Chapter 13-2 and 13-3 by 7ODBPL

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									Chapter 13-2 and 13-3
         Section 2: The Twenties Woman
    Young Women Change the
                  Rules…
   By the 1920’s the experiences of WWI the pull of the
    cities and changing attitudes had opened a new
    world for many young Americans.
   In the rebellious pleasure loving atmosphere of the
    twenties many women began to assert their
    independence reject values of the 19th century
    women and demand the same freedoms as a man.
                                                       The flapper
   A new ideal emerged for some women the
    flapper… emancipated women who
    embraced the new fashions urban attitudes
    of the day.

   Close fitting felt hats bright waistless dresses
    above the knee, skin toned silk stockings
    sleek pumps, and strings of beads replaced
    the dark and prim ankle length dresses….

   Women clipped their long hair into boyish
    bobs dying them black. Many women
    became more assertive… in their bid for
    equal status….some began to smoke
    cigarettes, drink in public, and talk openly
    about sex.

   They danced the fox trot, camel walk,
    tango, Charleston, and shimmy with
    abandon. Attitudes toward marriage
    changed it was looked at more as a
    partnership… but the house work and child
    rearing still remained that of a women’s job.
                   The Double Standard
   Magazines , newspapers, and advertisements
    promoted the image of the flapper, and young
    people openly discussed courtship and
    relationships in a way that scandalized their
    elders.
   The flapper was more an image of a rebellious
    youth… than widespread reality. Before the
    1920’s men only courted women that they
    intended to marry… however in the 1920’s
    causal dating became acceptable…
   Double standard… set of principles granting
    more sexual freedom to men than women…
    require women… to observe stricter standards of
    behavior…than men did. As a result many
    women were pulled back and forth.
Women shed old roles at work and
                           home
       The fast changing world of the 1920’s produced new roles for
        women in the workplace and new trends in family life. Women
        starting working in jobs at offices, factories, stores, professions
        and the economy started producing time saving appliances
        that changed the role in the household.
       New work opportunities: Many women that held typical male
        jobs during the War lost them after the War but the women
        then turned to typical women’s professions… college graduates
        got jobs as teachers, nurses, and librarians. Big business hired
        women to be clerical workers as typists, filing clerks,
        secretaries, stenographers, and office machine-operators.
       Other women became clerks in stores an held jobs on the
        assembly lines. Some even broke stereotypes and started
        working as flying airplanes, driving taxis, and drilling wells. By
        1920 10 million women were earning wages. Patterns of
        discrimination and inequality for women in the business
        were being established.
The Changing Family
   Widespread social and economic changes
    affected the family. The birthrate had been
    declining and it dropped even faster during
    the 1920’s. The decline was due to wider
    availability of birth control information.
   Margret Singer opened the first birth-control
    clinic in the United States and founded the
    Birth Control League … she fought for legal
    rights of the physician to give birth control
    information to the women.
Section 3 : Education and
         Popular Culture:
Schools and the Mass Media Shape
                         Culture
         During the 1920’s mass media and developments in
          education had a powerful impact on the nation.
         School enrollments: In 1914, approximately 1
          million American students attended high school… in
          1926 the number had risen to 4 million students an
          increase sparked by prosperous times and higher
          educational standards.
         High schools now started catering to vocational
          training instead of totally college bound students.
          The public schools had a challenge teaching the
          immigrant families children… many of these new
          immigrants did not speak English. Taxes to finance
          the schools rose also.
       Expanding New Coverage
   Widespread education
    increased literacy in America
    but it was growing mass
    media that shaped the culture.
   Newspaper circulation rose as
    writers and editors learned
    how to hook readers by
    imitating the sensational
    stories into tabloids.
   Mass circulation of the
    magazines also flourished…
    Reader’s Digest was one of
    these.
Radio Comes of Age
           Radio was the most
            powerful
            communication tool to
            emerge in the 1920’s.
            Americans added terms
            such as “airwaves”,
            “radio audience”, and
            “tune in “to their
            everyday speech. The
            radios created a shared
            national experience of
            hearing the headlines.
America Chases New Heroes and
                  Old Dreams
               During this period people had
                money and time to enjoy it.
                America spent 4.5 billion on
                entertainment much of it on
                everyday fads… working
                crossword puzzles, playing
                Mashong, and some went
                exploring to different places.
               In the 1920’s people turned to
                flagpole sitting and marathon
                dancing. They also attended
                athletic events

                                 Lindbergh’s flight
    America’s most beloved hero of
    the time wasn’t athletic but a
    small town pilot Charles A.
    Lindbergh. He made the first
    solo flight across the Atlantic…
    he went after the $25,000 prize.
   He took off near New York in
    the Spirit of St.Louis and flew to
    the coast of Newfoundland and
    headed across the Atlantic… he
    landed in LeBourget airfield
    outside of Paris.
   Amelia Earhart also attempted
    these brave flights during this
    period.
Entertainment and the
                Arts
    Sound movies came in during this period… the first
     major motion picture with sound was “The Jazz
     Singer” and then “Steamboat Willie”… the first
     animated picture…
    The new “talkies” had doubled movie attendance
    Playwrights and composers of music broke away
     from the European traditions of the 1920’s… Eugene
     O’Neil’s plays such as Hairy Ape forced the
     Americans to reflect upon modern isolation and
     family conflict. Fame was given to George Gershwin
     when he merged traditional elements with American
     Jazz.
    Painters appeared… Edward Hopper caught the
     loneliness of American life and Georgia O’Keeffe
     produced intensely colored canvases that captured
     the grandeur of New York.
Nighthawks… Hopper
Writers of the 1920’s
   Sinclair Lewis: Babbitt Lewis used the main character George
    F. Babbitt to ridicule Americans for their conformity
   F. Scott Fitzgerald: Wrote Great Gatsby and This Side of
    Paradise… he revealed the negative side of the period’s gaiety
    and freedom portraying wealthy and attractive people leading
    imperiled lives in gilded surroundings.
   Dorothy Parker: a short story writer poet and essayist….
    Famous for wisecracking wit.
   Edna Wharton: Age of Innocence
   Edna St. Vincent Millay: wrote poems celebrating youth and
    life of independence and freedom from traditional constraints.
   Some settled in Paris upset about American culture…Lost
    Generation.
   Ernest Hemingway…. Wounded WWI …. Soldier. The Sun
    Also Rises… A Farwell to Arms

								
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