Folk and Popular Culture � Chapter 4

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					              Folk and Popular Culture – Chapter 4
Introductory Information
 • In chapter 1, culture was shown to combine 3 things: ________________, material artifacts, and
 • This chapter deals with ____________________________________.
 • We will examine 2 parts of material culture…
      1. _________________________ activities (________________, _______________, ______________)
      2. __________________________ activities (_______________________, ______________________)

 • Culture is different from a habit and custom…
 • Habit – a repetitive act that an __________________________ performs
 • Custom – a repetitive act performed by a group to the extent that it becomes a characteristic of the
 • Custom refers to a specific ____________________ of material culture, whereas culture refers to a group’s
   entire collection of _______________________.
 • Material culture falls into two basic categories according to scale…

 • _____________________________ – traditionally practiced by _______________, ___________________
   groups living in isolated rural areas.
 • _____________________________ – found in large ___________________________ societies that share
   certain habits despite differences in _____________________ characteristics.

 • The scale of territory covered by folk culture is typically __________________ than that of a popular

 • Folk culture develops BECAUSE it is ________________________- from other groups…
          – i.e. an isolated ________________ doing their own thing their own way
  Pop culture is based on ________________ simultaneous _______________________________ through
   _______________________, ________________________, and modern technology.

 • B/c of globalization, popular culture is becoming more ___________________, threatening the survival of
   folk culture.
 • Folk culture provides a unique __________________ to each group who occupies a specific region of Earth.
 • Disappearance of folk culture lead to less ______________________ in the world.

Environmental Impact
 • Popular culture is also dangerous to the environment. They ________________ the environment according
   to global values.
 • Folk culture is more likely to be _______________________ to the environment.

        Key Issue #1 – Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse?
 • A social custom like ________________ originates at a hearth.
 • Folk customs often have _____________________ hearths, originating from _____________________
   sources, at ______________________ dates, through ___________________________ originators. They
   may also have _________________________- hearths.
 • Popular culture is most often a product of the economically ______________________________ countries,
   especially in N Am, W Eur, and Japan.

 • __________________________ and __________________________ are good examples…
 • Arise from a combination of advances in ________________________________________ and increased
   ________________ time.
 • Technology leads to uniform production of items in large quantities (cd’s, _____________, ____________)
 • Many items help people enjoy leisure time.

Origin of Folk Music
 • Usually composed anonymously and spread ____________________.
 • Tells a story or conveys _____________________ about daily activities like __________________, life-
   cycle events (_______________, _________________, death), or mysterious events.
 • In the US, ________________________________ began as folk music in various hearths in the South.

Origin of Popular Music
 • Written by ______________________________________ for purpose of ________________ it.
 • High degree of _____________________________ and sometimes can only be performed in a
 • As we know it now, it originated around _____________.
 • _____________________________ in NYC (printed music)
 • Diffusion began during ______________ when music was broadcast worldwide by
   __________________________________________________ wherever _______________ went. As a
   result, ____________________ became the international _____________________ for popular music.

 • Pop culture follows ______________________ from hearths. Examples… Hollywood for movies; Madison
   Ave, NY for advertising.
 • Pop culture diffuses rapidly through the use of modern ________________________ and
 • Folk culture is transmitted from one location to another _________________ and on a _______________
   scale primarily through migration (_____________________________).

Example of Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture
 • The Amish

Example of Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture
 • Soccer

Other Sports
 • Each country has its own favorite sports.
 • The common element in professional sports is the willingness throughout the world to ______________ for
   the privilege of _____________________, whether on TV or in person, events played by professional
 • The most viewed event in history is the _____________________ soccer final every 4 years.
 • In the US, most viewed is the ________________________.

                         Key Issue #2 – Where is Folk Culture Clustered?
Isolation Promotes Cultural Diversity
 • Folk culture typically has unknown or multiple ____________________ among groups living in relative
 • Folk culture diffuses slowly to other locations through the process of _______________________.
 • A group’s unique folk customs develop through ______________ of isolation from other

 • Recall that environmental determinists theorized how processes in the environment cause
 • Not ___________________ theory – people in very similar places have very different cultures. Sometimes,
   people live in extremely different ______________________, but have similar _____________________.

 • ___________________ can limit a variety of human actions, but folk societies are particularly responsive
   due to their low level of technology and their prevailing agricultural economy.
 • Folk cultures are likely to be _____________________, use __________________________, and rely on
 • 2 necessities of life – food and shelter – show the influence of cultural values and the environment on the
   development of folk culture.

Food Preferences
 • Humans eat ___________________ and ____________________ (living things).
 • Inhabitants must consider the __________________, __________________, and ___________________ in
   deciding what to grow.
 • Of all the things likely to be _____________________________ in a culture, __________________ is the
   least likely.
 • People adapt their food preferences to conditions in the _________________________.
 • Ex: fuel shortages in _______________ = quick frying, abundance of fuel in _____________________ =
   slow roasting and stewing.

 • Occasionally people will try to ___________________ certain foods.
 • Taboo – a __________________________ on behavior imposed by _____________________.

 • ___________________ and ____________________ do not eat __________________.
 • In the case of the pig, there is no benefit other than the ___________________ and pigs would compete
   with humans for ______________ and ___________. Could be fatal in dry, _____________ environments.
 • _____________________ do not consume ______________. Kept around to work on _________________
   projects. Religious sanctions serve as a form of _______________________ to keep cows around.

 • Americans avoid eating _____________________, which have high ________________________ value.
 • Insects mixed with ______________ provides _____________ (amino acid) which is deficient in the diets
   of people in developing nations.

Folk Housing
 • Building materials are influenced by what is _______________________.
 • ___________________ and ____________________ at the 2 most common globally.
 • _________________, ____________________, ______________, and _________________ also used.
 • _________________ is most preferred b/c it is easy to work with. Available ______________ in MDC’s.
 • Dry areas (China, Mexico) use sun baked _______________________.
 • __________________________ in South America or Europe.

 • The _______________________ of house and _____________________ may have influence from
   customary beliefs or environmental factors…

US Folk Housing
 • 3 major hearths for folk housing… ______________________, Middle Atlantic, and Lower Chesapeake.
 • As people ___________________, they took these house styles with them.
 • Hard to _______________________________ today b/c of open communication and __________________
   of houses. People normally do not _________________ the house they live in.

 • Diffusion of New England house types. These 4 types were popular in the 18th and 19th century. As
   settlers migrated, they carried memories of familiar house types with them and built similar structures on the

                  Key Issue #3 – Why is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?
 • Some differences exist in MDC’s between regions, but it’s much less than in the past.
 • In the US, __________________________ all across the nation are very similar, ________________ are
   similar, and we all have the same __________________________.

Popular Housing Styles
 • Housing built in the US since the 1940s demonstrates how popular customs vary more in _______________
   than in ____________________.
 • Newer housing in the US has been built to reflect changing fashion concerning the most suitable house
 • Houses show the influence of ________________, materials, ___________________, etc in style at any one
   point in time.

 • Since the end of WWII (1945), most houses have been built in _________________ styles.
 • Since the 1960’s, styles called _________________ have dominated. neo=___________, eclectic=from

Modern House Styles (1945-1960)
 • Ranch
 • Split-level

Neo-Eclectic House Styles (1960-Present)
 • Neo-classical
 • Neo-colonial
 • Neo-French

Rapid Diffusion of Clothing Styles
 • Individual clothing habits reveal how popular culture can be ____________________ across the landscape.
 • Clothing habits reflect availability of ______________________, as well as social forms like
 • In MDC’s, clothing reflects ____________, not _______________________.
 • Lawyer or CEO – __________________, ________. _____ lawyer is likely to dress like a ______ lawyer.

 • People with higher ____________________ stay in __________________, even though fashion changes

Popular Food Customs
 • Consumption of large quantities of ____________________ and __________________ foods are
   characteristics of popular societies.
 • The types of beverages and snacks vary by region – usually based on what is grown locally.
 • Examples… rum in ___________________ or coastal areas, bourbon in _____________________, peanuts
   in the _________________, popcorn in the _____________________.
 • We all like chips, right? How about tortilla chips in _________________ or whole grain chips in the west?

 • Watching TV is a sig. popular custom for 2 reasons…
             1. it’s the most popular ________________ activity in MDC’s.
             2. it’s the most important way by which pop culture is ___________________ across Earth.

Diffusion of TV
 • US public first saw TV in the 1930’s, but was slowed due to WWII.
 • 1945 – _______________ sets
 • 1949 – _______ million sets
 • 1951 – _______ million sets
 • 1959 – _______ million sets

Today – 4 categories of TV viewing
 1. Countries where nearly ______________________ has a TV (N. Am., W. Eur, Japan, Australia)
 2. Countries where TV ownership is __________________, but not __________________ (Latin Am., E. Eur)
 3. TV’s _____________________, but not widely diffused due to the ________________ of receivers.
 4. About 30 countries have _______________________ and TV’s are ________________.

Government Control of TV
 • In the US, stations are ____________________________ corporations and receive ___________________
   from the gov to operate at specific frequencies.
 • Some are owned by the ____________________ gov or ____________________ and are devoted to
   ___________________________ or noncommercial programs.
 • Our pattern is common in the _________________________, but rare elsewhere.

 •   In most countries, the gov either __________________________ the station or ___________ those who do.
 •   This way the gov can ____________________ what’s aired.
 •   In the past, many govs viewed TV as an important tool for ______________________ their people.
 •   _________________________________ have instead made TV a force for political change.

        Key Issue # 4 – Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems?
 • 2 problems…
   1. Diffusion of pop culture may threaten the survival of traditional folk culture in many countries.
   2. Popular culture may be less responsive to the diversity of local environments.

 • Many fear the _________________ of folk culture.
 • When a person turns away from a folk culture, they turn away from their ___________________________.

Loss of Traditional Values
 • One type of symbolic importance of folk culture is ___________________.
 • In Asia and Africa, there is sharp contrast between ________________ and ________________ dwellers.
 • Adoption of more developed societies’ clothing styles is a ________________________. (authority and
   __________________________ usually)
 • It can be _____________________, though.

Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism
 • Imperialism = the policy of extending a nation’s ___________________ by _________________________
   or by establishing political or social _____________________ over other nations.
 • Leaders of some LDC’s fear the incursion of popular customs. Consider it a threat to their independence.
   Posed primarily by _______________________, esp news media and TV.

 • 3 MDC’s – __________________, __________, and _______________________ – dominate TV in LDC’s.
 • American TV shows American beliefs and social forms (upward ________________ mobility, freedom for
   __________________, glorified ____________________, ____________________).
 • These may influence or drive out _________________________- social customs.
 • Some countries ________________ American __________ like MTV, VH1, etc.

 • LDC’s fear the effects of the newsgathering capability more than their entertainment function.
 • The ___________________________ (AP) and ____________________ dominant the world’s media.
 • Many countries argue that western media reflect their own values instead of accurately reporting the real


Modifying Nature
 • Popular culture can significantly ________________ or ________________ the environment.
 • It is often ______________________ on the environment rather than springing from it like
 • For many, the environment is something to be modified to enhance _______________________ activities.

 • Golf = 200 acres+ per course. Retired and young people w/ flexible schedules.
 • Golf remakes the environment… _______________________, cutting ____________ or making it grow
   tall, carting in or digging up ___________________, draining or creating bodies of __________________.

 • Popular culture tends to produce __________________________. (think fast food at interstate highway
   exits or mall interiors)
 • Promoters of pop culture want uniform landscapes to promote “__________________________________.”
 • We always know what to ___________________ if we walk into a particular restaurant or business
   anywhere in the country. i.e. McDonalds, Chick-Fil-A
 • We often know the _______________________ of a building even though we may not know the business
   (bank, fast food restaurant, etc.)

Global Uniform Landscapes
 • Designed to appeal to ____________________________________ or those wanting to sample American
   ________________________. i.e. restaurants or hotels
 • Not just the US doing this…
          – _____________________ cars used to look “different,” but now are uniform
          – Ethnic _____________________
 • Diffusion of pop culture affects environment in 2 negative ways.
 • 1. depletion of natural resources
 • 2. pollution

Depletion of Natural Resources
 • Diffusion demands _____________________ like minerals and ______________.
 • Some animals are killed and/or driven to extinction for ________________ (mink, lynx, jaguar, kangaroo)
   or meat (bison, whales).
 • Meat consumption by popular cultures is a very _______________________ way to achieve ____________
   – __________ less efficient than if we simply ate _______________ directly.

 • The environment can accept a certain level of _________________, but popular culture produces
   ______________________________, especially _________________ waste.
 • _____________________ and _________________ waste are also problems (_______________________)
 • With more people converting to popular cultures, this problem continues to __________________.


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