GEOS. 1000: STUDY GUIDE FOR THE 2nd MID-TERM EXAM Date of the Exam: Tuesday, Nov. 2 Exam Style: Combination of multiple choice, matching, and true-false. Number of Questions: To be determined slightly prior to test time. Basically, anticipate about 80 questions taking about one hour to complete. Subjects Covered: Chapter 4 – Plate Tectonics. Concentrate on the second half of the chapter (pp. 109 – 119). 1) Locations, directions, and rates of plate movements today; 2) types of plate activity at divergent boundaries; 3) types of plate activity at divergent boundaries; 4) types of plate activity at divergent boundaries; 5) the suggested causes of plate movement (the driving mechanisms). Chapter 5 – Earthquakes and the Earth’s Interior. 1) The origin of earthquakes; 2) the nature of seismic waves; 3) determining the locations and magnitudes of earthquakes; 4) where earthquakes tend to occur; 5) factors that determine the amount of damage from earthquakes; 6) predicting earthquakes; 7) factors that affect the velocity and direction of travel of seismic waves through the earth; determining the existence and boundary depths of the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, core. Chapter 6 – Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks. 1) Where magma comes from; 2) why magma moves upward in the lithosphere; 3) the physical and chemical divisions of magma and how this affects volcanic behavior; 4) the characteristic features of volcanoes; 5) lava eruptions versus pyroclastic eruptions; 6) craters versus calderas; 7) plate tectonic conditions for volcanism; 8) sizes, shapes, and names for plutonic rock bodies; 9) melting conditions for rocks that produce magma; 10) economic mineral resources from igneous processes. Chapter 7 – Weathering and Erosion (only the small part shown in this guide). 1) The differences between mechanical and chemical weathering; 2) the various mechanisms of mechanical weathering; 2) the products of chemical weathering; the nature of soil. Chapter 8 – From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock. 1) What sediment is (physically and chemically; 2) the sources of sediment; 3) the ways in which sediment is transported; 4) locations where sediment can be deposited; 5) methods of turning sediment into rock; 6) oil, gas, coal, and other economic products from sedimentary rocks. Chapter 9 – Folds, Faults, and Geologic Maps 1) Stress and strain in the earth; 2) the mechanical behavior of rocks that are stressed; 3) features that result from the folding and faulting of rocks. Use of this Guide: 1) All questions from the previous three quizzes will be repeated on this exam. As you review the appropriate PowerPoint handouts, text reading assignments, and your personal lecture notes, check your answers to these questions for correctness by pinpointing the places in your assignments where the answers are discussed. 2) Most of the questions will be new to you. To prepare, review your reading assignments, lecture handouts, and notes you took during lectures. Pay particular attention to the text illustrations mentioned below. Concentrate on what these illustrations demonstrate regarding Earth processes. 3) Carefully answer the questions listed below either mentally or in writing. Review the answers with other students in organized study groups or in pairs. The questions are designed to broadly cover all discussion topics that your instructor deems important to your understanding of Earth processes. Textbook Illustrations to Concentrate On: 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 5.3, 5.4, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.15, 5.16, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.9, 6.10, 6.12, 6.15, 6.16, 6.23, 6.24, 7.1, 7.10, 8. 1, 8.2, 8.5, 8.7, 8.12, 8.16, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5,9.7, 9.12, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17 Chapter-Ending Textbook Questions that are Particularly Appropriate to the Lectures Presented to You: Chapter 4 – Thinking: 5. Self-Test: 8, 9, 14, 15. Chapter 5 - Thinking: 1, 3, 4. Self-Test: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15. Chapter 6 - Thinking: 1, 2, 3, 4. Self-Test: 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15. Chapter 7 - Thinking: 1. Self-Test: 2, 5, 9. Chapter 8 – Thinking: 1, 3. Self-Test: 1, 5, 7, 8, 10. Chapter 9 - Thinking: 2. Self-Test: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11. Additional Questions with Answers That Could Be Built Into Test Questions: Chapter 4: 1. Why is the area where the ocean meets the land not necessarily the edge of the continent? 2. According to the diagram below, how do the GPS measurements of plate movements in the west-central United States compare with the plate movements in the southern California area? 3. How does a convergent plate boundary differ from a divergent plate boundary? 4. Why are earthquake foci depths that are associated with transform plate boundaries fairly shallow? 5. How does the global distribution of earthquakes relate to the plate boundaries? 6. Describe the Plate Tectonic model. Generally mention the nature of lithosphere plates, what these plates move on top of and why, and the types of margins where plates pull apart, collide, and slide sideways past one another. 7. Why are volcanoes not present along all types of plate boundaries? 8. Briefly explain how convection drives plate motion. 9. What is polar wandering? How do “polar wandering curves” help to prove the concept of plate tectonics? 10. Where is the present rate of sea floor spreading the fastest? The slowest? 11. What is the origin of the Hawaiian Islands? Why do thee islands become younger from west to east? 12. What are the possible causes of large-scale lithosphere plate motions? Be prepared to think about two major causes and how these causes might operate at the same time. Chapter 5: 1. Define or explain each of the following: elastic rebound, focus, epicenter, P-waves, S-waves, surface waves, seismograph, international seismic network. 2. How is the epicenter of an earthquake located? Describe the entire process starting with the interpretation of the seismic record and ending with the placing of the epicenter on a map. 3. What are types of measurements necessary to determine the magnitude of an earthquake? 4. What are the factors that determine the amount of property damage, loss of life, or personal injury that result from an earthquake? 5. Can the dates and locations of future earthquakes be predicted? What are some of the methods that might be used for the prediction of earthquakes? 6. Can earthquakes be prevented? 7. Where and why, in the plate tectonic scheme of things, do earthquakes tend to occur? 8. In what ways can earthquake focus locations help us to understand the three-dimensional shapes of plate boundaries? 9. How does seismic wave velocity in a rock relate to that rock’s elastic behavior and density? 10. What is the difference between reflection and refraction of seismic waves? 11. What specific evidences can we use to prove that the earth is fundamentally divided into a core, a mantle, and a crust? In other words, what evidence can we use to show that boundaries exist between the core-mantle and between the mantle-crust? 12. How do we know that an asthenosphere exists and how far it resides below the lithosphere? Chapter 6: 1. What does the inside of a typical volcano look like? Be prepared to interpret a diagram showing the internal features. 2. Explain how each of the following features form: a flood volcanic plateau, a shield volcano, a stratovolcano, a cinder cone, a caldera, lava, pyroclastic particles. 3. Why are volcanic (extrusive) rocks composed largely of extremely small crystals (usually visible only with high magnification) whereas plutonic (intrusive) rocks contain many larger, visible crystals? 4. Through time, some volcanic eruptions are relatively quiet and uneventful whereas other eruptions are sudden and violent. Why? 5. What is the relationship between volcanic processes and plate tectonic processes? Can different eruption styles and magma compositions be associated with different types of plate boundaries? If so, what is the relationship? 6. Explain how each of the following features form: a sill, a laccolith, a dike, a stock, a batholith. 7. Where does magma come from and why does magma intrude upward from its place of origin? 8. Economic mineral deposits frequently accumulate around plutonic igneous bodies because of the hydrothermal (hot water) activity created by the cooling magma. Where do the metals come from and how do they accumulate? Chapter 7: 1. List and describe five (5) different methods of physical (mechanical) weathering. 2. What causes chemical weathering (decomposition)? What are some of the products of rock decomposition? 3. How does mechanical weathering add to the effectiveness of chemical weathering? 4. What is soil? Where does soil come from? What kinds of material is soil composed of? What is the difference between soil and bedrock? Give a statement that expresses the origin of soil. Chapter 8: 1. Starting with the source of the sediment, then transportation, deposition, and lithification, explain the origin of sandstone, shale, limestone, conglomerate, rock salt, gypsum. 2. Explain the basic differences between lithificaiton of previously unconsolidated (loose) sediment by cementation versus compaction. 3. Not all particles in a sedimentary rock are clastic pieces of sediment weathered from pre- existing rocks. I want other ways can sediment be produced? 4. Explain briefly the origin of the following features that commonly develop as sediment is being deposited: horizontal layering, mud cracks, cross-beds, graded beds, ripple marks. 5. Explain briefly how each of the following features form: coal, oil, natural gas. 6. For each of these types of sedimentary environments (places where sediment tends to accumulate), name a type of sedimentary rock (such as sandstone, shale, limestone, etc.) that tends to develop at that location: a) stream channels where water flows very rapidly; b) slow- moving stream channels; c) swamps; d) beach zones; shallow ocean offshore locations; deep ocean floor. Why did you choose the sediment types for each location? Chapter 9: 1. Describe the characteristic behaviors of rocks subjected to forces if such behaviors are: a) elastic; b) plastic; c) rupture. 2. Produce a sketch of, or be able to name from a sketch, each of the following: anticline, syncline. Joint, normal surface of rupture, reverse surface of rupture, thrust surface of rupture, strike-slip surface of rupture. 3. What are the major causes of stress in the earth’s lithosphere? What is the difference between stress and strain? 4. What are the differences among stress types known as compressional, tensional, shear? What is the most prevalent plate boundary type that experiences each of these stress types (a different plate boundary for each)?
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