murray Distribution Automation by huanghengdong

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									          Distribution Automation
  Technical Background & Current Trends

                             Dan Murray
                        Siemens Energy, Inc.



                   Smart Grid Conference
         Rosen Shingle Creek Resort, Orlando, Florida
                     October 20-21 2011

Page 1         Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Topics


 Overview of several Distribution Automation Applications

 Technical Considerations when implementing DA Applications
    Architectures
    Sensors
    Communications / Cyber security
    Control Technologies

 Other Considerations when implementing DA Applications
    Current System Configuration (that is to say, your starting point)
    Policies and Standards
    Human Resources / Skill Sets
    ROI / Budget
 DA Implementation Strategies

Page 2             Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
    Distribution Automation Trends
    Example: CenterPoint Smart Grid Strategy




    Page Leveraging AMI and BPL Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011 Grid of the Future – Don Cortez
Source: [1] 3                   Technologies at CenterPoint: Energy to Build the Intelligent
Select DA Applications


 Fault Detection Isolation and Service Restoration (FLIR or FLISR)
  reduces the impact of outages.
 Volt/VAR Control provides greater network efficiency through improved
  monitoring and regulation of power on distribution lines.
 Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) reduces load during peak
  periods.




Page 4             Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Location Isolation and Service Restoration (FLIR or FLISR)
General Description


Fault Location, Isolation, and Service Restoration
  Detects occurrence of a fault on a distribution feeder.
  Determines the location of the fault between 2 switches or reclosers.
  Isolates the faulted section between nearest switch and/or recloser.
  Restores service to “healthy” portions of the feeder while maintaining
   safe loading limits on the second source.




Page 5             Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Detection Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)
Typical Operation Today without FLISR




Page 6           Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Detection Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)
Improved Performance using FLISR




Page 7           Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Detection Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)
Benefits




                                                                                     Revenue per
                                                                                   Distribution Mile
                                                                                  IOU       $62,665
                                                                                  Muni      $86,302
                                                                                  Coop      $10,565

                                                                              Source: 2006 RUS/EIA data



Source: [2] “Equipment for Feeder Automation - Recent Trends in Feeder Automation Seminar”
 Page 8                        Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21,
IEEE PES Miami Chapter Miami, Florida June 2, 2005, John McDonald, KEMA, Inc. 2011
Volt/VAR Control
General Description


Volt/VAR Control provides greater network efficiency through improved
monitoring and regulation of power on distribution lines.
  Regulation performed through coordinated use of cap banks and
   voltage regulators.
  If DMS is used, then On Line Power Flow (OLPF) may help
   determine what control actions to take.




Page 9            Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Conservation Voltage Reduction
General Description


Conservation Voltage Reduction
  Flattens the voltage profile across the feeder.
  Allows monitoring of lowest voltage point to ensure it is above
   minimum acceptable voltage level.
  Determines the necessary control actions to accomplish CVR.




Page 10            Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
   System Architecture
   NIST Smart Grid Conceptual Model – Detailed View




Source: [3] Interoperability and Cyber Security Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
   Page 11                          Smart Grid Plan, NRECA CRN Smart Grid Regional Demonstration, Grant DE-OE-0000222
Centralized vs. Decentralized Architecture
Overview


Centralized vs. Decentralized refers to where the switching logic
resides.




  Centralized at                         Centralized                      Decentralized
  Control Center                       at the Substation                  Peer-to-peer



Page 12            Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Centralized vs. Decentralized Architecture
Comparison


Consideration               Centralized                                 Decentralized

Cost               DMS: Higher starting cost                Lower starting cost

Complexity         Greater time to implement                Less time to implement

                   DMS requires more                        Most substation
Skills              advanced skills for                       engineering skills portable
                    implementation                            to DA applications

                   Good starting position                   Often used is SCADA can
                    with existing SCADA                       not be upgraded
                   Many feeders to be                       Suitable for limited
Suggested Use
                    automated                                 deployment (based on
                   Many DA functions to be                   cost) or when “patching”
                    implemented                               system

Page 13          Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Detection Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)
Components when using Peer-to-Peer Logic Approach


Decentralized Feeder Automation

    Better Performance                                      Municipals and Cooperatives
    Standardization                                          Standardize on products
    Simplicity                                               Available skills and expertise
    Lower Cost                                               Cost-Driven
    Short Cycle business                                     Small Annual Budgets (Short      Cycle)


Concept




              +             +                     +                     +
Switches         IED Family        Software               Wireless             Substation HMI (Option)
Page 14                 Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Detection Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)
System Integration when using Peer-to-Peer Logic




              1.   Automated Primary Switches/Reclosers
              2.   Smart Controller
              3.   High Speed Communication
              4.   Communication Protocol (DNP / IEC 61850)
              5.   Software Configuration Tools
              6.   Smart Fault Detection Capability
              7.   Smart Switching Logic




Page 15            Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Location Isolation and Service Restoration (FLIR or FLISR)
Benefits from Peer-to-Peer Approach

Problem: Keeping the lights on!
 Reduce outage size and duration.
 Locate faults faster with less driving time.
 Reduce crew size to isolate and restore.
 Reduce windshield time, particularly with
  long distribution lines.

Compelling Solution: Allows utilities to “do more with less”
 Fast transfer scheme for critical load (e.g., hospital or industrial acct.)
 Perform isolation and restoration faster than standard recloser and
  sectionalizer technology, and sometimes at a lower CAPEX cost.
 Increase billing revenue through fewer and smaller outages.
 Improve customer service – Resolve outages before customer calls.
 Provide the ability to service a larger territory with fewer linemen.
 Make use of adaptive settings for storm conditions to reduce SCADA
  operator work load.
Page 16             Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Fault Detection Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)
Peer-to-Peer Example: A&N Electric Coop




Page 17          Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Communication Protocols
Comparison


Protocol                           Pro                                   Con

                   90% utilities using it                    No object model
DNP 3.0
                   Relatively easy to use                    No peer-to-peer
DNP over TCP/IP
                   Training classes available                Limited security

                   More utilities using it                   More complex than DNP
                   Contains object model                     Interoperability issues
                   Native peer-to-peer                        remain but improving
IEC 61850
                   Future enhancements to                    Engineering tools are
                    the standard to support                    average but improving
                    DG and comm to SCADA




Page 18           Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
   Telecommunication Options
   Commercial Carriers




Source: [4] “Smart GridNet” Architecture for Utilities. Alcatel-Lucent Strategic White Paper.
  Page 19                          Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Telecommunication Options
Direction of Wireless Technologies




Page 20          Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Communication Technology Deployment
Comparison


Deployment        Utilities owns network                     Carrier owns network

                Full control over life cycle              Little to no control
Control         Full bandwidth following
                 storm event

                Higher CAPEX cost                         Generally lower CAPEX
                Radio: One-time expense                    cost
Cost
                 of $1,000+ per node                       On-going maintenance
                                                            cost

                Radio: sight survey                       Outsource expertise
Complexity      Requires expertise

                Usually the most secure                   Can be reasonably
Security        Requires expertise                         secured
                                                           Outsource expertise

Page 21        Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
DA Implementation Strategies

            Project
                           Engineering
          Management




                            Production

                                               Requirements planning
                                               Evaluating your system starting
                                                position
                           System Test         Cost / Benefits Analysis
                                               Perform pilots and limited deployment
                                               Implementation resources available
                                                   NRECA website (architecture
                                                    framework and cyber security)
                             Support               NIST


Page 22           Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
Questions?


                                              Dan Murray
                                              Marketing Manager
                                              Mobile: (408) 687-9134
                                              dan.murray@siemens.com




                           Thank you!



Page 23      Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011
References



 [1] Leveraging AMI and BPL Technologies at CenterPoint: Energy to
  Build the Intelligent Grid of the Future – Don Cortez

 [2] “Equipment for Feeder Automation - Recent Trends in Feeder
  Automation Seminar” IEEE PES Miami Chapter Miami, Florida June 2,
  2005, John McDonald, KEMA, Inc.
  http://www.ece.fiu.edu/docs/Seminar/John%20MacDonald/Equipment%20for%20Feeder%20Automation.pdf


 [3] Interoperability and Cyber Security Plan, NRECA CRN Smart Grid
  Regional Demonstration, Grant DE-OE-0000222
  http://www.nreca.coop/press/NewsReleases/Documents/InteroperabilityCyberSecurityPlan.pdf



 [4] “’Smart GridNet’ Architecture for Utilities,” Strategic White Paper,
  Alcatel-Lucent, 2007.

Page 24                      Smart Grid Research Consortium – October 20-21, 2011

								
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