umbrella.
   8. Slowly they went together***** to the bank of the river and
       came back separately.
   9. The third of the five sons of my friend learns with difficulty.
   10.How did he enter the city and come out of it quickly?
   11.The second daughter of his sixth brother lives (with difficulty)
       or miserably.
   12.Thus he spoke to his third sister and went aside.
* Na rakkhati.
** Siilaani or sikkhaapadaani.
*** Desana.m.
**** Ussahi.
***** Ekato.
63. A sentence may contain any number of words; but one cannot
make a sentence without a verb.
Even the shortest sentence must have two portions: the subject
(kattaa) and the predicate (kriyaa). (One may say "Go" without any
subject, but there the subject is understood.)
(1) "Puriso sayati." (The man sleeps), is a complete sentence. Here
"puriso" is the subject and "sleeps" is the predicate.
(2) The above sentence has no object as intransitive verbs do not take
an object. But transitive verbs always take an object; therefore a
sentence formed with a transitive verb consists of three portions,
viz.:- kattaa (subject), kamma.m (object), and kriyaa (predicate), e.g.
                     Subject Object     Predicate
                     Puriso rukkha.m chindati
                     = The man cuts the tree.
Order of Sentences
64. In the sentence, "Puriso rukkha.m chindati", the subject comes
first, the object second, and the predicate last. (In an English sentence,
the object must come after the predicate.)
This is the general way of forming sentences which a beginner must
follow. But there are no definite rules about the order of the words in
a Pali sentence. The above sentence may be written in four ways:-
(1) Puriso rukkha.m chindati.
(2) Rukkha.m puriso chindai.
(3) Chindati puriso rukkha.m.
(4) Puriso chindati rukkha.m.
In any way the meaning is the same; and one has no difficulty in
finding the subject and the object as they are always in different
65. (1) The predicate must agree with the subject in number and
(2) An adjective (participle included), must agree with the noun it
qualifies in gender, number and case, e.g. Balavaa puriso sayanta.m
go.na.m bandhati.
(3) A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender,
number and person, e.g.,
(A) Ye pu~n~na.m karonti te sagge nibbattanti.
(B) Yo magge gacchati tassa pitaa hiiyo mari.
Exercise 24
Suggested Solutions
Point out subjects, objects and predicates in the following
    1. Bhaataa vaapi.m gacchanto ekassa rukkhassa muule nisiidi.
    2. Tassa pitaa paato gehaa nikkhamitvaa vana.m gamissati.
    3. Te pakkhino tesa.m rukkhaana.m saakhaasu nisiiditvaa ravanti.
    4. Catasso kumaariyo pupphaani ocinitu.m eka.m rukkha.m
    5. Dasa hatthino imassa taruno a.t.tha saakhaa bha~njitvaa
    6. Saa yuvatii dve maalaa pi.landhitvaa hasantii ti.t.thati.
    7. Suve maya.m ta.m nagara.m gantvaa bahuuni bha.n.daani
   8. Magge dhaavantaa pa~nca daarakaa ekasmi.m aavaa.te
   9. Pa.n.narasa vaa.nijaa dasa asse aaharitvaa se.t.thino
   10.Dve kassakaa cattaaro kaa.le go.ne haritvaa tassa.m nadiya.m
Insert suitable subjects, objects and predicates where necessary.
   1. ............... rukkha.m aaruhitvaa phalaani ocinaati.
   2. Magge gacchanto ............... dhaavante ............... passi.
   3. Tuyha.m bhaginii daaraka.m aadaaya hasantii ................
   4. Daaso ............... rajjuyaa bandhitvaa nahaapeti.
   5. ............... aapa.namhaa vatthaani ki.nitvaa aanetha.
   6. Maya.m nahaatvaa aagantvaa bhatta.m ................
   7. Aha.m suve tayaa saddhi.m gaama.m ................
   8. Yuvatiyo ............... ocinitu.m ............... gamissanti.
   9. Amhaaka.m ............... tasmi.m nagare bha.n.daani vikki.nanti.
   10.Cattaaro ............... padumaani aadaaya vihaara.m gamissanti.
   11................ suve aapa.na.m gantvaa ............... aaharissaama.
   12.Tva.m sakkharaahi godha.m maa ................
   13.Vaanaraa ............... aaruhitvaa ............... bha~njanti.
   14.Taa itthiyo ............... pacitvaa bhu~njitvaa ................
How to Enlarge and Analyse a Sentence
66. It is stated that a sentence consists of two parts, the subject and
the predicate, or sometimes three parts: the subject, the object and the
predicate. (Note that the object belongs to the predicate.)
In enlarging a sentence one must enlarge the subject or the object, or
both of them. They may be enlarged with one or more adjectives,
adjectival phrases, or clauses, or with a noun in the genitive, which is
in the nature of an adjective, as it separates the thing possessed, from
The enlargement of a predicate is called its extension. It may be done
by adding one or more adverbs or adverbial phrases, or words in the
Instrumental, Ablative (of separation) or Locative cases.
Now let us enlarge the sentences:
(A) Puriso rukkha.m chindati.
Enlargemen Subjec Enlargemen Object              Enlargemen Predicat
t of subject   t       t of object             t of         e
Balavaa        puriso mahanta.m                pharasunaa chindati.
So seto,              ucca.m,        rukkha.
               puriso                          pharasu.m    chindati.
balavaa               mudu.m         m
                   phalehi ca        rukkha.   tasmi.m
, dhanavaa, puriso                                          chindati.
                   yutta.m,          m         vane, idaani
(B) Go.no ti.na.m khaadati.
Enlargement         Enlargement        Enlargement
            Subject             Object              Predicate
of subject          of object          of predicate
Ratto          go.no   bahu.m         ti.na.m idaani        khaadati.
                       khette                 tatta
Balavaa seto   go.no   jaata.m,       ti.na.m .thatvaa,     khaadati.
                       bahu.m                 siigha.m
                       khuddakaa              visu.m
                       khettamhaa             visu.m
baalo,      go.no                     ti.na.m               khaadati.
                       daasena                katvaa
                       aaniita.m              aadaaya
* Quadruped or that which has four feet.
** That which has horns, or possessed of horns.
Exercise 25
Suggested Solutions
Enlarge the following sentences.
   1. Kumaari bhatta.m pacati.
   2. Daarako magge kii.lati.
   3. Vaanaraa rukkhe nisiidanti.
   4. Kassakaa khetta.m kasi.msu.
   5. Siiho vanamhi vasati.
   6. Bhuupati nagare carati.
   7. Pitaa gehe sayati.
   8. Dhiitaro nadiya.m nahaayanti.
   9. Bhaatuno putto ugga.nhaati.
   10.Vanitaayo padumaani aaharanti.
   11.Tumhe pakkhino maa maaretha.
   12.Tva.m cetiya.m vandaahi.
   13.Aha.m siila.m rakkhissaami.
   14.Bhikkhavo dhamma.m desenti.
   15.Maya.m Anuraadhapura.m gamissaama.
Analyse the following sentences.
   1. Cattaaro purisaa balavante a.t.tha go.ne ta.m mahanta.m
      khetta.m hari.msu.
   2. Imasmi.m gaame a.t.thasu gehesu pa~ncati.msati manussaa
      dukkha.m vasanti.
   3. Te dhanavantaa mahantesu ma~ncesu sukha.m sayissanti.
   4. Pa~ncanna.m daasaana.m dasa puttaa viisatiyaa balavantehi
      go.nehi khetta.m kasanti.
   5. Ekaa itthii dvinna.m puttaana.m rattaani vatthaani aaharitvaa
   6. Dhanavanto vaa.nijaa saka.tehi bha.n.daani aadaaya gaame
      gantvaa taani siigha.m vikki.nissanti.
   7. Bhuupatino pa.thamo putto bahuuhi manussehi saddhi.m suve
      uyyaana.m gamissati.
   8. Mayha.m maatulaanii ratta.m gaavi.m diighaaya rajjuyaa
      da.lha.m rukkhe bandhi.
   9. Se.t.thino balavanto a.t.tha puttaa kakkha.la.m cora.m asiihi
      paharitvaa tatth'eva* maaresu.m.
   10.Gaama.m gacchantii vanitaa a~n~nissaa baala.m dhiitara.m
      disvaa tassaa tayo ambe adaasi.
* Tatth'eva = on the spot.
The New Pali Course Book 1
Passive Voice
67. The verbs given so far in this book are of the Active Voice. To
form the passive, one must add "ya", sometimes preceded by i or ii, to
the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,
      paca + ti > paca + iiya + ti = paciiyati (is cooked)
       kara + ti > kara + iiya + ti = kariiyati (is done)
Often, the "ya" is assimilated by the last consonant of the base, e.g.,
       pac + ya + ti = paccati (is cooked)
       vuc + ya + ti = vuccati (is told)
68. In forming a sentence with a verb in the passive voice, the subject
stands in the Ablative of Agent and the object in the Nominative. The
verb takes the number and the person of the Nominative (object).
This is the way Pali grammarians stated it. But in English, the subject
always take the Nominative form; therefore the object becomes the
subject when a sentence is turned from active to passive.
Vanitaa odana.m pacati.
turned into passive, becomes:-
Vanitaaya odano paciiyati (or paccati).
Here, "vanitaaya" is named anuttakattaa (the agent, subject) and
"odano" uttakamma (the object in the Nominative) in Pali.
69. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)
Present Tense, Passive
Person Singular                        Plural
3rd     (so) paccati = it is cooked    (te) paccanti = they are cooked
        (tva.m) paccasi = thou are     (tumhe) paccatha = you are
        cooked                         cooked
        (aha.m) paccaami = I am        (maya.m) paccaama = we are
        cooked                         cooked
Conjugation of Pahara (to beat)
Person Singular                        Plural
        (so) pahariiyati = he is       (te) pahariiyanti = they are
        beaten                         beaten
        (tva.m) pahariiyasi = thou     (tumhe) pahariiyatha = you are
        art beaten                     beaten
        (aha.m) pahariiyaami = I am (maya.m) pahariiyaama = we
        beaten                      are beaten
The following are conjugated like "pahariiyati":-
      kariiyati = is done or made
     ga.nhiiyati = is taken
     hariiyati = is carried
     aahariiyati = is brought
     bandhiiyati = is tied
     bhu~njiiyati = is eaten
     aaka.d.dhiiyati = is dragged or drawn
     diiyati = is given
     kasiiyati = is ploughed
     desiiyati = is preached
     maariiyati = is killed
     vandiiyati = is worshipped
     ki.niiyati = is bought
     vikki.niiyati = is sold
     rakkhiiyati = is protected
     bhaasiiyati = is told
     dhoviiyati = is washed
Exercise 26
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
  1. Ka~n~naaya odano paciiyati.
  2. Te Go.naa daasehi pahariiyanti.
  3. Tva.m balinaa purisena aaka.d.dhiiyasi.
  4. Maya.m amhaaka.m ariihi maariiyaama.
  5. Te migaa taaya daasiyaa bandhiiyanti.
  6. Iminaa va.d.dhakinaa* imasmi.m gaame bahuuni gehaani
  7. Tumhe tasmi.m gaame manussehi bandhiiyatha.
  8. Amhaaka.m bha.n.daani tesa.m daasehi gaama.m hariiyanti.
  9. A.t.thahi vaa.nijehi cattaaro assaa nagara.m aahariiyanti.
  10.Maya.m amhaaka.m dhiitarehi nattaarehi ca vandiiyaama.
  11.Ta.m mahanta.m khetta.m pa~ncahi kassakehi kasiiyati.
  12.Vanitaaya bahuuni vatthaani tassa.m pokkhara.niya.m
  13.Se.t.thinaa bahunna.m yaacakaana.m daana.m diiyati.
  14.Tasmi.m aaraame vasantehi bhikkhuuhi siilaani rakkhiiyanti.
  15.Chahi bhikkhuuhi pa~ncasataana.m manussaana.m dhammo
   16.Pa~n~naasaaya manussehi tasmi.m aapa.ne bahuuni
      bha.n.daani ki.niiyanti.
   17.Dasahi vanitaahi dvisata.m ambaana.m vikki.niiyati.
   18.Daasiyaa pakko odano gahapatinaa bhu~njiiyati.
   19.Magge .thito daarako tassa maatuyaa hatthehi ga.nhiiyati.
   20.Buddhena devaana.m manussaana~nca dhammo bhaasiiyati.
* Va.d.dhakii (m) carpenter.
Translate into Pali
   1. The cows are tied with long ropes by the slaves.
   2. Two black horses are bought by the two rich men.
   3. You are beaten by four men.
   4. This house is built (made) by eight carpenters.
   5. Nine cows are killed by two tigers in that forest.
   6. Thou art dragged to the field by those powerful men.
   7. Many goods are sold in this village by those two merchants.
   8. You are tied fast by the people of the city.
   9. The baby is carried to a physician by his mother.
   10.The rice is well cooked by the second daughter of the merchant.
   11.The doctrine is preached to the people of this village by the
      monks residing in that monastery*.
   12.The rice cooked by the slave woman is eaten by her son and
   13.Many red clothes are washed in the tank by those women.
   14.Three hundred mangoes are sold by six tall women.
   15.Much wealth is given to his relations by that rich man.
   16.All grass in this field is eaten by eight oxen and four cows.
   17.The Buddha is worshipped everywhere in this island.
   18.Two fields are ploughed by 12 farmers and six oxen.
   19.Those who went by that path are killed by a lion.
   20.The son of the man who walks on the road is beaten by that
      powerful man.
* Vihaara (m) monastery.
70. The past and future forms of the Passive Voice are formed by
adding "ii + ya" to the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,
Past 3rd singular:
- pahara + ii > pahara + ii-ya + ii = pahariiyii = (he) was beaten
Future 3rd singular:
- paca + issati > paca + ii-ya + issati = paciiyissati = (it) will be cooked
Passive Participles
71. The participles, like verbs, are divided into two classes, that of
Active and Passive. The Active Present Participles are shown above
(§50). The Passive Present Participle is formed by adding "ii + ya" to
the root before the active termination, e.g.,
(1) paca + maana > paca + ii-ya + maana = paciiyamaana = being
(2) pahara + nta > pahara + ii-ya + nta = pahariiyanta = being beaten
Forms like pacamaana (being cooked) and vuccamaana (being told)
also are formed by assimilating "ya" with the last consonant of the
root. (The rules of assimilation will be given in the Second Book.)
72. The Declinable Active Past Participles are very few. The Passive
Past Participles are formed in various ways; the most common way to
form them is to add "ta" or "ita" to the root or the verbal base, e.g.,
       paca + ita = pacita (cooked)
       hara + ita = harita (carried)
       nahaa + ita = nahaata (bathed)
       nii + ta = niita (carried)
       naa + ta = ~naata (known)
       bhuu + ta = bhuuta (become, been)
       su + ta = suta (heard)
Here one notices that "ita" is added to the roots ending in a, and ta is
added to the roots ending in vowels other than a. But this rule is not
without exceptions.
A list of some Passive Past Participles is given above (§53). The words
therein are formed in various ways; but the student should not
bother at present about their formation.
Another form of Passive Past Participles much common in use is
formed by adding 'inna' to the root and by dropping the last syllable
or the vowel of the root, e.g.,
       chida + inna = chinna (cut)
       bhida + inna = bhinna (broken)
       daa + inna = dinna (given)
       tara + inna = ti.n.na (crossed, gone ashore)
       ni + siida + inna = nisinna (sat)
73. The Potential (or Future) Passive Participles are formed by adding
'tabba' and 'aniiya' to the verbal base, e.g.,
      kaatabba / kara.niiya (must be, fit to be, or should be done)
      haritabba / haraniiya (must be, fit to be, or should be carried)
      pacitabba / pacaniiya (must be, fit to be, or should be cooked)
      bhu~njitabba (fit to be or should be eaten)
      dhovitabba (fit to be or should be washed)
      bhavitabba (fit to be or should become or happen)
      nisiiditabba (fit to be or should be sat)
      vattabba (fit to be or should be told)
      vanditabba (fit to be or should be worshipped)
      daatabba (fit to be or should be given)
      chinditabba (fit to be or should be cut)
      rakkhitabba (fit to be or should be observed or protected)
      ugga.nhitabba (fit to be or should be learnt)
Exercise 27
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Ka~n~naaya bhu~njiyamaana.m bhatta.m sunakhassa
      daatabba.m (hoti).
   2. Purisena chindiyamaano rukkho gehassa upari patissati.
   3. Purisehi khettaani kasitabbaani, vanitaahi tesa.m bhatta.m
   4. Puttehi dhiitarehi ca pitaro maataro ca vanditabbaa honti.
   5. Daasena hariiyamaano asso vaa.nijaana.m vikki.nitabbo hoti.
   6. Corehi pahariiyamaanaa purisaa a~n~na.m kattabba.m
      adisvaa* a.tavi.m dhaavi.msu.
   7. Saarathinaa pahariiyamaano asso ratha.m aaka.d.dhanto
      siigha.m dhaavati.
   8. Tumhehi daanaani daatabbaani, siilani rakkhitabbaani,
      pu~n~naani kaatabbaani (honti).
   9. Sissehi dhammo sotabbo** satthaani*** ugga.nhitabbaani.
   10.Mayaa diiyamaana.m**** bhu~njitabba.m bhu~njitu.m bahuu
      yaacakaa aagacchanti.
   11.Vanitaa dhovitabbaani vatthaani aadaaya vitthata.m nadi.m
   12.Yuvatiyo vandaniiyaani cetiyaani disvaa ekaaya ka~n~naaya
       ociniyamaanaani padumaani yaaci.msu.
   13.Mama bhaataa tasmi.m vane aahi.n.danto chindaniiye bahuu
       rukkhe passi.
   14.Mayaa ovadiyamaano baalo vattabba.m apassanto khinno*****
* Not seeing.
** Should be heard.
*** Sciences.
**** Given by.
***** Dejected.
Translate into Pali
   1. The fruit that is being eaten by the boy should not be given to
       another one.
   2. The field should be ploughed by the farmers with their oxen.
   3. Being beaten by an enemy and not knowing what should be
       done*, the man ran across the field.
   4. Many beggars came to receive the alms given by the rich
   5. Your parents** are to be worshipped and protected by you.
   6. Being admonished*** by the teacher the student began to learn
       what should be learnt.
   7. The horses that are being carried by the merchants are to be
       sold tomorrow.
   8. Ths horse being beaten by the slave ran quickly to the field.
   9. Precepts should be oberved and alms should be given by you.
   10.Many clothes are to be washed by our friends.
   11.Ten men cut many trees that should be cut in that garden.
   12.The trees which are being cut by them will fall on other trees.
   13.The merchants did not get any food that should be eaten by
   14.What should happen will happen**** to us and the others.
   15.The rice is to be cooked and carried to the field by us.
* Kim kaatabban ti ajaananto.
** Maataapitaro (is a compound noun).
*** Ovadito.
**** Bhavissati = will happen.
Causal or Causative Verbs
74. Causative verbs are formed by adding to the root the suffixes, (1)
e, (2) aya, (3) aape, or (4) aapaya, before the verbal termination. The
radical vowel of the root is lengthened or changed before these
suffixes, when it is followed by one consonant, and remains
unchanged if it is followed by a double consonant, e.g.,
       pac + e + ti = paaceti (causes to cook)
       pac + aya + ti = paacayati (causes to cook)
       pac + aape + ti = paacaapeti (causes to cook)
       pac + aapaya + ti = paacaapayati (causes to cook)
N.B. -- There is a similarity between 'paaceti', 'paacayati' and 'coreti',
'corayati'; but the former are causal and the latter are simple verbs.
75. The group of verbs 'coreti', etc., called Curaadi Group (see §15),
always take 'e' and 'aya' in their simple forms and their causal bases
are formed with 'aape' and 'aapaya', e.g.,
       Simple: coreti, corayati = steals
       Causal: coraapeti, coraapayati = causes to steal
76. (A) Intransitive verbs become transitive when they take causal
forms, e.g.,
       Daarako sayati. (The baby sleeps.)
       Maataa daaraka.m sayaapeti. (The mother makes her baby
(B) Transitive verbs take one or two more objects in their causal
forms, e.g.,
       Simple: Go.no ti.na.m khaadati.
       Causal: Daaso go.na.m ti.na.m khaadaapeti. (The slave causes
       the ox to eat grass.)
77. A list of causatives
       kaaraapeti = causes to (or makes one) do
       ga.nhaapeti = causes to (or makes one) take
       nahaapeti = causes to (or makes one) bathe
       bhojaapeti = causes to (or makes one) eat
       nisiidaapeti = causes to (or makes one) sit
       haraapeti = causes to (or makes one) carry
       aaharaapeti = causes to (or makes one) bring
       gacchaapeti = causes to (or makes one) go
       chindaapeti = causes to (or makes one) cut
       maaraapeti = causes to (or makes one) kill
Exercise 28
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Se.t.thii va.d.dhaki.m geha.m kaaraapeti.
    2. Maataa daaraka.m pokkhara.niya.m nahaapessati.
    3. Amhaaka.m pitaro bhikkhuu bhojaapesu.m.
    4. Vanitaayo daasi.m bhatta.m paacaapesu.m.
    5. Paapakaarino daasehi* bahuu mige maaraapenti.
    6. Gahapatayo purisehi* daaruuni ga.nhaapenti.
    7. Garu sisse dhamma.m ugga.nhaapesi.
    8. Adhipati purisehi rukkhe chindaapessati.
    9. Aha.m ka~n~naahi bha.n.daani aaharaapessaami.
    10.Tumhe bhaatarehi kapayo gaama.m haraapetha.
    11.Maya.m dasahi go.nehi khetta.m kasaapessaama.
    12.Maataa putta.m pii.the nisiidaapetvaa bhatta.m pacitu.m
       ta.n.dule** aaharaapesi.
* Instrumental is also used with the causal forms.
** ta.n.dula (m, n) (uncooked) rice.
Translate into Pali
    1. The sinner causes his brothers to kill birds.
    2. The rich men make their sons gave alms.
    3. The king makes the carpenters build five houses.
    4. The charioteer makes the slave bring two horses near the
    5. The women get their daughters cook rice for the guests.
    6. The carpenter gets the work* done by the servants.
    7. The leader gets his men cut many trees in his garden.
    8. They will get the field ploughed by 20 oxen.
    9. I will make my son eat some food.
    10.We will cause our slaves to go to the town.
    11.They make the cows eat grass.
    12.Do not allow him do that work*.
* work = kamma (n), kammanta (m).

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