Market Department 2011.07
Hytera Communications Corporation Limited
You do not make photos, you do create photos.
There are good photos but no principle for what is good;
Not everybody trusts the painting,but it is who that trusts the photo.
It's a great achievement if there are 12 significant photos in any year.
—— Ansel Adams
Photography is the art of life.
Refer to the following basic principles for avoidance of unnecessary errors.
We should understand preliminarily the basic functions of the camera
prior to the shooting.
Now, pick up your camera and follow me to find out the basic functions
of individual parts of the camera and set the various parameters for it.
Note: Cannon DSLR is used as the example in the steps.
The shutter speed affects directly the exposure value in the same light condition. Low shutter speed may lead
to the overexposure while the high speed resulting in the underexposure. At present, most cameras are
provided with the program Shutter Priority, i.e. the exposure is controlled automatically by the camera
allowable for the appropriate adjustment of the shutter speed by the photographer provided that the
requirement of exposure is satisfied; the camera presents proper exposure via auto-adjustment of aperture.
The shutter speed should not be set less than 1/50s in gerneral or the probability of blurred photo will be high.
(Note: 1/125s is used for the photo of the people in normal speed, 1/250 for people in running, 1/500 for fast
movement such as diving, car and so on, and 1/1000s is the optimal speed for high-speed movement.)
It is found that the shutter speed should be
increased to photo the moving objects,
otherwise the blurred image may occur.
Shutter speed 1/400s Shutter speed 1/2s
The three modes including Av, Tv and M (A, T and M) of SLR correspond to Apperture Priority, Shutter
Priority and Full Manual, respectively. The setting range of apperture when the photography is conducted in
the general sunlight outdoors: f/4 - f/8, the best image quality should be gained in such range.
F2.8 F4 F5.6
In left figure, the photo is taken via focusing on the
label of beer bottle in the forefront with different
apperture values. As shown in the figure, the depth
of field is larger when the apperture is smaller.
F8 F11 F16
The sensitivity (ISO) is the sensitive degree of photosensitive materials to the ligh ray. The higher the photoperceptivity,the
higher the ISO, however, the more noises, crude image and decreased quality are resulted. Thus the higher ISO setting is not
applicable for the photography of high-quality piture, such as figure, still life and close-up shot, etc.
ISO 200 ISO 1600
Note: ISO is used generally with the shutter. That said, the increase of ISO and shutter facilitate to shoot the moving scene
while the apperture is fixed.
ISO sensitivity G1 is equivalent to shutter speed G1, to increase
ISO is a really good solution when the light ray is not satisfied.
ISO 200 Shutter speed 1/50s ISO 800 Shutter speed 1/200s
4. White balance
The white balance is controlled via the adjustment of the image to make the photo color shot in different light
ray conditions consistent with the visual color of scene exactly.
The ligh ray has its own color, for example, the light emitting from fluorescent lamp is in greenish while the light
from tungsten lamp is reddish or orangish. The role of white balance is to compensate the influence of the light color.
The color variety in different modes
Sunlight Cloudy day White fluorescent lamp Tungsten lamp
The selection of Auto-white balance (AWB) is sufficient in general, however, other individual options
of white balance may be selected if the hue is not ideal in the specific condition.
5. Metering Mode
Metering modes include: Evaluative metering, Partial metering, Center-weighted average metering and Spot metering
The commonly used metering is the evaluative metering that is used to perform the multi-segment metering over the entire image.
However, the spot metering is the better choice in the scene full of the interwoven shade and shadow.
The evalutive metering is used to calculate averagely the
overall brightness of the image, thus the figure in the scene
is darkened. The adequate exposure will be easily obtained
if the metering is done only to the brightness of the figure in
the metering mode with limited metering range.
Shoot with spot metering mode Shoot with evaluative metering mode 8
6. How to hold the camera
The correct posture in holding the camera is necessary not only to accomplish the photography smoothly, but also to affect
greatly the quality of the photo taken. To prevent the hand from shake, it is necessary to know well the correct camera-holding
Correct holding method
Hold horizontally Hold vertically
Incorrect holding method
The first important step in photography is the composition!
For a good photographic scene, the resulted effect may be insignificant
if your composition is not done well.
Even an plain corner, perhaps, after being composed elaborately by the
photographer, will present a vivid photo.
1. Classic composition rule "golden section"
"Golden section" is believed to be the most beautiful figure with significant aesthetic value.
The individual parts of Mona Lisa are painted following the
proportion of Golden section, have you identified them?
"Rule of the thirds" is the simplified version of "Golden section",
The photographed subject is placed on an arbitrary straight line or on the intersection point
of straight lines, such arrangement is better in concordance with the people's visual habit.
(The middle-third auxiliary line in the camera can be called out to provide help in composition.)
The subject of scene should be placed on the position of the point in golden
section to balance horizontally the scene and hightlight the subject.
The viewer will concentrate more The figure conrresponding to the large area of machine on the left side increases the
on the expression of the figure in livingness of the scene and keeps the scene balaced horizotally without appearance
the scene. of any sign of unstable gravity center.
Rule of the thirds is followed although the figure has not been placed on the forefront position in the scene.
2. Blank in the painting
The blank means "subtraction";
Do not leave the scene full and stuffy;
An appropriate blank should be retained for room of imagination, which is also an effective method
in pursuiting artistic conception in photography.
The full scene produces a The adequate blank of sky increases
very depressive and the dynamic effect of the scene.
3. Issues of horizontal line
The horizontal line can not be used to halve the scene and it should not cross the head or neck in
shooting the figure.
The horizontal line cannot be tilted.
The problem in this photo is the high horizontal line, in When shoot the building, the perspective should be
which MM seems to be falling into the water resulting the avoided at first, thus keeping the photoed building
unbalanced scene. (in shooting, the horizontal line subject standing horizontally; and the avoidance of
should not be placed outside 1/3--1/2 of the scene. ) low/high angle shot is necessary when the wide-angle
lens is used, otherwise the building will tilt centrally
or peripherally in the scene. (Perspective problem)
the house tilted obviously in the above figure.
1. The subject should be highlighted.
In general, a main center of interest should be provided in a work to
express the theme. The photoed subject may be a person, an item or
a group of people or items.
There are many elements in the scene with ratherly prominent visual points such
as figures in near view, image in driving mirror of model car ,a yellow car on the
left side and the distant passerbies in the street , the focusing point will be
unconcentrated due to the presence of too many elements.
The shooting angle of the lens and the position of photographer may be changed
frequently to obtain the optimal effect as to simplify the background of scene and
reduce disordered unnecessary elements due to the limit of the scene occasionally.
The subject is interfered by too many cluttered Simple and clear background of scene highlights the subject.
elements in the background of scene.
To highlight the subject is a simple method to draw people's attention. There is simple and commonly used
method Blurred backgound.
The blurred background leads to the obscured items to which the viewers may be unconcentrated. The
shallow depth of field can be obtained by use of the large apperture (such as 1.8), far focus and camera with
large area of sensor (such as full-frame DSLR).
If the trees in the photo locate also within the depth of field, The blurred background concentrates the attention
they will disperse the attention of the viewers. The couple is of viewers on the eyes of figure in the photo.
highlighted via blurred background.
2. Focusing issues
Most digital cameras are provided with auto-focus (AF) function to adjust automatially the focal
length; simply direct the camera toward the object to be photoed and press the shutter to complete the
shooting, such easy operation, however, may result in incorrect focusing occasionally.
Two reasons in unfocusing:
Shake of the camera: Once the occurrence of shake when the shutter is pressed following the
laborious adjustment of the focal length, it blurs the entire image.
Solution: Tighten your arms and stand stably, it's better to use the tripod.
Out of focus: This occurs when the focusing position lies front or back although the focal length is
Solution: Select the better focusing mode and align to the focus while shooting.
The focusing point not on the subject makes it out of focus.
The sun should be used as the main light source in natural light condition.
Light ray For the insufficient light may present due to the limit of actual environment,
we will apply the following methods to compensate such cases as much as
1. Increase ISO value. ISO defines the photoperceptivity of sensitive
materials (Cmos). The higher the ISO, the higher the photoperceptivity,
however, the more noises, crude image and decreased quality may be
resulted. ISO is generally not set more than 800 or it may be increased
appropriately if the camera is provided with noise reduction for high-ISO
2. Increase apperture. The more the light in, the smaller the apperture
figure set; it is applied also to control the depth of field which is larger when
the apperture is lowered.
3. Use of tripod (for purpose of the decrease of the shutter speed). In
general, the photo is blurred when the shutter speed is lower than 1/50s. If
the tripod is used, the blurred image due to the "shake" of camera will be
prevented regardless how "slow" the shutter speed is set. (It has to be noted that
the shake ocurring instantly when the finger contacts the shutter may affect the definition
of the image.)
4. Use of photoflash.
Pixels: 3264 X 2448
Clear expression on the subject,and manifest
information of the industry. The use of photo is warranted by
the customer with written approved documents. The license agreement
of portraint should be provided if there is figure included in the photo.
Case example: professional figure
Case example: professional figure
Case example: professional scene
Case example: professional scene
Start your photographic travel now!