Nigeria History of Nigeria by anamaulida


									Nigeria is officially called the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It
comprises of 36 states with the Federal Capital Territory and operates a
federal constitutional republic. It is one of the most populous countries
of West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the
west, Niger in the north, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the
north. In the South, its coast is along the Gulf of Guinea on the
Atlantic Ocean. The three largest and most influential ethnic groups in
Nigeria are the Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa. The major religions practiced in
Nigeria are Christian and Muslim. Although a very minority people still
practice traditional religion.The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger
River running through the country and was coined by Flora Shaw the future
wife of Baron Lugard a British colonial administrator in the late 19th
century. Nigeria is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and it's
listed among the "Next Eleven" economies. Its economy is one of the
fastest growing in the world, with the International Monetary Fund
projecting a growth of 9% in 2008 and 8.3% in 2009 and further projects a
growth of 8% in 2011. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, the
seventh in the world and the most populous country in the world in which
the majority of the population is black.HISTORY OF NIGERIAAt the
beginning of the 19th century under Usman Dan Fodio the Fulani led the
centralized Fulani Empire which continued until 1903 when the Fulani
population and land were divided into various European colonies. Between
one to two-thirds of the population of the Fulani Jihad states consisted
of slaves between 1750 and 1900. The Yoruba however believe that Ile-Ife
is the source of the human settlement dates back to the ninth century.
The Yoruba kingdom of Ife and Oyo in Southwestern Nigeria became
prominent in the 12th and 14th century respectively. Oyo once extended
from western Nigeria to Togo. Benin Kingdom is located in southwestern
Nigeria and its power lasted between the 15th and 19th century and their
dominance reached as far as the city of Eko. An Edo name later changed to
Lagos by the Portuguese. The history of the igbos can be traced back to
the 10th century and can be traced back to the then Kingdom of Nri. It
however lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. It is the oldest
kingdom in Nigeria. The city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of
Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates,
are in the territory of the Umeuri clan who trace their lineages back to
the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The first explorers to begin trade in
Nigeria were the Spaniard and Portuguese in the port of Lagos and
Calabar. The Europeans traded with the ethnicities of the coast and also
negotiated a trade in slaves, the detriment and profit of many Nigerian
ethnicities. Consequently many of the citizens of the former slave
nations of the British Empire is descended from a Nigerian ethnic group.
Britain abolished its slave trade in 1807 and, following the Napoleonic
Wars, established the West Africa Squadron in an attempt to halt the
international traffic in slaves. In 1885, British claims to a West
African sphere of influence received international recognition, and in
the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the
leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. In 1900 the company's territory
came under the control of the British government, which moved to
consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On January 1, 1901,
Nigeria became a British protectorate, part of the British Empire, the
foremost world power at the time.The Niger area in 1914 was formally
united as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Nigeria remained
divided into the northern and southern provinces administratively and
Lagos Colony. There was rapid development of western education and the
development of a modern economy in the south than in the north.In October
1, 1960, Nigeria gained its independence from the United Kingdom and
became a coalition of conservative parties, the Nigerian People's
Congress (NPC), a party dominated by Northerners and those of the Islamic
Faith and the Igbo and Christian dominated National Council of Nigeria
and the Cameroons (NCNC) led by Nnamdi Azikwe who became Nigeria's maiden
Governor General in 1960. Action Group which was dominated by the Yoruba
and led by Obafemi Awolowo formed opposition group.GEOGRAPHYNigeria is
located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of
923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi), making it the world's 32nd-largest country
(after Tanzania). It is comparable in size to Venezuela, and is about
twice the size of California. It shares a 4,047 kilometers (2,515 mi)
border with Benin (773 km), Niger (1497 km), Chad (87 km), Cameroon (1690
km), and has a coastline of at least 853 km. Nigeria lies between
latitudes 4° and 14°N, and longitudes 2° and 15°E.The highest point
in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 ft). The main rivers are
the Niger and the Benue River which converge and empty into the Niger
Delta, one of the world's largest river deltas and the location of a
large area of Central African Mangroves.Nigeria is also an important
center for biodiversity. It is widely believed that the areas surrounding
Calabar, Cross River State, contain the world's largest diversity of
butterflies. The drill monkey is only found in the wild in Southeast
Nigeria and neighboring Cameroon.

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