AP Biology Study Guide Name - DOC

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                                          MEMBRANES
Read chapter 8 in Campbell.

   diffusion                                        osmosis
   selectively permeable                            osmotic concentration
   osmotic potential                                hypertonic
   hypotonic                                        isotonic
   plasma membrane                                  fluid-mosaic model
   permease                                         membrane channel
   facilitated diffusion                            electrostatic gradient
   electrochemical gradient                         receptor
   membrane pump                                    active transport
   sodium-potassium pump                            endocytosis
   phagocytosis                                     pinocytosis
   pseudopodia                                      exocytosis
   water potential

Answer the following questions:

1. Describe the process of osmosis and explain the relationship between osmosis and
   diffusion. How is the net movement of water through a membrane in osmosis related to the
   concentration of solute molecules?

2. Define the terms hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic. Explain what would happen to an
   animal cell and a plant cell placed in a hypertonic medium and to an animal cell and a plant
   cell placed in a hypotonic medium.

3. Construct a diagram and describe the fluid-mosaic model of the cell membrane. In your
   description, point out the phospholipid molecules, and indicate the hydrophobic and
   hydrophilic portions; point out the proteins that span the interior of the membrane and those
   that are confined to the surface; indicate the role of the cholesterol molecules, and explain
   why lateral movement of molecules within the membrane is possible. List substances to
   which the membrane is relatively permeable, and those to which it is relatively
   impermeable.

4. Describe the role that permeases (proteins) play in moving material through membranes.

5. Construct a diagram and explain how an electrochemical gradient can be generated across
   a membrane and what is meant by an electrochemical gradient.

6. Distinguish between simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport. Indicate the
   role of these processes in the life of the cell.

7. Using diagrams, describe the processes of endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and
   exocytosis, explaining the role of these processes in transporting substances into and out of
   the cell.

8. Explain the concept of water potential and its importance to plant cells.

				
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