Honors American Government – Chapter 10 Review Worksheet page 1
What If . . . We Had a National Election System?
1. A problem associated with having a national election system is a Constitutional amendment would be required.
The People Who Run for Office
2. A statewide election of delegates to a political party's national convention to help a party determine its presidential nominee is called a
3. One of the largest obstacles for potential presidential candidates is raising money.
4. People who choose to run for office can be divided into two groups: those who are self-starters and those who are recruited.
5. Candidates who are self-starters may get involved in political activities to further their careers, or to carry out specific programs.
6. Politicians who run for lower offices and then aspire to Congress may be said to have progressive ambitions.
7. Naturalized citizens are constitutionally barred from running for the office of President of the United States.
8. A candidate for the U.S. Senate must be a resident of the state from which elected.
9. Holders of political office in the United States today are overwhelmingly white and male.
10. Since 1972, the number of women candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives has increased significantly.
11. Candidates for public office are likely to be professionals, particularly lawyers and business people.
12. One of the most important reasons that campaigns no longer depend on political parties is that fewer people identify with them.
13. Most political consultants will work only for candidates of one political party.
14. A striking feature of today's political campaigns is the importance of paid professionals rather than volunteers.
The Strategy of Winning
1. The goal of a political campaign is to win the election.
2. If a candidate is a highly visible incumbent seeking reelection there is little need for campaigning except to remind the voters of the
officeholder's good deeds.
3. In the case of the independent candidate or the candidate representing a minor party, the most serious problem is name recognition.
4. Both Democratic and Republican candidates use the strategic ploy of labeling third-party candidates as“not serious” and, therefore, not
worth the voter's time.
5. Tracking polls are used on a daily basis to determine last minute changes in the electorate.
6. A small group of individuals who are used to gather opinions about candidates and issues is called a focus group.
7. The general intent of the several federal corrupt practices acts passed by Congress was to regulate campaign financing.
8. The Hatch Act was passed in 1939 to regulate political contributions and expenditures and was designed to control influence buying.
9. The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974 did not provide public funding for Congressional elections.
10. For a PAC to be legitimate, it must contribute to at least five federal candidates and raise money from at least 50 volunteer donors.
11. The Federal Election Commission was created to enforce compliance with the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act.
12. A political action committee (PAC) is an organization representing an interest group that is attempting to raise campaign contributions
for certain candidates or parties.
Campaign Financing Beyond the Limits
1. “Soft money” is the unlimited money that can be spent by political parties for party activities.
2. Independent expenditures cannot be coordinated with a candidate's campaign and are unregulated funds spent by interest by groups on advertisi
or other campaign activities.
3. In Austin v. Michigan State Chamber of Commerce, the Supreme Court ruled that independent expenditures on behalf of candidates
could be limited.
4. The practice of adding together maximum individuals contributions to increase their impact on the candidate is called bundling.
5. The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 bans soft money contributions to national parties and reduces campaign ads by special
Running for President: The Longest Campaign
1. The purpose of introducing the primary as a means of nominating candidates for office was to open the nomination process to ordinary
party members and to weaken the influence of party bosses.
2. Presidential primaries were called “beauty contests” because the results have little impact on the selection of delegates to the national
3. The process of nominating presidential candidates is now controlled by the mass public rather than party elites.
4. After the 1968 Democratic national convention a special commission was charged with conducting a study of the primary system. The
reforms presented by this commission revolutionized the nomination process for the presidency for both parties.
5. The most important reforms of the national conventions require that delegates be elected by the voters of the party.
6. At the national convention, delegations from each state must include a proportion of women, young party members, and ethnic
7. A party leader or elected official who is given the right to vote at the national convention is called a superdelegate.
Types of Primaries
1. When the selection of the parties' candidates is limited to declared party members, it is called a closed primary.
2. When voters can vote in either party primary without disclosing their party affiliation it is called an open primary.
3. When the voter may vote for candidates of more than one party it is called a blanket primary.
4. When candidates compete in a second primary for the majority of votes, it is called a run-off primary.
5. A closed meeting of party leaders to select party candidates is called a caucus.
Honors American Government – Chapter 10 Review Worksheet page 2
6. The date on which a number of presidential primaries are held is called Super Tuesday.
7. The practice of moving presidential primary elections to the early part of the campaign is called front-loading.
The Electoral College
1. A major role of the credentials committee of a political party is to determine which delegates may participate at the national convention.
2. The people who cast their ballots in the Electoral College are called electors.
3. The Constitution indicates that the number of electors who will cast ballots for president and vice-president is equal to the number of
representatives and senators a state has in Congress.
4. How electors are selected within each state is governed by state laws and party rules.
5. The Constitution does not require electors to cast their ballots for the candidate of their party.
6. In cases where no presidential candidate receives a majority of the electoral college vote, the election is decided in the U.S. House of
7. It is possible for a candidate to become president without obtaining a majority of the popular vote.
8. The major parties are not in favor of eliminating the electoral college because they fear it would give minor parties a more influential
role in the election the president.
How are Elections Conducted?
1. The Australian ballot is secret and is prepared, distributed and tabulated by government officials.
2. The office-block ballot is a form of general election ballot in which all candidates for each elective office are grouped under the title of
3. A party-column ballot is a form of general election ballot in which the candidates are arranged in one column under their respective
4. When a political party has an exceptionally strong presidential or gubernatorial candidate, they would prefer to have the party-column
5. The concept of coattail effect refers to the influence of a popular candidate on the electoral success of other candidates on the same
6. According to a recent study by Larry Sabato and Glenn Simpson the potential for vote fraud is high in many states.
Voting in National, State, and Local Elections.
1. The percentage of citizens taking part in the election process voter turnout.
2. The group that tends to be over represented in the electorate is the wealthier people.
3. The rational-ignorance effect refers to the lack of incentive for voters to obtain costly information about issues and candidates.
4. With regard to the media's role, some people do not vote because the news media emphasizes the horse race nature of the campaign
and the news media does not emphasize the policy positions of campaigns.
Legal Restrictions on Voting.
1. During the drafting of the Constitution, the framers placed legal restrictions on voters. One of the major reasons for such restrictions
was the Founding Fathers contention that many problems related to land ownership, therefore one should own property in order to
2. Since their introduction in the late nineteenth century, registration laws have had the effect of reducing the voting participation of
African Americans and immigrants.
3. The entry of person's name into the list of eligible voters is called registration.
How do Voters Decide?
1. Having a college education seems to be highly correlated with voting Republican.
2. Protestants in the United States have traditionally voted Republican.
3. A study conducted after the 2000 campaign indicated that voters who are more devout, regardless of church affiliation are more likely
to vote Republican.
4. Historically, the issues that have had the strongest influence on voters' choices concerning candidates have been economic issues.
Be able to answer the following questions:
Why was “soft money” originally allowed? What would be some impacts of banning it?
Why do individuals choose to seek public office?
What is meant by the “professionalization” of campaigns?
Describe the two-step process in a presidential campaign.
What is the impact and the value of public opinion polls in a campaign?
Why did Congress pass the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974? What was its impact?
Why don't people vote? What impact does his have on the political system?