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					Ghana                                   1

68. Ghana

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Governmental Largest party /                Votes for the       Total        Total Voters as a

system / year    chief executive            largest party       votes   population percentage

of election                            % of total votes                              of the total

                                                  / seats                            population

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Parliamentary dominance, 1957-59

19561            Convention People's Party          68.3     696 757     6 020 000          11.6

Executive dominance, 1960-68

19602            Kwame Nkrumah                      89.1    1 140 699    6 780 000          16.8

19663            Provisional government            100.0           0     7 950 000             0

Parliamentary dominance, 1969-78

19694            Progress Party                     75.0    1 504 032    8 740 000          17.2

19725            Military governments              100.0           0     9 090 000             0

Executive dominance, 1979-91

19796            Hilla Limann                       62.0    1 804 537   11 182 000          16.1

19817            Jerry Rawling                     100.0           0    11 944 000             0



Concurrent powers, 1992- (50-50%)

Parliamentary elections:

19928            National Democratic Congress 94.0          2 059 415   15 923 000          12.9

19969            National Democratic Congress 67.0          5 980 000   18 154 000          32.9

200010           New Patriotic Party                50.0    6 530 757   20 000 000          32.6

Presidential elections:

19928            Jerry Rawlings                     58.0    3 989 115   15 923 000          25.0

199611           Jerry Rawlings                     57.4    7 145 772   18 154 000          39.4

200012           John Kufour                        56.9    6 381 387   20 000 000          31.9



National referendums
Ghana                                2

19601           1 referendum                       -              -               -         5.0



19641           1 referendum                       -              -               -         5.0

19781           1 referendum                       -              -               -         5.0



19821           1 referendum                       -              -               -         5.0

19921           1 referendum                       -              -               -         5.0



1. Apter 1970: 290; Global Report 1997: 64; Elections in Africa 1999: 434. Distribution of seats.

2. Keesing's Africa 1972: 94. Cf. Global Report 1997: 64.

3. Keesing's Africa 1972: 101-103; Wallerstein 1967: 43-46. A coup d'état in 1966 and the

   government of the National Liberation Council from 1966 to 1969.

4. IPU 1969-70; Elections in Africa 1999: 434-35. Cf. Card and Callaway 1970: 10-15; Africa

   South of the Sahara 1971: 342-343. Distribution of seats.

5. Africa South of the Sahara 1975: 358-60; Banks and Overstreet 1982-83: 182-83. A military

   coup in January 1972 and military governments from 1972 to 1979.

6. Keesing's 1979: 30444-47; Elections in Africa 1999: 438. The second round of the presidential

   election.

7. Keesing's 1981: 31477-86; Chazan 1988. A military coup d'état on December 31, 1981, and

   Jerry Rawling's semimilitary government in 1981-91.

8. IPU 1992-93; Keesing's 1992: 39180, 39228; Africa Research Bulletin 1992: 10852; Global

   Report 1997: 64; Elections in Africa 1999: 434-35. Distribution of seats.

9. IPU 1995-96; Global Report 1997: 64; WFB 2000: 187. Cf. Elections in Africa 1999: 434-35.

   Parliamentary election, 7 December 1996. Distribution of seats.

10. IPU 2000; IFES Election Guide Org. 2000. Parliamentary election, 7 December 2000.

   Distribution of seats.

11. IFES 1997 Vol. 6, 4: 27; Elections in Africa 1999: 438. Cf. Banks 1997: 1164; Global Report

   1997: 93. Presidential election, 7 December 1996.

12. IFES Election Guide.Org. 2000; Keesing's 2000: 43892. Presidential election, 28 December

   2000. Second round. See also Gyimah-Boadi 2001; Ayee 2002.
Ghana                              3



Referendums:

1. Butler and Ranney 1994: Appendix A; Elections in Africa 1999: 432-33.

				
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