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									                                           Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea   1

Running head: Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea

                     Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea:

                              English Education in University

                                       Jea H. Choi

            Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology

                                  University of Georgia


                       Research Methods in Instructional Technology

                                     Dr. Lloyd Rieber

                               Sumbitted on April 24, 2008
                                                Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea     2

                       Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea

General background
Educational curriculum has gradually started to utilize online components, not only in distance
education, but also at residential universities, which primarily deliver courses through face-to-
face lectures and seminars (Cox, Carr, & Hall, 2004). According to Wang (2002), knowledge
comes from learning, and constant learning opportunities should be emphasized in learning
environments supported by technology. Moreover, the importance of situating instruction in
meaningful learning environments is being emphasized, and most educators agree that problem
solving is among the most meaningful and effective methods of learning (Williams, 1992;
Jonassen, 1997). However, recent research from Korea revealed that English education in
Korean universities is still based on formal instruction to meet the curriculum requirements
rather than provide meaningful learning to students (Han, 2006).

Purpose of the development
The purpose of the development is to produce an effective case-based e-learning program in a
Basic English course targeting freshmen at the university level in Korea.

Statement of the need
Many studies have shown that case-based learning is effective. According to Radon et al. (2006),
students enjoyed working on the cases and thought that the course would be important for their
future career. In the study of Choi and Lee (2008), students who had a case-based e-learning
course have significant improvement on problem identification. Moreover, study of case-based
teaching in a bilingual context shows that students advocated the use of cases to link theory with
practice (Jackson, 2004). Web-based development of case-based learning is not common in
Korea. As previously mentioned, Korean education is still relying on traditional instruction,
which is not learner-centered. Thus, to improve English education in Korea, development of
case-based e-learning program is essential.

Significance of the development
This development is significant to English class instructors in Korea. This will introduce more
information on case-based e-learning and give an opportunity to research the effectiveness of
case-based e-learning. Furthermore, this development can be used in the education field to
enhance motivation and knowledge transfer of students.

                                       Review of Literature

The literature review will include three areas: (a) status of current E-learning environment, (b)
theory of Case-based learning, and (c) research of existing case-based learning.

E-learning has been used in many educational situations praised for the flexibility of their time
usage and place. It enables people to enjoy high quality academic programs. Moreover, since e-
learning is based on self-regulated learning, universities should evolve to be learner-centered
educational entities, which will eventually innovate on education (Leem & Lim, 2007). In recent
                                               Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea      3

years, e-learning has emerged as a new notion with methods for delivering instruction, and much
work has been done to develop learning objects (Ge & Er, 2005).

With e-learning, case-based learning is the emerging learning module in the Instructional
Technology field. Cases provide invaluable support to learners solving problems (Jonassen,
2002). Like problem-based and project-based learning, it emphasizes the importance of active,
constructive, and authentic learning experiences (Ellis, Marcus, & Taylor, 2005). There are many
results that show case-based learning is effective in education. One study was done to compare
case-based learning to a traditional class. The research shows that the students with case-based
learning demonstrated better performance in the ‘basic grasp of knowledge’ type of questions
than the group without a practical session (McNaught, Lau, Lam, Hui and Au, 2005). Moreover,
research from Butler, Lee and Tippins (2006) pointed out that cases shed light on new, different,
and unfamiliar experiences, which resulted in helping the learners to construct knowledge.

Case-based e-learning has been developed mostly in the medical or dental fields and showed
effectiveness (Radon et al., 2006; Wang, 2002; Ge, 2005). An early study done on the case-based
learning experience of 133 undergraduate veterinarian science students showed that when the
case-based learning experience interacts well with students, there are clear indications of quality
learning outcomes. This research was a comparison of blended case-based e-learning to the
traditional class (Ellis, et al, 2005). Another study researching customary class and case-based e-
learning showed that case-based e-learning facilitated the learners in considering multiple
perspectives, critically reviewing situations and solutions, developing coherent arguments, and
applying theories to their arguments (Choi & Lee, 2008).

In conclusion, case-based e-learning is the very module that has advantages of both e-learning
and case-based learning. English education in a meaningful learning environment will help
students to learn practical knowledge and be more active on learning. Thus, developing the case-
based e-learning program for an English class will be productive.

                                      Design Specification

The module in this project is based on revision of the previous studies. The project will provide
stories via video and give instructors’ comments about the case (Choi, Lee, and Jung, 2008).
More activities, which are performing group discussion and providing comments from
Americans or peers, will be added (Choi & Lee, 2008).

Given cases will consist of soap opera, movie, popular books, and web blog from the United
States. This program will be implemented in a Basic English course for a semester. Students will
be able to participate in the class by using the online class engine, Moodle. Students will go
through the case and guess some idioms and expressions from the story. They will also work on
similar examples and write out their answers. In the chat room, peers will discuss how these
expressions and words can be used in various situations, and these will also be compared with
Korean expressions. The chat room used will be Horizon Wimba, which has interactive power
point and video features.
                                              Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea   4


Butler, M. B., Lee, S., & Tippins, D. J. (2006). Case-Based Methodology as an Instructional

       Strategy for Understanding Diversity: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions. Multicultural

       Education, 13(3), 20.

Choi, I., & Lee, K. (2008). Designing and implementing a case-based learning environment for

       enhancing ill-structured problem solving: classroom management problems for

       prospective teachers. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1-31.

Choi, I., Lee, S. J., & Jung, J. W. (2008). Designing Multimedia Case-Based Instruction

       Accommodating Students' Diverse Learning Styles. Journal of Educational Multimedia

       and Hypermedia, 17, 5.

Cox, G., Carr, T., & Hall, M. (2004). Evaluating the Use of Synchronous Communication in

       Two Blended Courses. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20(3), 183.

Ellis, R. A., Marcus, G., & Taylor, R. (2005). Learning through Inquiry: Student Difficulties

       with Online Course-Based Material. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(4), 239.

Ge, X., & Er, N. (2005). An Online Support System to Scaffold Real-World Problem Solving.

       Interactive Learning Environments, 13(3), 139.

Jackson, J. (2004). Case-Based Teaching in a Bilingual Context: Perceptions of Business Faculty

       in Hong Kong. English for Specific Purposes, 23(3), 213.

Jonassen, D. H. (1997). Instructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured

       Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes. Educational Technology Research and

       Development, 45, 65.
                                                Developing Case-Based E-learning in South Korea    5

Jonassen, D. H., & Hernandez-Serrano, J. (2002). Case-Based Reasoning and Instructional

       Design: Using Stories To Support Problem Solving. Educational Technology Research

       and Development, 50(2), 65.

Han, K. (2006). Effective Way of College English Education. The Journal of Humanities and

       Social Science Research, 13, 41.

Leem, J., & Lim, B. (2007). The Current Status of E-learning and Strategies to Enhance

       Educational Competitiveness in Korean Higher Education. International Review of

       Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8.

McNaught, C., Lau, W. M., Lam, P., Hui, M. Y. Y., & Au, P. C. T. (2005). The dilemma of case-

       based teaching and learning in science in Hong Kong: Students need it, want it, but may

       not value it. International Journal of Science Education, 27(9), 1017-1036.

Radon, K., Kolb, S., Reichert, J., Baumeister, T., Fuchs, R., Hege, I., et al. (2006). Case-based e-

       learning in occupational medicine- the NetWoRM Project in Germany. Annals of

       Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 13, 93-98.

Wang, F. K. (2002). Designing a case-based e-learning system: what, how and why. Journal of

       Workplace Learning, 14, 30-43.

Williams, S. M. (1992). Putting Case-Based Instruction Into Context: Examples From Legal and

       Medical Education. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(4), 367-427.

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