National Indigenous Reform
performance report for
Report to the Council of Australian Governments
30 April 2010
E.1 Closing the gap in Indigenous disadvantage
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are the most economically and socially
disadvantaged group within Australian society. Numerous reports and research studies describe
the disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on various measures of
economic and social wellbeing. This baseline report brings together much of the existing data
and outlines the commitments and targets COAG have made to effect real change in the lives of
In November 2008, COAG agreed Indigenous reform would be one of the priorities of the
COAG reform agenda (COAG 2008a, p. 2). COAG committed to work together with
Indigenous Australians, and the broader community, to achieve the ambitious target of ‘Closing
the Gap’ across six key areas—life expectancy, child mortality, access to early childhood
education, numeracy and literacy, educational attainment and economic participation. The
Commonwealth, State and Territory governments all have shared responsibility for achieving
the agreed COAG targets for Closing the Gap in Indigenous disadvantage, as acknowledged in
the National Indigenous Reform Agreement. The COAG Reform Council has the task of
assessing and publicly reporting the performance of governments against these commitments.
The National Indigenous Reform Agreement has a number of important features that are
different from the other National Agreements.
The Agreement sets targets across key areas of government policy, demonstrating the links
between health, childhood development, education and employment. This is a strength of
the Agreement as it provides a comprehensive framework to measure change across key
This framework highlights that disadvantage begins early for Indigenous Australians and
the gaps—or disparities—between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians worsen and
compound over time. For example, literacy skills underpin an individual’s success in
school, further education and employment. Many Indigenous children lack a solid
foundation in literacy—with close to one third of Indigenous children in Year 3 with skills
below the national minimum standard, compared to only 6 per cent of non-Indigenous
children. These differences continue throughout schooling and beyond. Indigenous young
people are also less likely to attain a Year 12 or equivalent qualification (47 per cent
compared to 84 per cent of non-Indigenous young people), and participate in full time
employment, education or training after leaving school (37 per cent compared to 73 per cent
of non-Indigenous young people).
The Agreement also establishes benchmarks by using trajectories to measure progress in
achieving the Closing the Gap targets—introducing a stringent method of performance
reporting. The council notes, however, these trajectories have not been agreed to at the time
of writing, and governments need to give high priority to finalising national and
jurisdictional trajectories to enable the council to report on progress in future reports.
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xi
E.2 Strengthening accountability for results
The National Indigenous Reform Agreement is part of COAG’s broader reform of federal
financial relations. An important objective of this reform is improved accountability, through
simpler, standardised and more transparent public performance reporting, with ‘a rigorous focus
on the achievement of outcomes—that is, mutual agreement on what objectives, outcomes and
outputs improve the well-being of Australians’ (COAG 2008b, p. 4).
The COAG Reform Council has a key role in strengthening accountability through monitoring,
assessing and publicly reporting on the performance of the Commonwealth, States and
Territories in achieving the outcomes and performance benchmarks specified in National
Agreements (COAG 2008b, p. A-4). The council is independent of individual governments and
reports directly to COAG.
In this report, the COAG Reform Council presents a comparative analysis of the baseline data
for indicators to track governments’ performance towards the six targets under the National
Indigenous Reform Agreement (box E.1). The analysis also highlights contextual differences
between the jurisdictions that are important in understanding the data.
The council’s other reports on healthcare, housing and disability—released concurrently—are
complementary reports, presenting the baseline data for performance against outcomes for those
sectors. Each of these reports contains performance indicators relevant to Indigenous
Australians and plays a role in meeting the Closing the Gap targets.
This executive summary outlines:
key contextual differences between the jurisdictions that are important in understanding the
performance of the States and Territories
the findings from the comparative analysis against the six targets and
the council’s recommendations on ways to improve the performance reporting framework.
Box E.1 Targets of the National Indigenous Reform Agreement
Close the life expectancy gap within a generation.
Halve the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children under five within a decade.
Ensure all Indigenous four year olds in remote communities have access to early
childhood education within five years.
Halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing, numeracy within a decade.
Halve the gap for Indigenous students in Year 12 attainment or equivalent attainment
rates by 2020.
Halve the gap in employment outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous
Australians within a decade.
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xii
E.3 Key contextual differences
E.3.1 Understanding the baseline data
The contextual differences highlighted in assessing performance under the National Indigenous
Reform Agreement are high level and small in number (table E.1). They are focused on
differences that help understand the data by giving the broad context, in particular, demographic
information, such as where Indigenous Australians live and language spoken at home.
Throughout the report, in recognition of some of the differences between jurisdictions,
comparisons have been made between jurisdictions with relatively large Indigenous populations
(NSW, Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory) and jurisdictions with
relatively small Indigenous populations (Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT).
This approach will be refined as more robust data disaggregations become available.
In particular, the council notes the unique Indigenous population profile in the Northern
Territory, with both large numbers and a very high proportion of Indigenous people living in
remote or very remote areas and speaking an Indigenous language at home.
Understanding contextual factors is particularly relevant in this first year report as it presents the
baseline data for the comparative assessment of performance. However, these contextual factors
are likely to be less relevant to understanding changes in performance, and hence are less likely
to be relevant in subsequent years’ reports as the focus shifts to assessing the performance of the
jurisdictions over the years compared with their baseline data.
Table E.1 Key contextual factors, States and Territories
Contextual Factors NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Aust
Indigenous population 158.8 35.1 152.5 73.5 29.2 19.2 4.4 66.3 539.4
Indigenous population 2.3 0.7 3.6 3.4 1.8 3.9 1.3 30.2 2.5
as proportion of total
Indigenous 43.3 49.6 28.1 34.4 48.9 na 100 na 32.1
population in major
Indigenous 51.6 50.4 49.7 23.0 32.4 100 na 20.2 43.2
regional areas (inner
& outer) %
Indigenous 4.3 na 8.6 17.1 4.3 na na 23.4 9.3
population in remote
Indigenous 0.8 na 13.7 25.5 14.4 na na 56.4 15.4
population in very
remote areas %
Indigenous language 0.6 1.0 9.2 13.9 12.2 0.2 2.1 59.1 12.1
spoken at home %
Sources: ABS (2009) Experimental Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2006; ABS
Population Characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Australia, 2006.
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xiii
E.4 Target 1: Close the gap in life expectancy within a generation
Despite major gains in life expectancy for all Australians over the last 15 years, there has been
no significant change in the gap in mortality rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous
people. This target reflects a commitment to improving Indigenous health across a rage of risk
factors and improving access to healthcare.
E.4.1 The gap in life expectancy is 11.5 years for males and 9.7 years for females
This target aims for parity in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous
Australians by 2031. Currently the gap is 11.5 years for males and 9.7 years for females. Much
of the gap is due to higher Indigenous mortality rates for various chronic diseases.
The Indigenous mortality rates in the Northern Territory and Western Australia were more
than three times higher than the rates for non-Indigenous Australians. In South Australia,
Queensland and NSW, Indigenous mortality rates were around twice those for non-
Indigenous Australians, which was close to the national average.
Circulatory diseases were the main cause of death for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous
Australians. However, Indigenous Australians died from these diseases at 2.4 times the rate
of other Australians.
Large rate differences were also recorded for diabetes (seven times more likely to be the
cause of death for Indigenous Australians compared to non-Indigenous Australians), kidney
disease and digestive diseases (both 4.3 times more likely to be the cause of death for
Indigenous people). For kidney disease, this difference was 12-fold in the Northern
E.4.2 Risk factors such as smoking, obesity and lack of physical activity are
generally higher for Indigenous people
Tobacco smoking, obesity and a lack of physical activity are leading factors that contribute to a
risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease and cancer—the most common causes
of Indigenous mortality.
Nationally, Indigenous Australians reported high rates of sedentary lifestyle (50.9 per cent),
smoking (44.8 per cent) and obesity (33.6 per cent), compared to those for non-Indigenous
Australians (33.2 per cent, 18.9 per cent and 17.7 per cent respectively).
There were no significant differences between the jurisdictions in these rates.
E.4.3 Access to healthcare for Indigenous Australians is lowest for dentists and
Access to healthcare, particularly primary health care such as general practitioners and other
health care providers, is extremely important for Indigenous Australians to allow prevention,
early detection and treatment of illness, and management of chronic conditions.
In 2004–05, 20.5 per cent of Indigenous Australians reported that they did not see a dentist
when they needed to, followed by 14.7 per cent for doctors, 7.5 per cent for other health
professionals, and 6.7 per cent for hospitals.
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xiv
At present, this measure relies on self-reported data and work is being undertaken to
development more adequate data sources to measure unmet need.
E.5 Target 2: Halve the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children
under five within a decade
The second target—halving the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children under five within
a decade—recognises that improving the health of Indigenous Australians requires a long-term
and intergenerational approach which ensures Indigenous infants and children have a healthy
start to life. To support this, it is particularly important to improve the health of Indigenous
women during pregnancy.
E.5.1 The mortality rate of Indigenous children is twice the rate of other children
Nationally, the Indigenous mortality rate for children under five was 2.3 deaths per 1000—twice
the rate of other children.
In the Northern Territory, the Indigenous child mortality rate was 3.6 deaths per 1000 (2.9
times the rate for other children).
In Western Australia, the mortality rate for Indigenous children was 3.0 deaths per 1000
(3.4 times the rate for other children).
E.5.2 The leading causes of death for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children
are from conditions originating during pregnancy or the first 28 days after
The leading causes of death for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children under five were
for conditions originating in the perinatal period—the rates were, however, substantially
different. Indigenous children died at a rate of 86.2 deaths per 100 000—1.9 times the rate for
other children (45.6 deaths per 100 000).
E.5.3 Indigenous children are hospitalised at higher rates than non-Indigenous
children in most States and Territories
Data from available jurisdictions show that, in total, Indigenous children were in hospital 1.3
times the rate of other children. The Northern Territory and Western Australia had particularly
high rates of hospitalisation for Indigenous children compared to other children—2.6 times the
rate of non-Indigenous children in the Northern Territory and 1.8 times the rate of non-
Indigenous children in Western Australia.
The most common diagnosis for Indigenous children in hospital was diseases of the respiratory
system (85.6 per 1000)—1.8 times the rate of non-Indigenous children. In the Northern
Territory, Indigenous children were hospitalised for diseases of the respiratory system—3.7
times the rate of other children. In Western Australia, Indigenous children were hospitalised at
3.0 times the rate of non-Indigenous children.
E.5.4 Indigenous mothers have poorer maternal health
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xv
The three indicators related to maternal health are affected by Indigenous under-identification in
the data source which limits the extent performance can be compared across jurisdictions.
Development work is currently being undertaken which will improve the quality and
comparability of data to allow cross-jurisdictional performance reporting in future reports.
The current data show that 11.5 per cent of babies born to Indigenous mothers have low
birthweights (more than twice the rate of babies born to non-Indigenous mothers), over half of
Indigenous women smoked tobacco during pregnancy (three times the rate of non-Indigenous
women) and Indigenous women attend antenatal visits less frequently than non-Indigenous
women at the beginning (first trimester) and throughout the term of their pregnancy.
E.6 Target 3: Ensure all Indigenous four year olds in remote communities
have access to quality early childhood education within five years
E.6.1 Data are unavailable to track progress towards this target
Participation in early childhood education programs has been shown to increase levels of
literacy and school completion rates in later years. This target—ensuring Indigenous children in
remote communities can access quality early childhood education and care— is a critical
building block to improve education outcomes for Indigenous young people.
At present there are no comparable data to measure jurisdictional progress towards this target.
The council notes that significant work will need to be undertaken urgently to resolve data
issues so that progress towards this target can be reported in the future.
E.7 Target 4: Halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing
and numeracy within a decade
Early development of literacy and numeracy skills are the foundations for a student’s success in
school, school retention and completion of Year 12. COAG has set a target of halving the gap
for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade, measured by
performance in National Assessment Program–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing.
E.7.1 Indigenous students significantly underperform in Reading, Writing and
Indigenous students’ performance in NAPLAN is consistently below non-Indigenous students’
performance. In 2008, for example:
68.3 per cent of Indigenous students were at or above the national minimum standard in
Year 3 Reading compared with 93.5 per cent of non-Indigenous students—a gap of about
25 percentage points
the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students varied across jurisdictions, from a
low of about 5 percentage points for Tasmania to a high of about 58 percentage points for
the Northern Territory
of the jurisdictions with larger Indigenous populations, Indigenous students in NSW had the
best performance in Reading and Numeracy.
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xvi
There was also large variation in the participation of Indigenous students in NAPLAN,
particularly for the rate of Indigenous students who are absent or withdrawn from testing:
for example, in Year 3 Reading, 29 per cent of Indigenous students in the Northern
Territory were absent or withdrawn from testing, compared to only around 4 per cent in
Tasmania and South Australia
there are higher rates of absent or withdrawn Indigenous students than non-Indigenous
students across most jurisdictions and the rates increase sharply by Year 9. For example, for
Year 9 Reading assessment, 20 per cent or more of Indigenous students were absent or
withdrawn in NSW, Victoria, Western Australia, ACT and the Northern Territory.
With high levels of students absent or withdrawn from testing it is not possible to get an
accurate picture of Indigenous students’ literacy and numeracy capabilities.
E.8 Target 5: Halve the gap for Indigenous students in Year 12 attainment
or equivalent attainment rates by 2020
This target is about ensuring young Indigenous Australians leaving school have the knowledge
and skills to effectively participate in society through gaining employment, pursuing higher
education and participating in and developing Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultures.
It is also included in the National Education Agreement.
E.8.1 Less than half of young Indigenous Australians have attained a Year 12 or
In 2006, only 47.4 per cent of Indigenous Australians aged between 20 and 24 years, attained at
least a Year 12 (or equivalent) compared to 83.8 per cent of non-Indigenous Australians. Only
four jurisdictions (ACT, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria) had more than 50 per cent of
young Indigenous Australians with at least Year 12 or equivalent attainment.
Of the jurisdictions with larger Indigenous populations, Queensland had the highest Year 12 or
equivalent attainment rate (57.9 per cent). The Northern Territory had the lowest attainment rate
(18.3 per cent) and the greatest proportional gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous
Australians (59 percentage points).
Considerable differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians’ attainment rates
were also found depending on geographical location. Year 12 or equivalent attainment rates for
Indigenous Australians steadily decreased with increased remoteness (59.3 per cent of
Indigenous Australians attained at least a Year 12 or equivalent in major cities compared with
22.5 per cent in very remote areas). Apart from an initial decline outside of major cities,
increased remoteness did not substantially impact on attainment rates for non-Indigenous
E.8.2 Fewer Indigenous students stay in school until Year 10 and Year 12
The apparent retention rate shows the proportion of students who continue from the first year of
secondary school through to Year 10 or Year 12. It does not measure successful completion (or
attainment) of Year 10 or Year 12, nor is it an exact measure of the same group of students. As
a result concerns have been raised about its accuracy. Until better measures are developed, the
council will measure performance against this indicator, which is useful in the absence of more
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xvii
In 2008, nationally, almost nine in 10 Indigenous students stayed in school until Year 10. The
Northern Territory had the lowest apparent retention rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous
students (71.9 per cent and 96.3 per cent respectively).
Nationally, by Year 12, apparent retention rates had substantially declined—only 46.5 per cent
of Indigenous students stayed in school until Year 12 compared to 75.6 per cent of non-
Indigenous students. Queensland had the highest apparent retention rate for Indigenous students
until Year 10 (95.8 per cent) and Year 12 (60.5 per cent).
E.8.3 Indigenous students attend school at lower rates in all school sectors
Halving the gap in Year 12 attainment rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students
depends on Indigenous students actually attending primary and secondary school and having the
opportunity to learn. At this time, jurisdictional comparability on school attendance is limited as
data on attendance rates cannot be aggregated due to the different collection methods used by
the schooling sectors. With these data limitations in mind, in summary, the 2008 data show that
in most years and across all sectors—government, Catholic and Independent schools—
Indigenous students attended school at lower rates than non-Indigenous students.
Data from government schools show:
by Year 5, the attendance rate of Indigenous students at government schools was less than
90 per cent in all jurisdictions, with the exception of Tasmania (93 per cent)
attendance rates for Indigenous students declined in all jurisdictions from Year 5 to Year 10
the gap, or difference, in attendance rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous varied
across States and Territories. NSW was the only jurisdiction to have a gap of less than 10
percentage points in attendance rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in
Year 5 and Year 10. In the Northern Territory, the gap was around 20 percentage points.
E.9 Target 6: Halve the gap in employment outcomes between Indigenous
and non-Indigenous Australians within a decade
This last target recognises that addressing the persistent economic and social disadvantage
experienced by Indigenous Australians requires more Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
peoples to become active participants in Australia’s economy.
E.9.1 Fewer Indigenous Australians are employed and in the labour force, and
the unemployment rate for Indigenous Australians is four times higher than
the rate for non-Indigenous Australians
Across all three labour force statistics, Indigenous Australians experience substantially lower
outcomes than non-Indigenous Australians. In summary, in 2008:
53.8 per cent of working age Indigenous Australians (between 15 and 64 years) were
employed compared to 75.0 per cent of non-Indigenous Australians
64.5 per cent of working age Indigenous Australians were in the labour force—either
employed or looking for work—compared to 78.3 per cent of non-Indigenous Australians
the unemployment rate for Indigenous Australians was 16.6 per cent compared to 4.2 per
cent for non-Indigenous people. When participation on the Community Development
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xviii
Employment Projects (CDEP) program is included, the unemployment rate increases to
25.4 per cent.
High rates of young Indigenous Australians are also unemployed. When the data are
disaggregated by age it shows that a quarter (25.4 per cent) of young Indigenous Australians are
unemployed compared to 8.9 per cent of non-Indigenous Australians.
Across the jurisdictions, the largest gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous employment,
labour force and unemployment rates were in the Northern Territory and NSW.
E.9.2 Young Indigenous Australians are involved in post-school employment,
education or training at around half the rate of non-Indigenous Australians
The transition of young Indigenous people from school to either work, education or training is
critical for ensuring young people remain engaged and active participants in society and the
broader economy. The findings show that:
half the proportion of young Indigenous Australians (37.3 per cent) were participating in
post-school employment, education or training compared to 73.4 per cent of non-Indigenous
young people of the same age
the Northern Territory had the lowest proportion of young Indigenous people participating
in post-school activities (19.2 per cent) and the greatest proportional gap between
Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people (56 percentage points)
of the jurisdictions with larger Indigenous populations, Queensland (40.5 per cent) and
NSW (40.4 per cent) had the largest proportions of young Indigenous Australians
participating in post-school employment, education or training.
E.9.3 Indigenous Australians have lower levels of post school qualifications
compared to non-Indigenous Australians in all jurisdictions
As part of the productivity reform agenda, COAG has recognised the need to increase the skills
of Australians by setting a target to halve the proportion of 20 to 64 year olds without
qualifications at or above a Certificate III by 2020. This target is also set out in the National
Agreement for Skills and Workforce Development. Nationally, in 2006, 30.2 per cent of
Indigenous Australians had or were working towards post-school qualifications (Certificate III
or above), compared to 55.0 per cent of non-Indigenous Australians.
E.10 Reaching the COAG targets
A key part of the performance monitoring framework of the National Indigenous Reform
Agreement is the inclusion of trajectories to monitor whether governments are on track to meet
the targets within the specified timeframes.
Schedule G of the National Indigenous Reform Agreement currently includes indicative
trajectories for five of the six targets (at a national level only). At the time of writing, national
and jurisdictional trajectories for the six COAG targets were still being finalised.
These trajectories need to be finalised as a matter of high priority to enable the council to
appropriately report on progress towards Closing the Gap in future performance reports.
E.11 Improving the performance reporting framework
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xix
The success of the reform of federal financial relations depends crucially upon a robust
performance reporting framework, including the development of sound performance indicators
and benchmarks as the basis for public reporting. COAG has agreed to work together ‘to
improve performance reporting for the sake of enhanced public accountability’ (COAG 2008b,
The COAG Reform Council may also advise COAG on where changes might be made to
improve the performance reporting framework (COAG 2008b, p. C-5). In light of the council’s
key responsibility to assess and publicly report governments’ progress against the agreed
objectives and outcomes of the National Agreements, the council has focused on providing
high-level advice on the adequacy, appropriateness and timeliness of the performance indicators
and associated measures. This includes commenting on the conceptual adequacy of the
indicators for measuring the outcomes.
The council has made three recommendations on ways to improve the performance reporting
framework. The first recommendation (box E.2) concerns ensuring that administrative data
provided for each report relate to the relevant reporting year, to reflect COAG’s commitment to
Box E.2 Recommendation 1
The COAG Reform Council recommends that COAG confirm that administrative data
provided for each report should relate to the relevant reporting year.
The second recommendation (box E.3) suggests amendment to the indicator ‘the proportion of
Indigenous 20 to 64 year olds with or working towards post school qualification in Certificate
III, IV, Diploma or Advanced Diploma’ to include higher education qualifications. This would
align the performance indictor with the National Agreement for Skills and Workforce
Development and to better reflect COAG’s intention in setting the indicator.
Box E.3 Recommendation 2
The COAG Reform Council recommends that COAG agree to revise the indicator of
the proportion of Indigenous 20 to 64 year olds with or working towards a post school
qualification in Certificate III, IV, Diploma or Advanced Diploma to ‘the proportion of
Indigenous 20 to 64 year olds with or working towards a post school qualification in
Certificate III or above’.
The third recommendation (box E.4) proposes that COAG refer a range of issues and
suggestions for improvements to the performance reporting framework to the Heads of
Treasuries Committee on Federal Financial Relations for further consideration and
prioritisation, in consultation with the National Indigenous Reform Agreement Performance
Information Management Group (NIRA PIMG).
Box E.4 Recommendation 3
The COAG Reform Council recommends that COAG note the issues and suggestions for
improvements to the performance reporting framework listed below, and refer them to
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xx
the Heads of Treasuries Committee on Federal Financial Relations for further
consideration and prioritisation, in consultation with the NIRA PIMG.
Overall data improvements
Give high priority to finalising the national and jurisdictional trajectories during 2010.
Give priority to improving Indigenous identification in the Census and administrative data
Develop methods to allow mortality and child mortality data to be reported for jurisdictions
with small Indigenous populations (where issues of Indigenous identification are also
Improve the disaggregation of performance indicators by geo-location (including survey
coverage in remote areas) and investigate the desirability of providing disaggregations by
geo-location for other indicators in the National Indigenous Reform Agreement.
Investigate the feasibility of developing a model for an Indigenous index of socio-economic
Consider the appropriateness of the frequency of the data collections for indicator data and
the impact on the council’s ability to analyse the year to year performance of jurisdictions,
taking into account both the benefits and costs of more frequent reporting.
Target: Life expectancy
Support the work being undertaken by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)
to develop a better measure of access to health services compared to need.
Target: Child mortality
Support the work currently undertaken by the AIHW to:
- improve the collection of data on access to antenatal care and tobacco smoking during
pregnancy to allow jurisdictional comparisons
- collect data on the Indigenous status of the child, as well as the mother, in the National
Perinatal Data Collection.
Target: Early childhood education
Develop, as a matter of priority, a data source that can be used to report against this
Target: Literacy and numeracy
Better understand non-participation in NAPLAN testing by separately reporting absent and
withdrawn students, and by disaggregating students by geo-location.
Target: Year 12 attainment
Consider inclusion of a timely and accurate measure of Indigenous Year 10 completion
rates for use in both the National Indigenous Reform Agreement and the National Education
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xxi
Continue to develop alternative measures of secondary school engagement to apparent
retention rates for use in both the National Indigenous Reform Agreement and the National
Continue to investigate a more timely and informative measure of Year 12 attainment based
on the actual number of Year 12 completions through certificate identification.
develop the relevant data sources to be able to report on engagement with study by level of
study, and report separately on higher education and vocational qualifications.
National Indigenous Reform Agreement: Baseline performance report for 2008–09 xxii