Medieval Innovations by ewghwehws

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									 Medieval
Innovations
     Making Work Easier
 New ways of farming developed
  during Middle Ages.
 Farmers began using a 3-field
  rotation for planting (1st field=wheat
  or rye in autumn, 2nd field=oats,
  beans, peas, vegetables, 3rd
  field=unplanted for a year).
 Helped people to be self-sufficient.
            Gun powder
 Gunpowder was brought to Medieval Europe
  by warriors returning from the Middle
  East.
 Invented by the Chinese, it exploded
  unpredictably and injured soldiers who
  used it.
 By the 1400s, it had improved and many
  soldiers were now fighting with cannons
  and small guns.
 Bullets pierced armour, and castle walls
  couldn’t withstand these weapons, so they
  were no longer a place of safety.
          Printing Press
 In the early 1400s, Germans inventors
  began to experiment with ways to make
  books with machines rather than by hand.
 Johannes Gutenberg made a printing
  method called movable type that was
  similar to a system being used in China.
 It was made of individual blocks of wood
  into which letters and punctuation marks
  were carved.
   A printer arranged the letters to
    spell the words on each page, the
    letters were coated in ink, and paper
    was pressed down onto the type. This
    meant more books could be printed, it
    was was less expensive and way
    faster, and more accessible to people.
    Some Problems with The
        Printing Press
   There were some reasons why books
    didn’t always spread quickly : low
    literacy rates; books were cheaper,
    but were still too expensive for most;
    books were produced in a wider range
    of topics, but many were still not
    relevant to many people’s lives.
Exploration to Other Lands
 Navigation is the science of guiding a ship.
 Before the 1500s, it was done by sight,
  hugging the coast, knowledge of routes,
  and landmarks.
 Many tools were invented or improved
  during the Middle Ages which changed
  navigation.
 New instruments included compasses, log
  lines, quadrants, astrolabes, and traverse
  boards.
 By using celestial navigation (using the
  position of the stars and the sun), sailors
  had a more scientific approach.
 In order to effectively use new navigation
  techniques, more maneuverable ships were
  needed.
 Medieval explorers were able to travel
  further from home, visit new lands, and
  return with information about the world
  beyond Europe.
               Schooling
 Originally, schools were for the children of
  the wealthy and were run by the church.
  Many were held in cathedrals, monasteries,
  or convents, and the church controlled
  what things were taught.
 Some priests ran schools for peasant
  children in the villages.
 Schools began to be run by nobles and
  merchants, not just the church.
 Books were easier to find, therefore
  learning spread.
        Religious Reform
 During the Middle Ages in Europe, people
  began to question the power of the
  Catholic Church.
 Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a German
  priest who nailed 95 arguments against the
  church on a Cathedral door and began the
  Reformation.
 Since the Church made the rules, taxes,
  and controlled much of medieval society,
  this shook things up!

								
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