Jefferson to Jackson
Spain fighting in the war against France.
Spanish met with Thomas Pinckney - worried about newly
reconciled Britain and US.
Pinckney’s Treaty (The Treaty of San Lorenzo), 1795.
Agreed to boundary between the US and Louisiana.
Opened up the Mississippi to American ships.
Granted the right to store US exports in New Orleans.
Allowed to carry out commercial transactions in the city.
Benefited 100,000 in Kentucky (admitted 1792) and Tennessee
(1796), and several thousand in Ohio.
Life on frontier insecure.
Washington eager to clear Ohio Valley of Indians.
Many wealthy planters – including Washington - owned
thousands of acres.
In 1790, Washington sent a force to defeat the Miami
and the Shawnee – it failed (twice).
In August 1794, General “Mad Anthony” Wayne finally defeated
them near present-day Toledo.
The victory over the Shawnee and Miami would have
benefited Washington on the frontier but he also
dispatched a force against farmers in Western
Pennsylvania to collect a tax on whiskey.
People on the frontier drank a lot.
Rye whiskey - considered medicinal – cheap.
Whiskey also a cash crop.
Westerners could not ship their grain until the Mississippi
River was opened up for American trade in 1795 (via the
Ohio that runs into the Mississippi).
The cost of transporting grain across the Appalachians was
Shipping liquor was far more profitable and a small profit could
Hamilton instituted an excise tax – 7 cents on the gallon –
profit wiped out by the tax the Pennsylvania farmers rioted – The
Washington and Hamilton asserted the new authority of the
Washington headed 15,000 troops to suppress the rebellion.
Hamilton arrested a number of men who were sentenced to death for
An army larger than the one that had defeated the British was sent out
to crush a few farmers.
The event allowed the Federalists to assert state authority – but it
also assured that when political parties became full-blown entities
the people of the western frontier would not be Federalists.
Summer of 1796 - when Washington announced he
would step down - two parties existed in all but name.
The Federalists: supported Hamilton’s financial policies, feared
the French revolution, were friendly to England and accepted
John Jay’s treaty.
Federalists were Hamilton, Jay, Adams and Washington
and the urban rich.
Jefferson Republicans: opposed Hamilton’s fiscal policies,
they liked the ideals of the French Revolution, they were
suspicious of England, they despised Jay’s treaty, they tended to
be rural and they disliked the idea of a too powerful a central
Election of 1796
Thomas Jefferson was the Republican
candidate for president in 1796.
Officially, Vice President John Adams of
Massachusetts was the Federalists’
Diplomat Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina was
the Federalists vice-presidential candidate.
Hamilton supported Pinckney for president.
In 1796 electors did not vote separately for
president and vice-president.
Each elector wrote two names on his ballot.
The Candidate with the largest number of votes won,
the candidate with the second largest vote became
Nine states empowered their legislatures to
select members of the electoral college - popular
elections were held in only six states.
Hamilton persuaded Federalist politicians in the south
to cast one of their votes for Pinckney.
The other vote was to go to some other
candidate – not Adams.
Adam’s supporters in New England withheld
votes from Pinckney.
Adams won the election and Jefferson
came in second.
If Adams had died in office, his chief
political rival would take over.
John Adams Thomas Jefferson
Adams was a moderate at heart, but could also
be intolerant and angry.
Franklin described Adams as “always honest and
Adams sought advice from his wife Abigail on
Did not have the support of Hamilton, and so
had only half a party behind him.
He did not inherit Washington’s cabinet.
Adams occupied with the threat of war with
Angered by America’s treaty with Britain – Jay’s
Treaty – the French started seizing American
Hamilton’s supporters “the high Federalists”
demanded war with France.
Adams sent John Marshall and Elbridge
Gerry to Paris to negotiate.
The diplomats were shunned by French
foreign minister Charles Maurice de
Talleyrand sent three henchmen - X,Y,Z, -
that the minister would talk to the
Americans if they agreed to:
loan France $12 million.
with a gift of $250,000 to Talleyrand.
Federalists urged Adams to put an army
together – led by Washington and Hamilton.
Adams feared a military coup from such an
arrangement so he decided to build a navy.
Adams ordered the construction of 40 frigates and
smaller warships – a major jump from the three naval
vessels inherited from Washington.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Jefferson’s Republicans remained pro-French- Supporters were Irish
Adams administration passed the Alien and Sedition Acts of
The Alien Act:
Extended the period of residence required for American citizenship from
5 to 14 years.
Allowed the president to deport any foreigner whom he deemed
dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States.
Gave the government authority to move against enemy aliens at home.
The Acts were due to expire in 1801, at the end of Adam’s term.
Stiff fines and prison sentences for persons
who published statements that held the
United States government in “contempt or
Twenty-five cases were brought to trail
– ten were convicted.
Federalists convicted four important Republican
Jefferson and James Madison believed that
Congress had violated the Bill of Rights.
But who was to declare when Congress had acted
The answer Jefferson and Madison gave would
contribute to the Civil War of 1861-1865.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions:
Adopted in the legislatures of those states in 1798
The federal government was a voluntary compact of
Congress, therefore, was the creation of the states.
When Congress enacted a law that a state deemed
unconstitutional, that state had the right to nullify the
law within its boundaries.
Acting on this principle, the Virginia and Kentucky
resolutions declared that the Alien and Sedition Acts
did not apply in those states.
The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
challenged the supremacy of the federal
government which the Constitution was written
No other state enacted the resolutions.
The death of Washington in December
1799 briefly calmed political tempers.
The Alien and Sedition Acts actually
harmed the Federalists and improved the
chances of a Republican victory.
The Election of 1800
Election marked by electoral college confusion.
Jefferson’s 73 to Adam’s 65.
Political alignment in New York to the Jefferson
New York the third biggest prize in presidential elections with 19
The win for the Republicans was orchestrated by
Hamilton’s rival – and political equal – Aaron Burr.
Burr was the Republican vice-presidential
Plan for Burr to receive one less vote than
Jefferson – botched - 73 Republican electors
voted for Jefferson and Burr – so they tied.
The Constitution provided (and still does) that
when no candidate wins a majority of votes in
the electoral college, the House of
Representatives, voting by state, not by
individuals, chooses the President.
In 1800, this gave the Federalists the balance of
The votes of nine states were required for election.
The Republicans who voted for Jefferson controlled
only eight state delegations in the House.
When the first ballot was taken, Jefferson received
eight votes to Burr’s six.
Two states were evenly divided.
In 1800, this gave the Federalists the balance of
The votes of nine states were required for
The Republicans, who dutifully voted for
Jefferson controlled only eight state delegations
in the House.
When the first ballot was taken, Jefferson
received eight votes to Burr’s six.
Two states were evenly divided.
The Federalists voted mainly for Burr, some because
they believed Jefferson was a dangerous radical.
After 35 deadlocked votes, a Delaware Federalist,
James A. Bayard said he would change his vote to
Jefferson - he didn’t need to.
Hamilton extracted vague promises from Jefferson to
continue Hamilton’s fiscal policy and Federalist foreign
Hamilton pressured a few Federalist Congressmen to
abstain from voting.
Jefferson was elected on the 36th ballot on February
The election of 1796 showed that party
politicians were willing to manipulate the
electoral process to serve factional ends.
The election of 1800 demonstrated that parties
were permanent fixtures of the American
This meant that the original procedure for
electing the president was no longer workable.
In 1804, the 12th Amendment provided that:
henceforth, electors would vote separately for president and
vice-president – the system we have today.
Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Governor of Virginia during the Revolution.
Minister to France under the Articles of
First secretary of State.
3rd President of the US.
Founded the University of Virginia.
A “natural philosopher.”
Invented the dumbwaiter, the swivel
chair, and way to make multiple copies.
Possibly the first American to employ a French
No orator – perhaps because of his lisp.
Not universally admired.
Critics saw him as a dangerous radical –
described as frivolous and immoral.
He knew he owed his election to Federalists and
attempted to win over federalists in his
As president he abandoned some of his pre-
presidential positions and adopted Federalist
policies that he had previously condemned.
Said nothing more about the Kentucky and
Jefferson shunned the pomp and ceremony of
Washington and Adam’s presidency.
The summer before his inauguration, the capital was
moved to Federal City (Washington D.C).
Adams was the first president to live at the White House.
A hodgepodge of half-completed public buildings, ramshackle
boarding houses, stables, vast tracts of wooded wilderness,
swamps, and few private homes.
No place for Congressman’s families.
Social life was masculine and on the raw side: Smokey card
games, heavy drinking, even brawls and gun fights.
Jefferson pardoned the people imprisoned under the
Restored the 5 year residency requirement for
citizenship, and replaced Federalist officeholders
Jefferson’s presidency not characterized by any
great innovations in government.
The only innovation in governance that
happened during Jefferson’s presidency was
effected by one of his bitterest enemies (and a
distant cousin) – the Federalist chief Justice of
the Supreme Court, John Marshall.
Marbury v. Madison
Adams appointed 42 Federalists to the
bench – Midnight Judges.
Federal judges served for life
Wanted to ensure that the judiciary would
remain a bastion of Federalist principles.
The appointment of “midnight judges” would
become standard procedure.
Document that entitled Marbury to his job was not
delivered before March 4th, when Jefferson took the
oath of office.
According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the
secretary of State, James Madison as of March 4th,
was obligated to deliver the commission.
When Madison refused to do so, Marbury sued
for a writ of mandamus – a court order that
means “we compel” a government official to
perform the duties of his office.
By 1803 the case was before the Supreme
Court was dominated by Marshall (30years).
In his ruling in the case of Marbury v. Madison,
he scolded Madison for unseemly behavior.
However, Marshall ruled that a section of
the law under which Marbury had sued
Said Congress had no Constitutional right to
give the federal courts the powers the
Judiciary Act of 1789 accorded it.
Asserted the Supreme Court’s right to decide
which acts of Congress were constitutional,
and which unconstitutional – the right of
The Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson also reinterpreted the Constitution in the most
important action of his first term - The Louisiana
Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to reassert French power in
Napoleon’s plan wanted to force Spain – a client state – to
return Louisiana to France.
With Louisiana, Napoleon could feed the people from within a
In 1801, by secret treaty, Napoleon regained Louisiana.
Almost immediately the right to use New
Orleans and the Mississippi guaranteed by
Pinckney’s Treaty was revoked.
The free navigation of the Mississippi was vital
to 400,000 Americans.
War with France seemed likely, but would
require a naval siege of New Orleans.
An alliance with the British was repugnant to
Offered France $2 million for a tract of land on
In January 1803 sent James Monroe to Paris to
offer $10 million for New Orleans and West
But the French had offered the American
minister to France all of Louisiana for $15
France did this because a slave uprising in Haiti
had defeated 30,000 French troops.
The Louisiana deal was sealed despite the
fact that it was without constitutional
Jefferson sent out Meriwether Lewis, and
William Clark to explore the new territory. They
reached the pacific in November, 1805.
The tribes of the Northwest, had been dealing
with Americans and Europeans for years.
The West served Jefferson’s rural republican
Jefferson easily elected to a second term in
Jefferson’s Second Term
First Barbary War (1801-1805).
To end tribute.
Tribute v. ransom
War between Britain and France.
This war came to a head in 1805, when Lord Nelson defeated
Napoleon’s navy at the Battle of Trafalgar.
The British and French then settled down to economic
warfare, each aiming to ruin the other by crippling their trade.
The British issued the Orders of Council forbidding neutrals
(the U.S.) from trading in Europe unless first stopping in a
British port for a license.
New England merchants could have lived with
this situation – many tended to be pro-British,
however, Napoleon retaliated by enacting the
Berlin and Milan decrees of 1806 and
Known as the Continental System, any
neutral vessels that observed the Orders in
Council would be seized by the French.
American merchants were caught in the middle.
Within a year the British had seized 1,000
American ships and the French 500.
But the Americans were still making
massive amounts of money.
British began impressments of American
Jefferson decided to respond by passing
the Embargo Act of 1807, American
ships in port were forbidden to leave.
All imports and exports were prohibited.
The embargo was total economic war.
Britain hurt by the embargo, but so were
Americans who did business with foreign
The embargo ended up costing Americans
3 times what a war would have.
Congress repealed the embargo in 1808.
In 1808 James Madison won the election.
Madison’s first attempt to resolve the dispute over trade
– the Non-Intercourse Act – opened trade with all
nations except France and Britain.
The act provided that whichever of the two belligerents
agreed to respect the rights of American shipping would
get the right to trade with America back.
In London the American minister negotiated a favorable
treaty with Britain and Madison renewed trade with
Then the British repudiated the agreement -
In May 1810, the Republicans created
Macon’s Bill No.2:
reopened trade with Britain and France,
with the condition that as soon as either agreed to
American terms the U.S. would cut off trade to the
With no intention of stopping French captains
from seizing American vessels, Napoleon
revoked the Continental System, and as
Macon’s Bill No.2 required, Madison cut off trade
The War of 1812
On June 16th 1812, with Napoleon invading Russia,
Britain canceled their Orders in Council.
But the news of this diplomatic victory for Madison did
not reach him in time.
He asked Congress for a declaration of war against
On the face of it, the War of 1812, was fought to
defend the rights of American shipping on the high seas.
Mercantile New England - largely Federalist –
were against the war.
The demands for war had come from Jefferson
Republicans in the agricultural regions of the US.
These farmers who lived by exporting their crops
suffered from British depredations at sea because the
farmers unsold crops were useless.
Britain’s interference in America’s overseas trade was
a real problem for American farmers.
Supporters of the war also resented Britain’s
continued support of the Indians in the
Westerners were in continual conflict with the
native-American groups there and the
supporters of the war saw it as an opportunity
to break the back of Indian military power.
Many of the “War Hawks” even spoke of
invading Canada to get rid of British influence in
North America for good.
With the war against Napoleon in Europe
nearing its climax, Britain had left 2,200
professional soldiers in North America.
To defend Canada, they relied on a
confederacy of Indian tribes led by a
Shawnee chief named Tecumseh.
In August 1812, the Americans began a
three-pronged attack on Canada.
The Canadians counterattacked and captured Detroit,
while there Indian allies destroyed the stockade at
Chicago, then called Fort Dearborn.
Americans were able to secure Lake Erie and burned
the capital of upper Canada, York (Toronto).
The British attempted to invade New York, but were
stopped at Lake Champlain.
But in August 1814, the British launched an amphibious
raid on Washington DC.
In revenge for the burning of York, the British burned
the Capitol and the White House.
James and Dolly Madison narrowly escaped capture.
The British hadn’t wanted the American war, but
when Napoleon abdicated in 1814, it freed a
large number of British soldiers to fight in
The British began peace talks at Ghent in
Belgium, and also came up with a plan to seize
Britain sent 8,000 troops to attack New Orleans.
What looked like a disaster would become one
of the great military victories for America and
the making of a national hero – Andrew
Battle of New Orleans
a slave-holding planter
Killed 2,000 redcoats and lost only 7 Americans.
The Treaty of Ghent which restored Anglo-American
relations to what they had been before the war was
actually signed before the Battle of New Orleans.
Such a victory seemed a reaffirmation of the nation’s
Within three years of the battle, America had crushed
the Creek tribe in the Southeast, and stung the Barbary
pirates of Algeria.
Americans began to take a prominent role in the world –
where armed might was a sign of greatness.
Moreover, another of these measures, a nation’s sway
over vast territory, also captured the attention of the
Americans were moving west into areas they regarded
After 1815 America began to coalesce into a more unified entity.
It is at this time that July 4th begins to be celebrated.
James Monroe, of Virginia would preside over relative stability and
prosperity – at time characterized by relative political unity.
A key event in his presidency was the Monroe Doctrine.
In 1823, the president wrote to Congress and Europe that the
United States would no longer be considered an appendage
of the Old World. The United states pledged not to interfere
or dabble in European affairs. In return Europe was to
consider the western Hemisphere closed to further
colonization and would be considered by the US as an act of
One of Hamilton’s dreams, and Jefferson’s nightmare, was the
gradual movement toward industrialization in America.
It began with the cloth industry.
Mills were built alongside fast moving rivers – using technology
smuggled out of England who closely guarded their technology
With plenty of resources and capital flowing from the merchants and
shippers of the northeast, it seemed to Americans that the US had
been built for industrialization.
Banks were a new phenomenon in 19th century America, but they
made it easier to channel capital where it was needed.
Industrialization, undercut traditional handicrafts and American
labor shifted from cottage-industry to factories.
First successful factory systems was instituted by Francis Cabot
Lowell who persuaded farmers to send their young daughters to
his factories in Waltham, Massachusetts.
For 70 hours a week, the girls sat at the machines – where they
earned $3 per week.
Half of their pay went to room and board at company owned
Their lives were highly regulated both physically and morally.
Plan of Lowell, Massachusetts
Southerners reaffirmed their agrarian heritage.
In 1782, African – American slavery appeared to
be dying out.
The northern states took steps to abolish slavery
in late 18th century.
Slavery was never vital to the northern economy
so the north could afford to practice the
revolution’s principle of liberty.
Slavery was also in decline in the South during
the Revolutionary era.
The world price of tobacco – one of the few
crops using slave labor – collapsed.
Many of the old tobacco fields exhausted.
Many Southerners saw slavery as a necessary
evil, and in 1808, when congress outlawed
further importation of slaves from Africa, few
At the peace talks in Ghent in 1815,
American and British ministers talked
about collaborating to suppress illegal
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin:
A way to separate the fiber from the plant’s
Technology had come to the South, but not
The effects of Eli Whitney’s machine were:
the revival of the South’s traditional one-crop
the domination of southern society by large planters,
and the re-invigoration of slavery.
The fertile upland belt that extends from South
Carolina and Georgia through East Texas was
perfect cotton country.
Southerners poured into Alabama, Mississippi, and
northern Louisiana and eventually Arkansas.
Most were wealthy planters who brought with them women, and
By 1820 half the population of Mississippi were black and
The price of slaves soared.
Slaves who were becoming a financial burden in Virginia
and Maryland were valuable commodities in the new
Slave holders from as far north as New Jersey sold their
slaves to cotton planters.
There were still a few slaves in the North to be
sold in 1819.
Most states had adopted a gradualist approach
no person born or brought into the state after a
certain date could be enslaved.
By 1819, a clear-cut line between slave states
and free states.
North of the Pennsylvania/Maryland border
and the Ohio River slavery was forbidden.
The Missouri Compromise, 1820
South slavery remained a vital part of society
and the economy.
Application of the Missouri Territory to be
admitted to the Union as a state ignited
Most of Missouri lay north of the Ohio River.
Northern representatives called for Missouri forbid
importation of slaves and to free all slaves in the
state when they reached 25 years old.
Monroe encouraged compromise in the
Henry Clay – known as “the Great Compromiser”
who devised a plan.
Clay proposed that Missouri be admitted to the Union
as those who wrote its Constitution wished – as a
Clay proposed that the southern boundary of
Missouri, 36˚ 30’ north latitude, be extended
through the remainder of American territory.
North of that line slavery was forever prohibited.
South of that line - Arkansas Territory and
Florida – citizens of the state could decide to be
a slave state or a free state.
The Missouri compromise – an informal
institutionalization of a balance between free
states and slave states.
There were 22 states in the Union in 1819, 11 free,
When Missouri was admitted the Maine district
of Massachusetts admitted as a free state.
For 30 years, Congress admitted states in pairs,
preserving the balance.
Most of the new territories above the 36° North line.
Inevitable a territory would eventually seek admission
to the Union as a free state with no slave state to
Population of the free north increasing faster than
13 years old in Revolutionary War.
General Jackson a national hero after the Battle
of New Orleans.
First president from the “west.”
1824 presidential election:
Jacksonians called the 1824 election the "Stolen
Jackson won the popular vote - not have enough
electoral votes to win.
Election had to be decided by the House of
Jackson's opponents: Henry Clay of Kentucky -
Speaker of the House, John Quincy Adams of
Mass. - Secretary of State and William H. Crawford
of Georgia, Secretary of the Treasury.
Anti-Jacksonites coalesced around a
hatred of the “savage” Jackson and called
themselves National Republicans.
“Let the people rule!” - Jackson’s
supporters called themselves Democratic
– Republicans – soon abbreviated to
Leading up to the 1828 election Jackson
and his followers continually criticized the
Jackson said he was the people's
candidate argued the elite had
disregarded the people’s choice in 1824.
Jackson defeated Adams in the 1828
election and four years later defeated Clay
in the election of 1832.
During the 1828 campaign the Adams
camp accused Jackson and his wife of
Andrew Jackson first to do a number of
First to marry a divorcee.
First populist president who did not
come from the aristocracy – although
many of his democratic supporters did.
Jackson was the result of 50 years of
Though Jeffersonians saw themselves as natural
aristocrats, they believed that the people should rule.
The 1820s and 30s would be an extraordinary
time of democratic upheaval.
Americans were becoming increasingly
prosperous and had more time to think about
Andrew Jackson would ride this democratization
wave which was particularly influenced by the
In an attempt to attract population, the young
western states extended the right to vote to
all free, adult white males and passed
various laws that benefited the poor.
Eastern states fearful of losing population,
responded by enacting their own legislation
designed to appeal to the common man.
Some of the new voters built parties around
social issues – workingmen’s parties sprung
up in eastern cities – the “Workies” would
eventually integrate into the democratic party.
He was the first to be nominated at a
national convention (his second term).
The first democratic Convention met in 1832.
The anti-Jackson National-Republicans
followed suit a few years later.
He was the first president to unapologetically
represent a political party.
He made it quite clear that his supporters would
take key jobs in the government.
The first president to use the "pocket veto" to
kill a congressional bill.
Jackson believed in a strong presidency
and he vetoed a dozen pieces of legislation,
more than the first six presidents put together.
Jackson also believed in a strong Union:
open opposition with Southern legislators, especially
those from South Carolina, including his Vice-
President John Calhoun – who was replaced by
Martin van Buren for the second term.
But Jackson would have trouble with the
In 1828 Congress passed a high protective
tariff on all manufactured goods – signed into
law by Quincy Adams.
South Carolinian cotton planters believed that
their crop was paying the whole county’s bills
and underwriting industrial development.
Cotton accounted for half the wealth that
poured into the U.S.
Much of the tariff on manufactured goods was
diverted to the North.
President had decided that the national wealth
should be used to industrialize – those who were
not interested in industrialization, like the South
Carolinians were in a minority.
The tariff looked unfair, but constitutional.
South Carolina legislature passed an Ordinance
of Nullification, which rejected the tariff and
declared the tariff invalid in South Carolina.
This nullification could only be overruled if 3/4ths of
the other states overruled the decision.
In such an event, the nullifying state could chose
between capitulation, or succession from the union.
In 1832 Jackson signed into law an even higher
The South Carolinians declared the law null and
Jackson responded with threats.
Henry Clay worked out compromise
tariff just low enough for South Carolina
to agree to pay - 1833.
Incident a precursor of the positions that
would lead almost thirty years later to the
Bank of the United States
Refused to sanction the re-charter of the Bank of the
Argued Congress had not had the authority to create the Bank in
the first place.
Viewed the Bank as operating for the primary benefit of the
upper classes at the expense of working people.
Jackson vetoed re-charter.
The Bank ceased to exist when its charter expired in
Indian Removal Act
Jackson led troops against the Creek War and the First Seminole
During first administration the Indian Removal Act was passed in
The act offered the Indians land west of the Mississippi in return
for evacuation of their tribal homes in the east.
About 100 million acres of traditional Indian lands were cleared
under this law.
Refused to enforce Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester vs. Georgia
in which the Court found that the State of Georgia did not have the
right to move the Cherokees.
In 1838-1839 Georgia evicted the Cherokees
and forced them to march west.
25% of the Indians were dead before they
The "Trail of Tears.”
Took place after Jackson's presidency, the roots of
the march can be found in Jackson's failure to uphold
the legal rights of Native Americans during his
Two new states under Jackson - Arkansas in
1836 and Michigan in 1837.
Appointed Roger Taney who had an impact on
American life long after Jackson's retirement.
In 1836 Taney succeeded John Marshall as Chief
Gave permission for states to restrict immigration.
Destroyed a transportation monopoly in
Massachusetts, establishing the principle in U.S. law
that the public good is superior to private rights.
By 1834, the realignment of politics that
was forced by Jackson’s triumphs was
In the Congressional elections that year,
the old National-Republicans joined with
former Jackson supporters who objected
to his vetoes etc., - the Whigs.