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Salmon Powered By Docstoc
  Maia Janz
 Geography 12
  Mrs. Hayter
       What are Salmon?
• Salmon are anadromous fish which
  means they breed and spawn in
  freshwater but spend most of their
  adult lives in saltwater
• There are 5 species of Salmon in our
  Pacific waters: Chinook or King
  Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye
  Salmon, Pink Salmon and Chum
Lifecycle of a Salmon
 Why are Salmon important in
• Salmon play a vital role in the ecosystems
  of BC. They are food for animals who reside
  around the rivers and oceans they live in,
  and when they die they provide the
  surrounding areas with essential nutrients
  from their bodies as they decompose.
• Another reason for why Salmon are
  important in BC is that they generate a
  large revenue in the fishing industry
• Salmon are also very important in the
  culture and history of the aboriginal people
  Problems involving Salmon
• BC is home to the best
  salmon fishing in the
  world! But due to the
  extensive fishing of
  salmon, their stocks in
  BC have been declining
  at an alarming rate since
  the late 1980’s
• Climate change has also
  contributed to the
  decrease of Salmon in
  our rivers
• Pollution and damming
  of rivers is another cause
  in the depletion of
  Salmon stocks
• Salmon are increasingly being over fished in our
  oceans and rivers
• Is recent years over 50% of adult salmon were killed
  by fisherman in our region
• As our world population grows, the need for food
  also grows and this is not good news for salmon
• Fishing of salmon is not only an industry, it is a
  sport. People come from all over the world to fish our
  salmon and there are hundreds of fishing lodges in
  BC. Sport fishing does not account for much of the
  depletion of the species but it does contribute
• The last salmon spawning season had the lowest
  recorded return – 1 million of 10 million salmon
  returned to the ocean
Fish Farming
      • Not only are salmon fished
        in open water, due to their
        high demand, fish farms are
        becoming increasingly
      • Fish farming is the practice
        of raising salmon in cages
        in embayment at sea, or in
        ponds on land
      • Fish farming has helped the
        decreasing salmon
        population because it uses
        chemicals which help to
        prevent diseases and the
        build-up of organic sludge
        in fish-cages
      • There are many people
        against fish farming due to
        the need of chemical use
• A good example of an over fishing tragedy was
  the rapid decline and near disappearance of
  the Atlantic Cod fishing industry
• Here fish have been caught in such high
  quantity that there is no way they can spawn
  back to normal numbers
• If moderation in fishing was practiced here
  fishing would still be a way of livelihood in the
  Atlantic regions
• Regulations need to be put on our fishing
  industry in the Pacific before a devastation like
  this happens here
               Climate Change
• Increase of heating and cooling in river temperatures and
  more regular warm temperatures will most likely change
  the Salmon’s habits for these reasons:
      • Young Salmon are more likely to die in warmer water
      • Salmon may not grow to their full size because of an
        increased competition for food and a faster metabolic
      • Water temperatures above 15ºC stresses out fish
        which can lead to them being more susceptible to
        disease (this same stress may lead the fish’s
        production of sperm and egg to decrease)
      • Energy levels may become lower which would
        decrease spawning success because smaller weaker
        fish may not be able to reach the spawning grounds
           Climate Change
• Climate change will also alter
  salmon’s habits for these reasons:
      • As the temperature increases
        the fish will want to find
        colder more northern waters
        which will increase their
        migrating distances
      • Variable river flows with
        lower minimum water levels
        will be more common which
        may harm salmon trying to
        swim upstream for spawning,
        which would decrease future
        generations of salmon
Climate Change
       • Marine
         environments are
         considered to be
         resilient (flexible)
         ecosystems which
         means they can
         adapt to changing
         conditions, but not
         at such a fast pace!
• A lot of pollution
  makes it into our
  oceans and rivers
  from mining,
  forestry and
• Pollution accounts
  for many salmon
  deaths each year
• Hydroelectric power is a very large industry in BC
  even though it causes a lot of damage to the
  salmon. These large scale dams that are being built
  on rivers in BC obstruct the historic natural routes
  of the salmon which lead them to their spawning
• Many salmon exhaust themselves to death trying
  to jump these dams
• To help this problem, communities surrounding
  these dams have put in requests to build salmon
  “ladders” beside these big dams so the salmon
  safely proceed through the dams upstream to their
  spawning grounds
 What are we doing to help?
• Fishery biologists are attempting to
  stem the salmon declines by
  enhancing wild stocks. An example of
  this is releasing large numbers of
  captive-raised, young fish.
• Fisherman and conservationists are
  uniting together to save the salmon
         How can you help?
• If you enjoy eating fish or using products that
  contain fish oils or other nutrients, integrate other
  fish than salmon into your diet
• Clean up streams in your area
• Don’t dump chemicals into drains in your home, at
  school, or outside in your community
• If you own a pool, don’t drain it! Dispose of the
  chlorine-filled water elsewhere
• Encourage your government to regulate fishing in
  our oceans, lakes and rivers
• Raise awareness!! People won’t know about the
  Salmon if we don’t tell them!
Our salmon ecosystem is really
   one of the last great fish
  habitats in the world! So we
 should all do what we can to
conserve it – before it’s too late!
Thanks for
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