Exam Study Guide2 by 7LxUeRH



Date of the Exam: Tuesday, Nov. 2
Exam Style: Combination of multiple choice, matching, and true-false.
Number of Questions: To be determined slightly prior to test time. Basically, anticipate about
     80 questions taking about one hour to complete.

Subjects Covered:
Chapter 4 – Plate Tectonics. Concentrate on the second half of the chapter (pp. 109 – 119).
      1) Locations, directions, and rates of plate movements today; 2) types of plate activity at
      divergent boundaries; 3) types of plate activity at divergent boundaries; 4) types of plate
      activity at divergent boundaries; 5) the suggested causes of plate movement (the driving

Chapter 5 – Earthquakes and the Earth’s Interior.
      1) The origin of earthquakes; 2) the nature of seismic waves; 3) determining the locations
      and magnitudes of earthquakes; 4) where earthquakes tend to occur; 5) factors that
      determine the amount of damage from earthquakes; 6) predicting earthquakes; 7) factors
      that affect the velocity and direction of travel of seismic waves through the earth;
      determining the existence and boundary depths of the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle,

Chapter 6 – Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks.
      1) Where magma comes from; 2) why magma moves upward in the lithosphere; 3) the
      physical and chemical divisions of magma and how this affects volcanic behavior; 4) the
      characteristic features of volcanoes; 5) lava eruptions versus pyroclastic eruptions; 6)
      craters versus calderas; 7) plate tectonic conditions for volcanism; 8) sizes, shapes, and
      names for plutonic rock bodies; 9) melting conditions for rocks that produce magma; 10)
      economic mineral resources from igneous processes.

Chapter 7 – Weathering and Erosion (only the small part shown in this guide).
      1) The differences between mechanical and chemical weathering; 2) the various
      mechanisms of mechanical weathering; 2) the products of chemical weathering; the
      nature of soil.

Chapter 8 – From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock.
      1) What sediment is (physically and chemically; 2) the sources of sediment; 3) the ways
      in which sediment is transported; 4) locations where sediment can be deposited; 5)
      methods of turning sediment into rock; 6) oil, gas, coal, and other economic products
      from sedimentary rocks.
Chapter 9 – Folds, Faults, and Geologic Maps
      1) Stress and strain in the earth; 2) the mechanical behavior of rocks that are stressed; 3)
      features that result from the folding and faulting of rocks.

Use of this Guide:
1) All questions from the previous three quizzes will be repeated on this exam. As you review
       the appropriate PowerPoint handouts, text reading assignments, and your personal lecture
       notes, check your answers to these questions for correctness by pinpointing the places in
       your assignments where the answers are discussed.
2) Most of the questions will be new to you. To prepare, review your reading assignments,
     lecture handouts, and notes you took during lectures. Pay particular attention to the text
     illustrations mentioned below. Concentrate on what these illustrations demonstrate
     regarding Earth processes.
3) Carefully answer the questions listed below either mentally or in writing. Review the
       answers with other students in organized study groups or in pairs. The questions are
       designed to broadly cover all discussion topics that your instructor deems important to
       your understanding of Earth processes.

Textbook Illustrations to Concentrate On: 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 5.3, 5.4, 5.8, 5.9,
5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.15, 5.16, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.9, 6.10, 6.12, 6.15, 6.16, 6.23, 6.24, 7.1, 7.10, 8. 1,
8.2, 8.5, 8.7, 8.12, 8.16, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5,9.7, 9.12, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17
Chapter-Ending Textbook Questions that are Particularly Appropriate to the Lectures
Presented to You:
       Chapter 4 –     Thinking: 5.
                       Self-Test: 8, 9, 14, 15.

       Chapter 5 -     Thinking: 1, 3, 4.
                       Self-Test: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15.
       Chapter 6 -     Thinking: 1, 2, 3, 4.
                       Self-Test: 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15.
       Chapter 7 -     Thinking: 1.
                       Self-Test: 2, 5, 9.

       Chapter 8 –     Thinking: 1, 3.
                       Self-Test: 1, 5, 7, 8, 10.

       Chapter 9 -     Thinking: 2.
                       Self-Test: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11.
Additional Questions with Answers That Could Be Built Into Test Questions:

Chapter 4:
1. Why is the area where the ocean meets the land not necessarily the edge of the continent?
2. According to the diagram below, how do the GPS measurements of plate movements in the
      west-central United States compare with the plate movements in the southern California

3. How does a convergent plate boundary differ from a divergent plate boundary?
4. Why are earthquake foci depths that are associated with transform plate boundaries fairly
5. How does the global distribution of earthquakes relate to the plate boundaries?
6. Describe the Plate Tectonic model. Generally mention the nature of lithosphere plates, what
      these plates move on top of and why, and the types of margins where plates pull apart,
      collide, and slide sideways past one another.
7. Why are volcanoes not present along all types of plate boundaries?
8. Briefly explain how convection drives plate motion.
9. What is polar wandering? How do “polar wandering curves” help to prove the concept of
      plate tectonics?
10. Where is the present rate of sea floor spreading the fastest? The slowest?
11. What is the origin of the Hawaiian Islands? Why do thee islands become younger from west
      to east?
12. What are the possible causes of large-scale lithosphere plate motions? Be prepared to think
      about two major causes and how these causes might operate at the same time.

Chapter 5:
1. Define or explain each of the following: elastic rebound, focus, epicenter, P-waves, S-waves,
       surface waves, seismograph, international seismic network.
2. How is the epicenter of an earthquake located? Describe the entire process starting with the
      interpretation of the seismic record and ending with the placing of the epicenter on a map.
3. What are types of measurements necessary to determine the magnitude of an earthquake?
4. What are the factors that determine the amount of property damage, loss of life, or personal
      injury that result from an earthquake?
5. Can the dates and locations of future earthquakes be predicted? What are some of the
       methods that might be used for the prediction of earthquakes?
6. Can earthquakes be prevented?
7. Where and why, in the plate tectonic scheme of things, do earthquakes tend to occur?
8. In what ways can earthquake focus locations help us to understand the three-dimensional
       shapes of plate boundaries?
9. How does seismic wave velocity in a rock relate to that rock’s elastic behavior and density?
10. What is the difference between reflection and refraction of seismic waves?
11. What specific evidences can we use to prove that the earth is fundamentally divided into a
      core, a mantle, and a crust? In other words, what evidence can we use to show that
      boundaries exist between the core-mantle and between the mantle-crust?
12. How do we know that an asthenosphere exists and how far it resides below the lithosphere?

Chapter 6:
1. What does the inside of a typical volcano look like? Be prepared to interpret a diagram
showing the internal features.
2. Explain how each of the following features form: a flood volcanic plateau, a shield volcano, a
stratovolcano, a cinder cone, a caldera, lava, pyroclastic particles.
3. Why are volcanic (extrusive) rocks composed largely of extremely small crystals (usually
visible only with high magnification) whereas plutonic (intrusive) rocks contain many larger,
visible crystals?
4. Through time, some volcanic eruptions are relatively quiet and uneventful whereas other
eruptions are sudden and violent. Why?
5. What is the relationship between volcanic processes and plate tectonic processes? Can
different eruption styles and magma compositions be associated with different types of plate
boundaries? If so, what is the relationship?
6. Explain how each of the following features form: a sill, a laccolith, a dike, a stock, a
7. Where does magma come from and why does magma intrude upward from its place of origin?
8. Economic mineral deposits frequently accumulate around plutonic igneous bodies because of
the hydrothermal (hot water) activity created by the cooling magma. Where do the metals come
from and how do they accumulate?

Chapter 7:
1. List and describe five (5) different methods of physical (mechanical) weathering.
2. What causes chemical weathering (decomposition)? What are some of the products of rock
3. How does mechanical weathering add to the effectiveness of chemical weathering?
4. What is soil? Where does soil come from? What kinds of material is soil composed of?
What is the difference between soil and bedrock? Give a statement that expresses the origin of

Chapter 8:
1. Starting with the source of the sediment, then transportation, deposition, and lithification,
explain the origin of sandstone, shale, limestone, conglomerate, rock salt, gypsum.
2. Explain the basic differences between lithificaiton of previously unconsolidated (loose)
sediment by cementation versus compaction.
3. Not all particles in a sedimentary rock are clastic pieces of sediment weathered from pre-
existing rocks. I want other ways can sediment be produced?
4. Explain briefly the origin of the following features that commonly develop as sediment is
being deposited: horizontal layering, mud cracks, cross-beds, graded beds, ripple marks.
5. Explain briefly how each of the following features form: coal, oil, natural gas.
6. For each of these types of sedimentary environments (places where sediment tends to
accumulate), name a type of sedimentary rock (such as sandstone, shale, limestone, etc.) that
tends to develop at that location: a) stream channels where water flows very rapidly; b) slow-
moving stream channels; c) swamps; d) beach zones; shallow ocean offshore locations; deep
ocean floor. Why did you choose the sediment types for each location?

Chapter 9:
1. Describe the characteristic behaviors of rocks subjected to forces if such behaviors are: a)
elastic; b) plastic; c) rupture.
2. Produce a sketch of, or be able to name from a sketch, each of the following: anticline,
syncline. Joint, normal surface of rupture, reverse surface of rupture, thrust surface of rupture,
strike-slip surface of rupture.
3. What are the major causes of stress in the earth’s lithosphere? What is the difference
between stress and strain?
4. What are the differences among stress types known as compressional, tensional, shear? What
is the most prevalent plate boundary type that experiences each of these stress types (a different
plate boundary for each)?

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