Gey 111 chp 345 Student test fall 2009 by KWo6W5


									                                                     Chapter 3
1) Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?
A) neutron
B) selectron
C) electron
D) protons

2) Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of __________.
A) electrons in the nucleus
B) protons in the nucleus
C) neutrons in the outer nuclear shell
D) electrons in the valence bond level

3) Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?
A) The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons.
B) The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons.
C) The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons.
D) The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons.

4) Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon
dioxide gas?
A) calcite
B) quartz
C) dolomite
D) plagioclase

5) Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (Si02)?
A) calcite
B) diamond
C) olivine
D) quartz

6) Which of the following minerals is a silicate?
A) hematite
B) muscovite
C) calcite
D) halite

7) Which one of the following describes a mineral's response to mechanical impact?
A) luster
B) cleavage
C) streak
D) crystal form

8) Moh's hardness scale is a relative measure of which physical property of minerals?

9) What physical property denotes the color of a powdered mineral?

10) The physical property denoting a mineral's tendency to crack along parallel, planar surfaces is known as what?

11) What is the hardest mineral known?

12) What is the chemical composition of graphite and diamond?
13) In atoms, which electrons are involved in chemical bonding?
14) A compound is a stable chemical substance composed of two or more what?

15) What is the dominant form of chemical bonding exhibited by minerals such as native gold, native copper and
copper-rich sulfides?

                                                      Chapter 4

16) Which magma is most likely to quench (congeal) to a natural glass?
A) highly viscous; cools quickly
B) highly viscous; cools slowly
C) highly fluid; cools slowly
D) highly fluid; cools quickly

17) The sizes, shapes, and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock is known as __________.
A) silica content
B) texture
C) mineral content
D) Bowen's reaction series
Match the description with the appropriate texture.

A. aphanitic      B. porphyritic    C. phaneritic      D. glassy

18) _____ magma cools and consolidates without growth of mineral grains

19) _____ mineral grains are of roughly equal size and coarse enough to be seen without a microscope or
magnifying glass

20) _____ rock has two or more, distinctly different-sized populations of mineral grains

21) _____ a magnifying glass or microscope is needed to see individual mineral grains

22) What term denotes the larger mineral grains in a porphyritic igneous rock?

23) __________ is the name given to molten rock below the Earth's surface.

24) Melting of rocks to form magma as a result of decreases pressure is known as __________.

25) What type of magma, commonly erupted along oceanic ridge systems, originates by partial melting of mantle

26) Pegmatites consist of what size mineral grains?

27) A __________ texture refers to rocks composed mainly of mineral and volcanic fragments.

28) Pyroxene, hornblende, and biotite are all minerals found on the __________ series of Bowen's Reaction Series.

29) Name two igneous rocks with glassy textures.

30) Technically, the process whereby ions arrange themselves into orderly patterns during the cooling of a liquid is
called __________.
                                                       Chapter 5

31) In 1980, __________ was the first Cascade Range volcano to erupt since Mt. Lassen, California, in 1915-16.
A) Mt. Rainier
B) Mt. Shasta
C) Kilauea
D) Mt. St. Helens

32) Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface?
A) aa
B) pegmatitic
C) pahoehoe
D) scoria

33) __________ is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases?
A) Water
B) Carbon monoxide
C) Hydrogen chloride
D) Methane

34) Volcanic bombs originate __________.
A) as laser-guided, granite blocks launched from a supersonic jet
B) as blocks of volcanic rock ejected from an erupting volcanic crater
C) as erupted magma blobs that partly congeal before falling to the ground
D) as ash particles that join together in the eruptive plume and fall as cobble-sized objects

35) The __________ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones.
A) Atlantic
B) Indian
C) Pacific
D) Arctic

36) Which was the most powerful, explosive volcanic eruption of historic time?
A) Mt. Pele, Martinique, 1902
B) Vesuvius, Italy, 79 A.D.
C) Tambora, Indonesia, 1815
D) Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia, 1985

37) Which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots?
A) Vesuvius and the other volcanoes of Italy
B) the volcanoes of Hawaii and the Quaternary activity in Yellowstone National Park
C) the very young cinder cones scattered across the southwestern United States
D) Mt. St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Mountains

38) Why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep int he mantle begin melting as it neared the
base of the lithosphere?
A) The rock heats up and expands at lower pressures, causing it to liquefy.
B) Temperatures remain high as lowered pressures decrease melting temperatures.
C) The lowered pressures cause rapid heat loss accompanied by melting.
D) none of the above
For the following items, please choose from one of the following answers.
A) shield volcanoes       B) composite/stratovolcanoes         C) cinder cones

39) _____ massive, gently sloping volcanoes built of successive, basaltic lava flows

40) _____ large, fairly steep-sided cones composed of lavas and pyroclastic layers

41) _____ small basaltic cones built during one, short, eruptive episode

42) _____ the volcanoes of southwestern Alaska and the Aleutian Islands

43) _____ the big volcanoes of Hawaii

44) __________ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano.
A) High viscosity and dissolved gas
B) High viscosity; low dissolved gas content
C) Low silica content, low viscosity
D) Low viscosity; low dissolved gas content

45) Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble?
A) scoria
B) pahoehoe
C) pillow lava
D) aa

46) Which one of the following statements concerning volcanic blocks and bombs is true?
A) blocks are broken fragments of solid rocks; bombs have smaller sizes than lapilli
B) bombs are guided to Earth by laser beams; blocks fall anywhere
C) bombs are ejected as magma lumps; blocks are ejected as solid fragments
D) bombs and blocks are both smaller than lapilli and cinders

47) The Columbia Plateau in Washington and Oregon is __________.
A) a flood basalt plateau
B) a thick stack of welded-tuff layers
C) a caldera filled with rhyolite lava flow.
D) a field of large stratovolcanoes

48) Which kind of eruptive activity is most likely to be highly explosive?
A) Lava flows from a large shield volcano on an oceanic island.
B) Fissure eruptions feeding lava to flood basalt accumulations.
C) Eruptions of big, continental margin, composite cones or stratovolcanoes.
D) Lava flows from a large cinder cone complex.

49) Which one of the following statements is not true?
A) Melting temperatures of silicate rocks increase with increased pressure.
B) Melting temperatures of silicate rocks are lowered by small amounts of water.
C) Basalt magmas in general have higher temperatures than rhyolite magmas.
D) When magma reaches the surface, its dissolved gas content increases.

50) Kilauea and Mauna Loa are ___________.
A) explosive, rhyolitic volcanoes
B) andesitic stratovolcanoes
C) basaltic shield volcanoes
D) small, basaltic cinder cones
51) Mount St. Helens is ___________.
A) a basaltic cinder cone
B) an explosive stratovolcano
C) a basaltic shield volcano
D) a small, welded tuff cone

52) The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by ____________.
A) mudflows and explosive ash eruptions
B) welded-tuff deposition and caldera formation
C) cinder cone building and basaltic lava
D) pyroclastic eruptions and nueé ardente flows

53) The average composition of rocks comprising a large composite cone or stratovolcano is similar to a (an)
__________ magma.
A) basaltic
B) ultramafic
C) andesitic
D) rhyolitic

54) A __________ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows.
A) composite
B) stratospheric
C) cinder cone
D) shield

55) Which of the following best describes Shiprock, a famous volcanic feature in New Mexico?
A) a very recently active, basaltic cinder cone
B) an extinct, highly symmetrical, composite volcanic cone
C) the eroded remains of a volcanic pipe and radiating dikes
D) an extinct, massive, rhyolitic shield volcano

56) Which region has the greatest concentration of currently active volcanoes?
A) the coastal plain of western Africa
B) European Russia and Siberia
C) the area surrounding the Red Sea
D) the circum-Pacific area

57) The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is __________.
A) related to plate subduction
B) related to a divergent plate boundary
C) related to a transform plate boundary
D) related to intraplate, hot spot volcanism

58) Draw and label the three different types of Volacanos (6 pts)

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