The Process Model for
Information Literacy Skills
1.1 Define the Problem
What is the problem to be solved?
Determine what is required of you in
Demonstrate an ability to select,
narrow, or broaden the topic.
1.2 Identify the Information Needed
Demonstrate your ability to pick out keywords
embedded in the question or assignment.
What type of information do you need to solve your
Do you need current or historical materials? Many or
Demonstrate the ability to determine statements
that require evidence for support.
2.1 Determine all possible sources.
Determine all possible sources of information
--Generate a list of potential information sources,
text and human, for a given information problem.
2.2 Select the best sources of information
Be aware of the need to tailor the
amount of information to meet the
• --CD-ROMs, online databases, books, a
current PBS program,etc.
• Ask your Library Media Specialists for
help finding any good sources of
information available in your library.
3.1 Locate Sources
Determine where your sources are located:
--in the classroom, library, or some other place?
Are they organized alphabetically by topic or author,
by the Dewey Decimal classification, or not at all?
Are there electronic tools for access such as an
online catalog or is the information itself available on
the Web or some other electronic format?
3.2 Find Information within Sources
Once you’ve located the source, you must
find the specific information you need.
Go to the INDEX!
TABLE OF CONTENTS!
use the finding tools on a website (like
4.1 Engage (e.g., read, hear, view) the
information in a source
To gain useful and meaningful information from a
source, you must read, listen, or view the
information in some form.
--Such as…demonstrating the ability to listen and
comprehend….watch a TV news show and recognize
relevant information…conduct an interview in person
or via e-mail…read and understand various
forms of graphs…interact with a Web
4.2 Extract Information from a Source
This will require the majority of your time.
Determine what specific information is worth applying
to the task? In other words, is it RELEVANT?
Are you taking notes? Are you producing accurate
citations of sources you are using? Are you
summarizing concisely? Can you copy/paste only the
information you will need? Can you download clip art?
5.1 Organize Information from Multiple Sources
The key question in Synthesis is “HOW DOES THE
INFORMATION FROM ALL THE SOURCES FIT
TOGETHER?” You may have to…
--Create chronological timelines and charts relating key
dates and events---word process to revise the
sequence, flow or outline of content in a paper, report,
or project---combine inf. From a range of print and
electronic sources and from your own notes---arrange
and rearrange inf. using PowerPoint or other multimedia
presentation software…and the list goes on…
5.2 Present Information
How is the information best presented…written,
graphic, oral, and multimedia? But, the most
important aspects are still the same regardless of
tool or format…
Use information to draw conclusions
Form judgments based one evidence
Create a logical argument
Organize and communicate in a way that makes
Present a coherent whole.
6.1 Judge the Results (effectiveness).
Is the task completed; is the problem solved?
If your teacher gave you a rubric, can you
recognize if you have met the criteria set
forth? If it’s a science experiment, can you
determine if you are on the right track? Have
you met your own criteria…in other words, is it
a reflection of good, quality work?
6.2 Judge the Information Problem-Solving Process
In order to become better in your problem-solving
abilities, you must learn to assess your own actions.
How might you become more efficient? How might
you save time and effort? How confident are you at
your ability to assess your readiness for a test?
Reflect on your level of personal effort and
time spent during your work on the