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Jefferson to Jackson

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					Jefferson to Jackson
      1796-1834
                          The Frontier
   Spain fighting in the war against France.

   Spanish met with Thomas Pinckney - worried about newly
    reconciled Britain and US.

   Pinckney’s Treaty (The Treaty of San Lorenzo), 1795.
        Agreed to boundary between the US and Louisiana.
        Opened up the Mississippi to American ships.
        Granted the right to store US exports in New Orleans.
        Allowed to carry out commercial transactions in the city.

   Benefited 100,000 in Kentucky (admitted 1792) and Tennessee
    (1796), and several thousand in Ohio.
   Life on frontier insecure.

   Washington eager to clear Ohio Valley of Indians.

       Many wealthy planters – including Washington - owned
        thousands of acres.

   In 1790, Washington sent a force to defeat the Miami
    and the Shawnee – it failed (twice).

       In August 1794, General “Mad Anthony” Wayne finally defeated
        them near present-day Toledo.

   The victory over the Shawnee and Miami would have
    benefited Washington on the frontier but he also
    dispatched a force against farmers in Western
    Pennsylvania to collect a tax on whiskey.
   People on the frontier drank a lot.

       Rye whiskey - considered medicinal – cheap.

   Whiskey also a cash crop.

   Westerners could not ship their grain until the Mississippi
    River was opened up for American trade in 1795 (via the
    Ohio that runs into the Mississippi).

       The cost of transporting grain across the Appalachians was
        prohibitive.

       Shipping liquor was far more profitable and a small profit could
        be made.
   Hamilton instituted an excise tax – 7 cents on the gallon –
    in 1791.

        profit wiped out by the tax the Pennsylvania farmers rioted – The
         Whiskey Rebellion.

   Washington and Hamilton asserted the new authority of the
    government.

        Washington headed 15,000 troops to suppress the rebellion.

        Hamilton arrested a number of men who were sentenced to death for
         treason.

        An army larger than the one that had defeated the British was sent out
         to crush a few farmers.

   The event allowed the Federalists to assert state authority – but it
    also assured that when political parties became full-blown entities
    the people of the western frontier would not be Federalists.
   Summer of 1796 - when Washington announced he
    would step down - two parties existed in all but name.

       The Federalists: supported Hamilton’s financial policies, feared
        the French revolution, were friendly to England and accepted
        John Jay’s treaty.

       Federalists were Hamilton, Jay, Adams and Washington
        and the urban rich.

       Jefferson Republicans: opposed Hamilton’s fiscal policies,
        they liked the ideals of the French Revolution, they were
        suspicious of England, they despised Jay’s treaty, they tended to
        be rural and they disliked the idea of a too powerful a central
        government.
                 Election of 1796
   Thomas Jefferson was the Republican
    candidate for president in 1796.

   Officially, Vice President John Adams of
    Massachusetts was the Federalists’
    candidate.

       Diplomat Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina was
        the Federalists vice-presidential candidate.

       Hamilton supported Pinckney for president.
   In 1796 electors did not vote separately for
    president and vice-president.

       Each elector wrote two names on his ballot.

       The Candidate with the largest number of votes won,
        the candidate with the second largest vote became
        vice-president.

   Nine states empowered their legislatures to
    select members of the electoral college - popular
    elections were held in only six states.

       Hamilton persuaded Federalist politicians in the south
        to cast one of their votes for Pinckney.
       The other vote was to go to some other
        candidate – not Adams.

       Adam’s supporters in New England withheld
        votes from Pinckney.


   Adams won the election and Jefferson
    came in second.

   If Adams had died in office, his chief
    political rival would take over.
John Adams   Thomas Jefferson
                    John Adams
   Adams was a moderate at heart, but could also
    be intolerant and angry.

       Franklin described Adams as “always honest and
        often great.”

   Adams sought advice from his wife Abigail on
    everything.

   Did not have the support of Hamilton, and so
    had only half a party behind him.
   He did not inherit Washington’s cabinet.

   Adams occupied with the threat of war with
    France.

   Angered by America’s treaty with Britain – Jay’s
    Treaty – the French started seizing American
    ships.

   Hamilton’s supporters “the high Federalists”
    demanded war with France.

   Adams sent John Marshall and Elbridge
    Gerry to Paris to negotiate.
   The diplomats were shunned by French
    foreign minister Charles Maurice de
    Talleyrand.

   Talleyrand sent three henchmen - X,Y,Z, -
    that the minister would talk to the
    Americans if they agreed to:

       loan France $12 million.
       with a gift of $250,000 to Talleyrand.
   America declined.

   Federalists urged Adams to put an army
    together – led by Washington and Hamilton.

   Adams feared a military coup from such an
    arrangement so he decided to build a navy.

       Adams ordered the construction of 40 frigates and
        smaller warships – a major jump from the three naval
        vessels inherited from Washington.
           Alien and Sedition Acts
   Jefferson’s Republicans remained pro-French- Supporters were Irish
    immigrants.

   Adams administration passed the Alien and Sedition Acts of
    1798.

   The Alien Act:

       Extended the period of residence required for American citizenship from
        5 to 14 years.

       Allowed the president to deport any foreigner whom he deemed
        dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States.

       Gave the government authority to move against enemy aliens at home.

       The Acts were due to expire in 1801, at the end of Adam’s term.
   Sedition Act:

       Stiff fines and prison sentences for persons
        who published statements that held the
        United States government in “contempt or
        disrepute.”

       Twenty-five cases were brought to trail
        – ten were convicted.

            Federalists convicted four important Republican
             newspaper editors.
   Jefferson and James Madison believed that
    Congress had violated the Bill of Rights.

       But who was to declare when Congress had acted
        unconstitutionally?

   The answer Jefferson and Madison gave would
    contribute to the Civil War of 1861-1865.

   The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions:
       Adopted in the legislatures of those states in 1798
        and 1799
       The federal government was a voluntary compact of
        sovereign states.
       Congress, therefore, was the creation of the states.

       When Congress enacted a law that a state deemed
        unconstitutional, that state had the right to nullify the
        law within its boundaries.

       Acting on this principle, the Virginia and Kentucky
        resolutions declared that the Alien and Sedition Acts
        did not apply in those states.

   The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
    challenged the supremacy of the federal
    government which the Constitution was written
    to establish.
   No other state enacted the resolutions.

   The death of Washington in December
    1799 briefly calmed political tempers.

   The Alien and Sedition Acts actually
    harmed the Federalists and improved the
    chances of a Republican victory.
              The Election of 1800
   Election marked by electoral college confusion.

       Jefferson’s 73 to Adam’s 65.

   Political alignment in New York to the Jefferson
    Republican column.

       New York the third biggest prize in presidential elections with 19
        electoral votes.

   The win for the Republicans was orchestrated by
    Hamilton’s rival – and political equal – Aaron Burr.
   Burr was the Republican vice-presidential
    candidate.

   Plan for Burr to receive one less vote than
    Jefferson – botched - 73 Republican electors
    voted for Jefferson and Burr – so they tied.

   The Constitution provided (and still does) that
    when no candidate wins a majority of votes in
    the electoral college, the House of
    Representatives, voting by state, not by
    individuals, chooses the President.
   In 1800, this gave the Federalists the balance of
    power.

       The votes of nine states were required for election.

       The Republicans who voted for Jefferson controlled
        only eight state delegations in the House.

       When the first ballot was taken, Jefferson received
        eight votes to Burr’s six.

       Two states were evenly divided.
   In 1800, this gave the Federalists the balance of
    power.

   The votes of nine states were required for
    election.

   The Republicans, who dutifully voted for
    Jefferson controlled only eight state delegations
    in the House.

   When the first ballot was taken, Jefferson
    received eight votes to Burr’s six.

   Two states were evenly divided.
   The Federalists voted mainly for Burr, some because
    they believed Jefferson was a dangerous radical.


   After 35 deadlocked votes, a Delaware Federalist,
    James A. Bayard said he would change his vote to
    Jefferson - he didn’t need to.

   Hamilton extracted vague promises from Jefferson to
    continue Hamilton’s fiscal policy and Federalist foreign
    policy.

   Hamilton pressured a few Federalist Congressmen to
    abstain from voting.

   Jefferson was elected on the 36th ballot on February
    17, 1801.
   The election of 1796 showed that party
    politicians were willing to manipulate the
    electoral process to serve factional ends.

   The election of 1800 demonstrated that parties
    were permanent fixtures of the American
    political process.

   This meant that the original procedure for
    electing the president was no longer workable.

       In 1804, the 12th Amendment provided that:
            henceforth, electors would vote separately for president and
             vice-president – the system we have today.
              Thomas Jefferson
   Jefferson:
       Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
       Governor of Virginia during the Revolution.
       Minister to France under the Articles of
        Confederation.
       First secretary of State.
       3rd President of the US.
       Founded the University of Virginia.
       A “natural philosopher.”
       Invented the dumbwaiter, the swivel
        chair, and way to make multiple copies.
       Possibly the first American to employ a French
        chef.


   No orator – perhaps because of his lisp.
   Not universally admired.

       Critics saw him as a dangerous radical –
        described as frivolous and immoral.
   He knew he owed his election to Federalists and
    attempted to win over federalists in his
    inaugural address.

   As president he abandoned some of his pre-
    presidential positions and adopted Federalist
    policies that he had previously condemned.

   Said nothing more about the Kentucky and
    Virginia Resolutions.

   Jefferson shunned the pomp and ceremony of
    Washington and Adam’s presidency.
   The summer before his inauguration, the capital was
    moved to Federal City (Washington D.C).

       Adams was the first president to live at the White House.

       A hodgepodge of half-completed public buildings, ramshackle
        boarding houses, stables, vast tracts of wooded wilderness,
        swamps, and few private homes.

       No place for Congressman’s families.

       Social life was masculine and on the raw side: Smokey card
        games, heavy drinking, even brawls and gun fights.

   Jefferson pardoned the people imprisoned under the
    Sedition Act.
   Restored the 5 year residency requirement for
    citizenship, and replaced Federalist officeholders
    with Republicans.

   Jefferson’s presidency not characterized by any
    great innovations in government.

   The only innovation in governance that
    happened during Jefferson’s presidency was
    effected by one of his bitterest enemies (and a
    distant cousin) – the Federalist chief Justice of
    the Supreme Court, John Marshall.
             Marbury v. Madison
   Adams appointed 42 Federalists to the
    bench – Midnight Judges.

       Federal judges served for life

       Wanted to ensure that the judiciary would
        remain a bastion of Federalist principles.
   The appointment of “midnight judges” would
    become standard procedure.

   William Marbury:

       Document that entitled Marbury to his job was not
        delivered before March 4th, when Jefferson took the
        oath of office.

       According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the
        secretary of State, James Madison as of March 4th,
        was obligated to deliver the commission.
   When Madison refused to do so, Marbury sued
    for a writ of mandamus – a court order that
    means “we compel” a government official to
    perform the duties of his office.

   By 1803 the case was before the Supreme
    Court.

       Court was dominated by Marshall (30years).


       In his ruling in the case of Marbury v. Madison,
        he scolded Madison for unseemly behavior.
   However, Marshall ruled that a section of
    the law under which Marbury had sued
    was unconstitutional.

       Said Congress had no Constitutional right to
        give the federal courts the powers the
        Judiciary Act of 1789 accorded it.

       Asserted the Supreme Court’s right to decide
        which acts of Congress were constitutional,
        and which unconstitutional – the right of
        Judicial Review.
          The Louisiana Purchase
   Jefferson also reinterpreted the Constitution in the most
    important action of his first term - The Louisiana
    Purchase.

   Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to reassert French power in
    North America.

       Napoleon’s plan wanted to force Spain – a client state – to
        return Louisiana to France.
       With Louisiana, Napoleon could feed the people from within a
        French empire.

   In 1801, by secret treaty, Napoleon regained Louisiana.
   Almost immediately the right to use New
    Orleans and the Mississippi guaranteed by
    Pinckney’s Treaty was revoked.

       The free navigation of the Mississippi was vital
        to 400,000 Americans.

       War with France seemed likely, but would
        require a naval siege of New Orleans.

       An alliance with the British was repugnant to
        Jefferson.
   Offered France $2 million for a tract of land on
    the Mississippi.

   In January 1803 sent James Monroe to Paris to
    offer $10 million for New Orleans and West
    Florida.

   But the French had offered the American
    minister to France all of Louisiana for $15
    million.

   France did this because a slave uprising in Haiti
    had defeated 30,000 French troops.
   The Louisiana deal was sealed despite the
    fact that it was without constitutional
    sanction.
   Jefferson sent out Meriwether Lewis, and
    William Clark to explore the new territory. They
    reached the pacific in November, 1805.

   The tribes of the Northwest, had been dealing
    with Americans and Europeans for years.

   The West served Jefferson’s rural republican
    party well.

   Jefferson easily elected to a second term in
    1804.
         Jefferson’s Second Term
   First Barbary War (1801-1805).
       To end tribute.
       Tribute v. ransom

   War between Britain and France.
       This war came to a head in 1805, when Lord Nelson defeated
        Napoleon’s navy at the Battle of Trafalgar.

       The British and French then settled down to economic
        warfare, each aiming to ruin the other by crippling their trade.

       The British issued the Orders of Council forbidding neutrals
        (the U.S.) from trading in Europe unless first stopping in a
        British port for a license.
   New England merchants could have lived with
    this situation – many tended to be pro-British,
    however, Napoleon retaliated by enacting the
    Berlin and Milan decrees of 1806 and
    1807.

   Known as the Continental System, any
    neutral vessels that observed the Orders in
    Council would be seized by the French.

   American merchants were caught in the middle.

   Within a year the British had seized 1,000
    American ships and the French 500.
   But the Americans were still making
    massive amounts of money.

   British began impressments of American
    sailors.

   Jefferson decided to respond by passing
    the Embargo Act of 1807, American
    ships in port were forbidden to leave.

       All imports and exports were prohibited.
   The embargo was total economic war.

   Britain hurt by the embargo, but so were
    Americans who did business with foreign
    markets.

   The embargo ended up costing Americans
    3 times what a war would have.

   Congress repealed the embargo in 1808.
                 James Madison
   In 1808 James Madison won the election.

   Madison’s first attempt to resolve the dispute over trade
    – the Non-Intercourse Act – opened trade with all
    nations except France and Britain.

   The act provided that whichever of the two belligerents
    agreed to respect the rights of American shipping would
    get the right to trade with America back.

   In London the American minister negotiated a favorable
    treaty with Britain and Madison renewed trade with
    England.
   Then the British repudiated the agreement -
    Madison humiliated.

   In May 1810, the Republicans created
    Macon’s Bill No.2:
       reopened trade with Britain and France,
       with the condition that as soon as either agreed to
        American terms the U.S. would cut off trade to the
        other.

   With no intention of stopping French captains
    from seizing American vessels, Napoleon
    revoked the Continental System, and as
    Macon’s Bill No.2 required, Madison cut off trade
    with Britain.
                The War of 1812
   On June 16th 1812, with Napoleon invading Russia,
    Britain canceled their Orders in Council.

   But the news of this diplomatic victory for Madison did
    not reach him in time.

   He asked Congress for a declaration of war against
    Britain.

   On the face of it, the War of 1812, was fought to
    defend the rights of American shipping on the high seas.
   Mercantile New England - largely Federalist –
    were against the war.

   The demands for war had come from Jefferson
    Republicans in the agricultural regions of the US.

       These farmers who lived by exporting their crops
        suffered from British depredations at sea because the
        farmers unsold crops were useless.

       Britain’s interference in America’s overseas trade was
        a real problem for American farmers.
   Supporters of the war also resented Britain’s
    continued support of the Indians in the
    Northwest territory.

   Westerners were in continual conflict with the
    native-American groups there and the
    supporters of the war saw it as an opportunity
    to break the back of Indian military power.

   Many of the “War Hawks” even spoke of
    invading Canada to get rid of British influence in
    North America for good.
   With the war against Napoleon in Europe
    nearing its climax, Britain had left 2,200
    professional soldiers in North America.

   To defend Canada, they relied on a
    confederacy of Indian tribes led by a
    Shawnee chief named Tecumseh.

   In August 1812, the Americans began a
    three-pronged attack on Canada.
   The Canadians counterattacked and captured Detroit,
    while there Indian allies destroyed the stockade at
    Chicago, then called Fort Dearborn.

   Americans were able to secure Lake Erie and burned
    the capital of upper Canada, York (Toronto).

   The British attempted to invade New York, but were
    stopped at Lake Champlain.

   But in August 1814, the British launched an amphibious
    raid on Washington DC.

   In revenge for the burning of York, the British burned
    the Capitol and the White House.

       James and Dolly Madison narrowly escaped capture.
   The British hadn’t wanted the American war, but
    when Napoleon abdicated in 1814, it freed a
    large number of British soldiers to fight in
    America.

   The British began peace talks at Ghent in
    Belgium, and also came up with a plan to seize
    lower Louisiana.

   Britain sent 8,000 troops to attack New Orleans.

   What looked like a disaster would become one
    of the great military victories for America and
    the making of a national hero – Andrew
    Jackson.
             Battle of New Orleans
   Andrew Jackson:
       a slave-holding planter
       self-educated lawyer
       land speculator
       Indian-fighter

   Killed 2,000 redcoats and lost only 7 Americans.

   The Treaty of Ghent which restored Anglo-American
    relations to what they had been before the war was
    actually signed before the Battle of New Orleans.
   Such a victory seemed a reaffirmation of the nation’s
    splendid destiny.

   Within three years of the battle, America had crushed
    the Creek tribe in the Southeast, and stung the Barbary
    pirates of Algeria.

   Americans began to take a prominent role in the world –
    where armed might was a sign of greatness.

   Moreover, another of these measures, a nation’s sway
    over vast territory, also captured the attention of the
    Europeans.

   Americans were moving west into areas they regarded
    as empty.
                     James Monroe
   After 1815 America began to coalesce into a more unified entity.

   It is at this time that July 4th begins to be celebrated.

   James Monroe, of Virginia would preside over relative stability and
    prosperity – at time characterized by relative political unity.

   A key event in his presidency was the Monroe Doctrine.

   In 1823, the president wrote to Congress and Europe that the
    United States would no longer be considered an appendage
    of the Old World. The United states pledged not to interfere
    or dabble in European affairs. In return Europe was to
    consider the western Hemisphere closed to further
    colonization and would be considered by the US as an act of
    war.
                   Industrialization
   One of Hamilton’s dreams, and Jefferson’s nightmare, was the
    gradual movement toward industrialization in America.

   It began with the cloth industry.

   Mills were built alongside fast moving rivers – using technology
    smuggled out of England who closely guarded their technology
    secrets.

   With plenty of resources and capital flowing from the merchants and
    shippers of the northeast, it seemed to Americans that the US had
    been built for industrialization.

   Banks were a new phenomenon in 19th century America, but they
    made it easier to channel capital where it was needed.
                        Lowell Mills
   Industrialization, undercut traditional handicrafts and American
    labor shifted from cottage-industry to factories.

   First successful factory systems was instituted by Francis Cabot
    Lowell who persuaded farmers to send their young daughters to
    his factories in Waltham, Massachusetts.

   For 70 hours a week, the girls sat at the machines – where they
    earned $3 per week.

   Half of their pay went to room and board at company owned
    lodging houses.

   Their lives were highly regulated both physically and morally.
Plan of Lowell, Massachusetts
                     Slavery
   Southerners reaffirmed their agrarian heritage.

   In 1782, African – American slavery appeared to
    be dying out.

   The northern states took steps to abolish slavery
    in late 18th century.

   Slavery was never vital to the northern economy
    so the north could afford to practice the
    revolution’s principle of liberty.
   Slavery was also in decline in the South during
    the Revolutionary era.

   The world price of tobacco – one of the few
    crops using slave labor – collapsed.

   Many of the old tobacco fields exhausted.

   Many Southerners saw slavery as a necessary
    evil, and in 1808, when congress outlawed
    further importation of slaves from Africa, few
    objected.
   At the peace talks in Ghent in 1815,
    American and British ministers talked
    about collaborating to suppress illegal
    traders.

   Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin:

       A way to separate the fiber from the plant’s
        sticky seeds.
   Technology had come to the South, but not
    industry.

   The effects of Eli Whitney’s machine were:
       the revival of the South’s traditional one-crop
        economy,
       the domination of southern society by large planters,
       and the re-invigoration of slavery.


   The fertile upland belt that extends from South
    Carolina and Georgia through East Texas was
    perfect cotton country.
   Southerners poured into Alabama, Mississippi, and
    northern Louisiana and eventually Arkansas.

       Most were wealthy planters who brought with them women, and
        slaves.

   By 1820 half the population of Mississippi were black and
    in bondage.

   The price of slaves soared.

   Slaves who were becoming a financial burden in Virginia
    and Maryland were valuable commodities in the new
    cotton south.

   Slave holders from as far north as New Jersey sold their
    slaves to cotton planters.
   There were still a few slaves in the North to be
    sold in 1819.

   Most states had adopted a gradualist approach
    to emancipation:
       no person born or brought into the state after a
        certain date could be enslaved.

   By 1819, a clear-cut line between slave states
    and free states.

   North of the Pennsylvania/Maryland border
    and the Ohio River slavery was forbidden.
    The Missouri Compromise, 1820

   South slavery remained a vital part of society
    and the economy.

   Application of the Missouri Territory to be
    admitted to the Union as a state ignited
    sectional tension.

       Most of Missouri lay north of the Ohio River.
       Northern representatives called for Missouri forbid
        importation of slaves and to free all slaves in the
        state when they reached 25 years old.
   Monroe encouraged compromise in the
    Congress.

       Henry Clay – known as “the Great Compromiser”
        who devised a plan.

       Clay proposed that Missouri be admitted to the Union
        as those who wrote its Constitution wished – as a
        slave state.

       Clay proposed that the southern boundary of
        Missouri, 36˚ 30’ north latitude, be extended
        through the remainder of American territory.

   North of that line slavery was forever prohibited.
   South of that line - Arkansas Territory and
    Florida – citizens of the state could decide to be
    a slave state or a free state.

   The Missouri compromise – an informal
    institutionalization of a balance between free
    states and slave states.

       There were 22 states in the Union in 1819, 11 free,
        11 slave.

   When Missouri was admitted the Maine district
    of Massachusetts admitted as a free state.
   For 30 years, Congress admitted states in pairs,
    preserving the balance.

   Problems:

       Most of the new territories above the 36° North line.

       Inevitable a territory would eventually seek admission
        to the Union as a free state with no slave state to
        balance it.

       Population of the free north increasing faster than
        south.
              Andrew Jackson
   Seventh president.

   Self-educated man.

   13 years old in Revolutionary War.

   General Jackson a national hero after the Battle
    of New Orleans.

   First president from the “west.”
   1824 presidential election:

       Jacksonians called the 1824 election the "Stolen
        Election”

       Jackson won the popular vote - not have enough
        electoral votes to win.

       Election had to be decided by the House of
        Representatives.

       Jackson's opponents: Henry Clay of Kentucky -
        Speaker of the House, John Quincy Adams of
        Mass. - Secretary of State and William H. Crawford
        of Georgia, Secretary of the Treasury.
   Anti-Jacksonites coalesced around a
    hatred of the “savage” Jackson and called
    themselves National Republicans.

   “Let the people rule!” - Jackson’s
    supporters called themselves Democratic
    – Republicans – soon abbreviated to
    democrats.

   Leading up to the 1828 election Jackson
    and his followers continually criticized the
    Adams administration.
   Jackson said he was the people's
    candidate argued the elite had
    disregarded the people’s choice in 1824.

   Jackson defeated Adams in the 1828
    election and four years later defeated Clay
    in the election of 1832.

   During the 1828 campaign the Adams
    camp accused Jackson and his wife of
    adultery.
   Andrew Jackson first to do a number of
    things:

   First to marry a divorcee.

   First populist president who did not
    come from the aristocracy – although
    many of his democratic supporters did.

   Jackson was the result of 50 years of
    democratic rhetoric.
       Though Jeffersonians saw themselves as natural
        aristocrats, they believed that the people should rule.

   The 1820s and 30s would be an extraordinary
    time of democratic upheaval.

   Americans were becoming increasingly
    prosperous and had more time to think about
    public affairs.

   Andrew Jackson would ride this democratization
    wave which was particularly influenced by the
    west.
   In an attempt to attract population, the young
    western states extended the right to vote to
    all free, adult white males and passed
    various laws that benefited the poor.

   Eastern states fearful of losing population,
    responded by enacting their own legislation
    designed to appeal to the common man.

   Some of the new voters built parties around
    social issues – workingmen’s parties sprung
    up in eastern cities – the “Workies” would
    eventually integrate into the democratic party.
   He was the first to be nominated at a
    national convention (his second term).

   The first democratic Convention met in 1832.

   The anti-Jackson National-Republicans
    followed suit a few years later.

   He was the first president to unapologetically
    represent a political party.

   He made it quite clear that his supporters would
    take key jobs in the government.
   The first president to use the "pocket veto" to
    kill a congressional bill.

   Jackson believed in a strong presidency
    and he vetoed a dozen pieces of legislation,
    more than the first six presidents put together.

   Jackson also believed in a strong Union:
       open opposition with Southern legislators, especially
        those from South Carolina, including his Vice-
        President John Calhoun – who was replaced by
        Martin van Buren for the second term.
   But Jackson would have trouble with the
    states.

       In 1828 Congress passed a high protective
        tariff on all manufactured goods – signed into
        law by Quincy Adams.

       South Carolinian cotton planters believed that
        their crop was paying the whole county’s bills
        and underwriting industrial development.
   Cotton accounted for half the wealth that
    poured into the U.S.

   Much of the tariff on manufactured goods was
    diverted to the North.

   President had decided that the national wealth
    should be used to industrialize – those who were
    not interested in industrialization, like the South
    Carolinians were in a minority.

   The tariff looked unfair, but constitutional.
   South Carolina legislature passed an Ordinance
    of Nullification, which rejected the tariff and
    declared the tariff invalid in South Carolina.

       This nullification could only be overruled if 3/4ths of
        the other states overruled the decision.
       In such an event, the nullifying state could chose
        between capitulation, or succession from the union.

   In 1832 Jackson signed into law an even higher
    tariff.

   The South Carolinians declared the law null and
    void.
   Jackson responded with threats.

   Henry Clay worked out compromise
    tariff just low enough for South Carolina
    to agree to pay - 1833.

   Incident a precursor of the positions that
    would lead almost thirty years later to the
    Civil War.
        Bank of the United States
   Refused to sanction the re-charter of the Bank of the
    United States.

       Argued Congress had not had the authority to create the Bank in
        the first place.
       Viewed the Bank as operating for the primary benefit of the
        upper classes at the expense of working people.

   Jackson vetoed re-charter.

   The Bank ceased to exist when its charter expired in
    1836.
                Indian Removal Act
   Jackson led troops against the Creek War and the First Seminole
    War.

   During first administration the Indian Removal Act was passed in
    1830.

        The act offered the Indians land west of the Mississippi in return
         for evacuation of their tribal homes in the east.

        About 100 million acres of traditional Indian lands were cleared
         under this law.

   Refused to enforce Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester vs. Georgia
    in which the Court found that the State of Georgia did not have the
    right to move the Cherokees.
   In 1838-1839 Georgia evicted the Cherokees
    and forced them to march west.

   25% of the Indians were dead before they
    reached Oklahoma.

   The "Trail of Tears.”

       Took place after Jackson's presidency, the roots of
        the march can be found in Jackson's failure to uphold
        the legal rights of Native Americans during his
        administration.
   Two new states under Jackson - Arkansas in
    1836 and Michigan in 1837.

   Appointed Roger Taney who had an impact on
    American life long after Jackson's retirement.

   In 1836 Taney succeeded John Marshall as Chief
    Justice.

       Gave permission for states to restrict immigration.
       Destroyed a transportation monopoly in
        Massachusetts, establishing the principle in U.S. law
        that the public good is superior to private rights.
   By 1834, the realignment of politics that
    was forced by Jackson’s triumphs was
    complete.

   In the Congressional elections that year,
    the old National-Republicans joined with
    former Jackson supporters who objected
    to his vetoes etc., - the Whigs.

				
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