The Atomic Bomb

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					  The Development,
Decision, and Reaction
 Albert Einstein writes letter to
 FDR
   Telling him about the possibility
    of an atomic bomb AND
   That Germany might be working
    on one
 Special Theory of Relativity
 (E=mc²)
   Mass can be converted to Energy
    where “c” is the speed of light
   A small amount of mass can
    create a huge amount of energy
  Code name for the project to develop the Atomic Bomb
    Named for site of Columbia University where much of early
     research done


 125,000 workers
 2.2 Billion dollars
 Complete secrecy
   Most did not know
    the ultimate purpose
    of their work until
    news of Hiroshima
    bombing
 Leo Szilard
    Fled Germany in 1933
    Conducted 1st controlled nuclear
     reaction
    Created 1st Nuclear Reactor w/
     Enrico Fermi
 J. Robert Oppenheimer
    Headed Los Alamos Laboratory
    Helped to direct 1st test of atomic
     bomb
 Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves
   Director of Manhattan Project
   Credited with success of it
 Fission – the splitting of an atomic nucleus resulting
  in the release of large amounts of energy

 Energy Released
 from Each Fission
   200 MeV
      (million electron volts)
   Includes gamma
    radiation (deadly)




      http://www.atomicarchive.com/Fission/FissionMov1.shtml
 Chain Reaction – Process in
 which neutrons released in
 fission produce an
 additional fission




   http://www.atomicarchive.com/Movies/Movie1.shtml
 Time of Reaction –
   Released neutron travels at
    speed of 10 million meters
    per second
   Complete Process of a bomb
    explosion is a microsecond
    (1 millionth of a second)
 Critical Mass
   The point at which the chain
    reaction becomes self
    sustaining.
 Problems
   Manufacturing &
    Separating Isotopes
    Necessary
      U235 – only 0.7% of
       uranium
      P239 – not naturally
       occurring, had to be
       made
   Creating & Controlling
    Chain Reaction
      How do you set it off
       without blowing
       yourself up?
   Bomb Designs
      The will work but are
       they safe?
 Uranium Bomb
   220 lbs
 Simpler – More Fissionable
 900lbs total
 Gun - Type




    http://www.atomicarchive.com/Movies/Movie9.shtml
 Plutonium Bomb
 More Complicated Process
 Implosion started chain reaction
 Stronger of the two bombs




     http://www.atomicarchive.com/Movies/Movie3.shtml
 Alamogordo, NM
 Plutonium Bomb
 July 16, 1945 – 1st
  Successful Test of Atomic
  Bomb
 Explosion larger than
  expected
    Equivalent to 20,000 tons
     of TNT
    Shock felt 160 miles away
    broke windows 120 miles
     away



  http://www.atomicarchive.com/Movies/mushroomcloud.shtml
 Vaporization point
  (1/2 mile – 98% fatalities, 3000 - 4000C)

 Total destruction zone
  (1 mile – 90% fatalities, all buildings destroyed)

 Severe blast damage area
  (1.75 miles – 65% fatalities, 35% injuries – larger structures collapsed,
   bridges & roads damaged)
 Severe heat damage
  (2.5 miles – 50% fatalities, 45% injuries – everything some kind of
   burn, people killed from suffocation – Oxygen used by fire)
 Severe fire and wind damage
  (3 miles – 15% fatalities, 50% injuries – home & buildings damaged,
   people blown around, 2nd degree burns, if they survived)
 Ground Zero (hypocenter)
   Point on earth directly
    under point of detonation
 Thermal Effects
   Radiation = Heat
   Travels at speed of light
   Visible Light –
      “flash blindness” – lasts
       several minutes
   Skin Burns (2nd & 3rd Degree)
      10,000 severe burn cases
   Can cause fires in homes
    & buildings
   Thermal Pulse


      http://www.atomicarchive.com/Effects/thermalpulse.shtml
 Blast Effects
   Causes most damage
   Shockwave of air can
    crush & knockdown
    objects
   Large buildings
    destroyed by change
    in air pressure
   People & Objects
    destroyed by wind
   Destruction can lead
    to fires

   http://www.atomicarchive.com/Effects/blastwave.shtml
 Nuclear Radiation
   Initial – radiation that
    arrives during 1st minute
      Strongest near ground
      zero – few die from it
       Why?
   Residual – From
    radioactive fallout
 Fallout
   Radiation received from
    radioactive particles
    that are distributed at
    varying distances
   Carried by wind and
    rain
                                     Long Term Effects
 Radiation Effects on
                                       Blood Disorders
 Humans
                                       Cataracts
   Hair Loss
                                       Malignant Tumors
   Brain – seizures,
      immediate death                   (Cancers)
                                       Keloids
     Increased susceptibility to
      infection
     Increased risk for
      leukemia & lymphoma
     Heart failure & death
     Bloody vomiting, diarrhea
     Sometimes sterility
 FDR died on April 12,
  1945
 Truman becomes
  President                Interim Committee
   Knew nothing about
                              Gov’t leaders, officials,
    Manhattan Project          & scientists discuss
 Favors use of bomb           usage
 to end war quickly           Recommend usage
                              Many of scientists who
                               had worked on project
                               oppose usage
                                 German threat defeated


http://www.atomicarchive.com/Movies/Movie8.shtml
 B-29 Bomber
 Dropped “Little Boy”
  on Hiroshima
 Piloted by Colonel
  Paul Tibbets
 Why Chosen?
   Major port, military HQ,
    war industries
   Untouched by previous
    bombing raids
   Urban area – hoped to
    break will of Japanese
 Population
   Military – 43,000
   Civilian – 285,000
 August 6th – 8:15AM
   Little Boy Explodes
 Results
   Thousands Killed
    Instantly
   70,000 Killed
      20 US POWs
   70,000 Injured
 By end of 1945
   140,000 Dead (20,000
    military)
 In 5 years time
   200,000 dead
 No Japanese Surrender
 Why Chosen?
   Large Seaport in Southern
    Japan
   Wartime Industries
      Manufactured torpedoes
      used at Pearl Harbor
   Actually secondary target
      Weather poor at primary
 August 9th – 11:01AM
   Fat Man Explodes
 Results
   Thousands Killed
    Instantly
   40,000 Killed
   60,000 Injured
   Less Damage than
    Hiroshima – due to
    geography
 By end of 1945
   70,000 Dead
 Final Total Dead = 140,000
  VJ Day – August 14th 1945
     Japanese Surrender




http://www.history.com/media.do?action=clip&id=mf949_vjday_49
 September 2, 1945
   Official signing
    of surrender
 USS Missouri
   One of ships
    attacked at Pearl
    Harbor
 Arms Race / Cold War


 Health of Japanese


 Others Want/Get the
 Bomb
 After watching the reenactment of the bombing of
 Hiroshima and seeing the effects of the A-Bombs, do
 you still believe your decision about what to do with
 the bombs is correct? Why or Why not?

				
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