Nearly every scientist has
experienced, in a moment of
discovery… something akin to
reverence and awe.
Research Goals at an M.S. Level
1. Help students to become competent
consumers of literature
2. Help students become competent
users of research technology for
Critically evaluate the literature
Determine cautions in interpreting
Determine applications to clients
Determine how procedures might be
modified to better serve clients
Research Technology for
Informed Clinical Decisions
1. Recognition of a problem that can be
2. Collection of data through observation or
3. Drawing of conclusions based on analysis
of the data that have been collected.
Clinical Decisions: Assessment
1. Who is disordered (is there a
problem? If so, what is it?)
2. What is the etiology?
3. What is the prognosis?
Clinical Decisions: Treatment
1. Who should receive what kind of
2. What should be treated?
3. How should we provide intervention?
Alternating treatments design (ATD)
4. Is intervention effective?
5. When should intervention be terminated?
Benefits of a Clinician-
Investigator (Silverman, 1977)
The job is “more stimulating, less routine”
Clinicians are probably more effective
when they determine the answers to
questions about their intervention or
assessment when they “ask answerable
questions” and state “testable” hypotheses
More aware of the “tentative nature of
answers and hypotheses” which is one of
the most important aspects because there
is “no answer to a question or test of
hypothesis” that is final
“We see the practitioner as an
applied scientist or a clinical
scientist who uses the clinic or
school as a laboratory for the
application of the scientific method
toward the end of providing the best
clinical services possible.” (Ventry &
“When scientific clinicians approach
clinical problems in a scientific
manner, they are conducting
research of the most important
type, with the result being the
intent of delivering the best clinical
management possible.” (Ringel,