Folk and Popular Culture � Chapter 4

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					              Folk and Popular Culture – Chapter 4
Introductory Information
 • In chapter 1, culture was shown to combine 3 things: ________________, material artifacts, and
   _____________________________________.
 • This chapter deals with ____________________________________.
 • We will examine 2 parts of material culture…
      1. _________________________ activities (________________, _______________, ______________)
      2. __________________________ activities (_______________________, ______________________)

 • Culture is different from a habit and custom…
 • Habit – a repetitive act that an __________________________ performs
 • Custom – a repetitive act performed by a group to the extent that it becomes a characteristic of the
   ________________________
 • Custom refers to a specific ____________________ of material culture, whereas culture refers to a group’s
   entire collection of _______________________.
 • Material culture falls into two basic categories according to scale…

 • _____________________________ – traditionally practiced by _______________, ___________________
   groups living in isolated rural areas.
 • _____________________________ – found in large ___________________________ societies that share
   certain habits despite differences in _____________________ characteristics.

 • The scale of territory covered by folk culture is typically __________________ than that of a popular
   culture.

Comparisons
 • Folk culture develops BECAUSE it is ________________________- from other groups…
          – i.e. an isolated ________________ doing their own thing their own way
  Pop culture is based on ________________ simultaneous _______________________________ through
   _______________________, ________________________, and modern technology.

Survival
 • B/c of globalization, popular culture is becoming more ___________________, threatening the survival of
   folk culture.
 • Folk culture provides a unique __________________ to each group who occupies a specific region of Earth.
 • Disappearance of folk culture lead to less ______________________ in the world.

Environmental Impact
 • Popular culture is also dangerous to the environment. They ________________ the environment according
   to global values.
 • Folk culture is more likely to be _______________________ to the environment.

        Key Issue #1 – Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse?
ORIGINS OF FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURES
 • A social custom like ________________ originates at a hearth.
 • Folk customs often have _____________________ hearths, originating from _____________________
   sources, at ______________________ dates, through ___________________________ originators. They
   may also have _________________________- hearths.
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 • Popular culture is most often a product of the economically ______________________________ countries,
   especially in N Am, W Eur, and Japan.

 • __________________________ and __________________________ are good examples…
 • Arise from a combination of advances in ________________________________________ and increased
   ________________ time.
 • Technology leads to uniform production of items in large quantities (cd’s, _____________, ____________)
 • Many items help people enjoy leisure time.

Origin of Folk Music
 • Usually composed anonymously and spread ____________________.
 • Tells a story or conveys _____________________ about daily activities like __________________, life-
   cycle events (_______________, _________________, death), or mysterious events.
 • In the US, ________________________________ began as folk music in various hearths in the South.

Origin of Popular Music
 • Written by ______________________________________ for purpose of ________________ it.
 • High degree of _____________________________ and sometimes can only be performed in a
   ________________.
 • As we know it now, it originated around _____________.
 • _____________________________ in NYC (printed music)
 • Diffusion began during ______________ when music was broadcast worldwide by
   __________________________________________________ wherever _______________ went. As a
   result, ____________________ became the international _____________________ for popular music.

DIFFUSION OF FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE
 • Pop culture follows ______________________ from hearths. Examples… Hollywood for movies; Madison
   Ave, NY for advertising.
 • Pop culture diffuses rapidly through the use of modern ________________________ and
   __________________________.
 • Folk culture is transmitted from one location to another _________________ and on a _______________
   scale primarily through migration (_____________________________).

Example of Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture
 • The Amish

Example of Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture
 • Soccer

Other Sports
 • Each country has its own favorite sports.
 • The common element in professional sports is the willingness throughout the world to ______________ for
   the privilege of _____________________, whether on TV or in person, events played by professional
   athletes.
 • The most viewed event in history is the _____________________ soccer final every 4 years.
 • In the US, most viewed is the ________________________.




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                         Key Issue #2 – Where is Folk Culture Clustered?
Isolation Promotes Cultural Diversity
 • Folk culture typically has unknown or multiple ____________________ among groups living in relative
    ___________________.
 • Folk culture diffuses slowly to other locations through the process of _______________________.
 • A group’s unique folk customs develop through ______________ of isolation from other
    ______________________________.

INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
 • Recall that environmental determinists theorized how processes in the environment cause
   ________________________________.
 • Not ___________________ theory – people in very similar places have very different cultures. Sometimes,
   people live in extremely different ______________________, but have similar _____________________.

 • ___________________ can limit a variety of human actions, but folk societies are particularly responsive
   due to their low level of technology and their prevailing agricultural economy.
 • Folk cultures are likely to be _____________________, use __________________________, and rely on
   ____________________________________.
 • 2 necessities of life – food and shelter – show the influence of cultural values and the environment on the
   development of folk culture.

Food Preferences
 • Humans eat ___________________ and ____________________ (living things).
 • Inhabitants must consider the __________________, __________________, and ___________________ in
   deciding what to grow.
 • Of all the things likely to be _____________________________ in a culture, __________________ is the
   least likely.
 • People adapt their food preferences to conditions in the _________________________.
 • Ex: fuel shortages in _______________ = quick frying, abundance of fuel in _____________________ =
   slow roasting and stewing.

Taboos
 • Occasionally people will try to ___________________ certain foods.
 • Taboo – a __________________________ on behavior imposed by _____________________.

 • ___________________ and ____________________ do not eat __________________.
 • In the case of the pig, there is no benefit other than the ___________________ and pigs would compete
   with humans for ______________ and ___________. Could be fatal in dry, _____________ environments.
 • _____________________ do not consume ______________. Kept around to work on _________________
   projects. Religious sanctions serve as a form of _______________________ to keep cows around.

 • Americans avoid eating _____________________, which have high ________________________ value.
 • Insects mixed with ______________ provides _____________ (amino acid) which is deficient in the diets
   of people in developing nations.

Folk Housing
 • Building materials are influenced by what is _______________________.
 • ___________________ and ____________________ at the 2 most common globally.
 • _________________, ____________________, ______________, and _________________ also used.
 • _________________ is most preferred b/c it is easy to work with. Available ______________ in MDC’s.
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 • Dry areas (China, Mexico) use sun baked _______________________.
 • __________________________ in South America or Europe.

 • The _______________________ of house and _____________________ may have influence from
   customary beliefs or environmental factors…

US Folk Housing
 • 3 major hearths for folk housing… ______________________, Middle Atlantic, and Lower Chesapeake.
 • As people ___________________, they took these house styles with them.
 • Hard to _______________________________ today b/c of open communication and __________________
   of houses. People normally do not _________________ the house they live in.

 • Diffusion of New England house types. These 4 types were popular in the 18th and 19th century. As
   settlers migrated, they carried memories of familiar house types with them and built similar structures on the
   _____________________-.

                  Key Issue #3 – Why is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?
DIFFUSION OF POPULAR HOUSING, CLOTHING, & FOOD
 • Some differences exist in MDC’s between regions, but it’s much less than in the past.
 • In the US, __________________________ all across the nation are very similar, ________________ are
   similar, and we all have the same __________________________.

Popular Housing Styles
 • Housing built in the US since the 1940s demonstrates how popular customs vary more in _______________
   than in ____________________.
 • Newer housing in the US has been built to reflect changing fashion concerning the most suitable house
   form.
 • Houses show the influence of ________________, materials, ___________________, etc in style at any one
   point in time.

 • Since the end of WWII (1945), most houses have been built in _________________ styles.
 • Since the 1960’s, styles called _________________ have dominated. neo=___________, eclectic=from
   ____________________________________.

Modern House Styles (1945-1960)
 • Ranch
 • Split-level

Neo-Eclectic House Styles (1960-Present)
 • Neo-classical
 • Neo-colonial
 • Neo-French

Rapid Diffusion of Clothing Styles
 • Individual clothing habits reveal how popular culture can be ____________________ across the landscape.
 • Clothing habits reflect availability of ______________________, as well as social forms like
   __________________________.
 • In MDC’s, clothing reflects ____________, not _______________________.
 • Lawyer or CEO – __________________, ________. _____ lawyer is likely to dress like a ______ lawyer.

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 • People with higher ____________________ stay in __________________, even though fashion changes
   ________________________.

Popular Food Customs
 • Consumption of large quantities of ____________________ and __________________ foods are
   characteristics of popular societies.
 • The types of beverages and snacks vary by region – usually based on what is grown locally.
 • Examples… rum in ___________________ or coastal areas, bourbon in _____________________, peanuts
   in the _________________, popcorn in the _____________________.
 • We all like chips, right? How about tortilla chips in _________________ or whole grain chips in the west?

ROLE OF TV IN DIFFUSION OF POP CULTURE
 • Watching TV is a sig. popular custom for 2 reasons…
             1. it’s the most popular ________________ activity in MDC’s.
             2. it’s the most important way by which pop culture is ___________________ across Earth.

Diffusion of TV
 • US public first saw TV in the 1930’s, but was slowed due to WWII.
 • 1945 – _______________ sets
 • 1949 – _______ million sets
 • 1951 – _______ million sets
 • 1959 – _______ million sets

Today – 4 categories of TV viewing
 1. Countries where nearly ______________________ has a TV (N. Am., W. Eur, Japan, Australia)
 2. Countries where TV ownership is __________________, but not __________________ (Latin Am., E. Eur)
 3. TV’s _____________________, but not widely diffused due to the ________________ of receivers.
 4. About 30 countries have _______________________ and TV’s are ________________.

Government Control of TV
 • In the US, stations are ____________________________ corporations and receive ___________________
   from the gov to operate at specific frequencies.
 • Some are owned by the ____________________ gov or ____________________ and are devoted to
   ___________________________ or noncommercial programs.
 • Our pattern is common in the _________________________, but rare elsewhere.

 •   In most countries, the gov either __________________________ the station or ___________ those who do.
 •   This way the gov can ____________________ what’s aired.
 •   In the past, many govs viewed TV as an important tool for ______________________ their people.
 •   _________________________________ have instead made TV a force for political change.

        Key Issue # 4 – Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems?
 • 2 problems…
   1. Diffusion of pop culture may threaten the survival of traditional folk culture in many countries.
   2. Popular culture may be less responsive to the diversity of local environments.

THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE
 • Many fear the _________________ of folk culture.
 • When a person turns away from a folk culture, they turn away from their ___________________________.

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Loss of Traditional Values
 • One type of symbolic importance of folk culture is ___________________.
 • In Asia and Africa, there is sharp contrast between ________________ and ________________ dwellers.
 • Adoption of more developed societies’ clothing styles is a ________________________. (authority and
   __________________________ usually)
 • It can be _____________________, though.

Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism
 • Imperialism = the policy of extending a nation’s ___________________ by _________________________
   or by establishing political or social _____________________ over other nations.
 • Leaders of some LDC’s fear the incursion of popular customs. Consider it a threat to their independence.
   Posed primarily by _______________________, esp news media and TV.

 • 3 MDC’s – __________________, __________, and _______________________ – dominate TV in LDC’s.
 • American TV shows American beliefs and social forms (upward ________________ mobility, freedom for
   __________________, glorified ____________________, ____________________).
 • These may influence or drive out _________________________- social customs.
 • Some countries ________________ American __________ like MTV, VH1, etc.

 • LDC’s fear the effects of the newsgathering capability more than their entertainment function.
 • The ___________________________ (AP) and ____________________ dominant the world’s media.
 • Many countries argue that western media reflect their own values instead of accurately reporting the real
   situation.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF POPULAR CULTURE

Modifying Nature
 • Popular culture can significantly ________________ or ________________ the environment.
 • It is often ______________________ on the environment rather than springing from it like
   ______________________________.
 • For many, the environment is something to be modified to enhance _______________________ activities.

 • Golf = 200 acres+ per course. Retired and young people w/ flexible schedules.
 • Golf remakes the environment… _______________________, cutting ____________ or making it grow
   tall, carting in or digging up ___________________, draining or creating bodies of __________________.

UNIFORM LANDSCAPE
 • Popular culture tends to produce __________________________. (think fast food at interstate highway
   exits or mall interiors)
 • Promoters of pop culture want uniform landscapes to promote “__________________________________.”
 • We always know what to ___________________ if we walk into a particular restaurant or business
   anywhere in the country. i.e. McDonalds, Chick-Fil-A
 • We often know the _______________________ of a building even though we may not know the business
   (bank, fast food restaurant, etc.)

Global Uniform Landscapes
 • Designed to appeal to ____________________________________ or those wanting to sample American
   ________________________. i.e. restaurants or hotels
 • Not just the US doing this…
          – _____________________ cars used to look “different,” but now are uniform
          – Ethnic _____________________
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NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
 • Diffusion of pop culture affects environment in 2 negative ways.
 • 1. depletion of natural resources
 • 2. pollution

Depletion of Natural Resources
 • Diffusion demands _____________________ like minerals and ______________.
 • Some animals are killed and/or driven to extinction for ________________ (mink, lynx, jaguar, kangaroo)
   or meat (bison, whales).
 • Meat consumption by popular cultures is a very _______________________ way to achieve ____________
   – __________ less efficient than if we simply ate _______________ directly.

Pollution
 • The environment can accept a certain level of _________________, but popular culture produces
   ______________________________, especially _________________ waste.
 • _____________________ and _________________ waste are also problems (_______________________)
 • With more people converting to popular cultures, this problem continues to __________________.




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