EFFECTS OF PRE-QUESTIONING ON THE READING COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT OF THE SECOND GRADE STUDENTS

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EFFECTS OF PRE-QUESTIONING ON THE READING COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT OF THE SECOND GRADE STUDENTS Powered By Docstoc
					      EFFECTS OF PRE-QUESTIONING ON THE READING
   COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT OF THE SECOND GRADE
STUDENTS AT SMAN-2 JEKAN RAYA IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2006/2007




                           By

                   LENY MAHDALENA
                    NIM: AAA 102 083




        THE UNIVERSITY OF PALANGKA RAYA
 THE FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
                 PALANGKA RAYA
                          2007
                                  ABSTRACT




Mahdalena, Leny. 2007. Effects of Pre-questioning on the reading comprehension
      achievement of the second grade students at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya in
      academic year 2006/2007. Thesis. English Education Study Program of
      Language and Art Education Department of Faculty of Teacher Training
      and Education of Palangka Raya University. Advisors: (I) Dr. Wido H.
      Toendan, MS, (II) Dra. Natalina Asi, MA.



        This study were conducted to investigate the effect of Pre-questioning on
the Reading Comprehension Achievement of the Second Grade Students at
SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya, to investigate the effects of students’ gender
on the reading comprehension achievement of the second grade students at
SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya, and to investigate the effects of pre-
questioning and students gender on the reading comprehension achievement of the
second grade students at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year
2006/2007. The forms of questions were in multiple choice and essay, multiple
choice used for reading comprehension tests and essay used for Pre-questioning
tests. There were sixty-eight of second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2
Jekan Raya in academic year 2006/2007 as the sample on this study.
        The writer used factorial experimental method in this study. The data were
processed and analyzed according to these steps: taking the data, coding, scoring,
tabulating using SPSS version 13 and taking the conclusion based on the statistic
result.
        The result of this study shows that “the Pre-questioning has a significant
effect on the students’ reading comprehension achievement”, “the students’
gender has no a significant effect on the students’ reading comprehension
achievement”, and “there is no interaction effect between pre-questioning and
students’ gender”.
        In this study the experimental class (the treatment using pre-questioning)
has a better ability in comprehend the text than control class. It can be seen from
the mean score and the result of two way of ANOVA.
                            ACKNOWLEDGMENT



       Firstly, the writer expresses his great thanks to Allah SWT, the one and

only for His blessing and guiding me in my life.

       Then, the writer would like to express his sincere thanks to:

1. Dr. Wido H. Toendan, as the first advisor who gives an idea, advice, and

   guidance to make a progress and advancement of this thesis, and as a member

   of examining committee.

2. Dra. Natalina Asi, MA, as the second advisor for her advice and correction for

   the better result of this thesis, and also as a member of examining committee.

3. Drs. Tandang, MS, as a chief of examining committee, Drs. Surya Taib, and

   Ristati, S.Pd, M.Hum, as a member of examining committee for their

   willingness to examine this sarjana thesis.

4. Drs. C. Yus Ngabut, M.Pd as the dean of the Faculty of Teacher Training and

   Education.

5. Dra. Takariwati Halim, M.Pd as the Chair of Department of Language and Art

   Education.

6. Dra. Natalina Asi, MA as the Chair of English Education Study Program.

7. All the lecturers of English Education Study Program.

8. The writer’s parents, Mahlan Mandarson. and Sumiati for their support and

   motivation either morally or materially.

9. My friends: Adven Soritua Sinaga, Devy Yanita, Jahrani, M. Akbar, Yulia

   Pitri, Octarini, Ratna Wahyu jayanti, Ni Luh Kristina VS, Ade Devy


                                         v
   Aningtya, Erpina Siahaan, Nunuk Dwi I and white Mission, who always

   struggle together and help the writer from the beginning of thesis proposal

   until becoming a thesis.

10. All English Education Study Program students who are directly and indirectly

   involved in supporting, encouraging, and motivating the writer until finishing

   this thesis.

       Finally, this thesis is presented to the English Education Study Program of

Language and Art Education Department of the Faculty of Teacher Training and

Education of Palangka Raya University.



                                                                 Leny Mahdalena
TABLE OF CONTENT



APPROVAL OF THE THESIS ADVISORY COMMITTEE ..............................                                         iii

APPROVAL OF THE THESIS EXAMINING COMMITTEE ................                                                      iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................                     v

ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................   vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ...............................................................................               viii

LIST OF TABLES .........................................................................................         xi

LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................         xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS .........................................                                     xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES ...............................................................................              xv


TABLE OF CONTENTS..............................................................................                   ii
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION................................................................                           1
           1.1. Background of the Study ................................................                          2
           1.2. Problem of the Study ......................................................                       2
           1.3. Objective of the Study ....................................................                       3
           1.4. Assumption .....................................................................                  3
           1.5. Hypothesis ......................................................................                 4
           1.6. Delimitation of the Study ...............................................                         5
           1.7. Limitation of the Study...................................................                        5
           1.8. Significance of the Study ...............................................                         5
           1.9. Clarification of the Key Terms .......................................                            6

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .........................                                                8
                        2.1   The Essence of Reading .................................................         8
                        2.2   Reading Comprehension ................................................           8
                        2.3   Schemata Theory Background and Knowledge in Reading 10
                        2.4   Cognitive Factors in Reading ......................................... 11
                               2.4.1 Perception ............................................................ 11
                               2.4.2 Memory ................................................................ 13
                               2.4.3 Attention .............................................................. 13
                     2.4.4 Cognitive Style ....................................................              12
                 2.5 Reading as a Process of Predicting ................................                     14

                 2.6 Some Factors that Influence Students’ Reading
                     Comprehension Achievement ........................................
                                    viii                                                                     14
                      2.6.1 The Internal Factor ...........................................                  14
                      2.6.1.1 Motivation ........................................................            15
                      2.6.1.2 Interest ..............................................................        15
                      2.6.2 The External Factor ..........................................                   16
                      2.6.2.1 Reading Material ..............................................                16
                      2.6.2.2 Teacher of Reading ...........................................                 16
                 2.7 Questioning Strategies ...................................................              16
                 2.8 Pre-questioning ..............................................................          17
                 2.9 Kinds of Pre-questioning ...............................................                18
                 2.10Kinds of Questions in Reading Comprehension ............                                19
                 2.11The Differences between Male and Female in Learning
                     Attitudes and Reading Habit .........................................                   21
                      1.11.1 Learning attitudes .............................................                21
                      1.11.2 Reading Habit...................................................                21

CHAPTER III. METHOD AND PROCEDURES ......................................                                    23
                 3.1 Data ................................................................................   23
                      3.1.1 The Data Needed ................................................                 23
                      3.1.2 Criteria for the Admissibility of the Data ..........                            23
                      3.1.3 Data Collection and Data Processing Procedures                                   23
                 3.2. Instrumentation............... ..............................................          24
                      3.2.1. Instrumentation Development ............................                        24
                      3.2.2. Instrumentation Try out .....................................                   25
                      3.2.3. Instrumentation Validity ....................................                   27
                      3.2.3.1 Construct validity...............................................              27
                      3.2.3.2 Content Validity................................................               28
                      3.2.4. Instrumentation Reliability ................................                    29
                 3.3. Population and Sample ..................................................               35
                     3.3.1. Population ...........................................................           35
                     3.3.2. Sample .................................................................         35
                 3.4. Research Methodology .................................................                 36
                     3.4.1. Research Method .................................................                36
                     3.4.2. Variables of the Study .........................................                 38
                     3.4.3. Data Analysis Procedure .....................................                    38
                 3.5. Validity of the Study .....................................................            40

CHAPTER IV RESULT OF THE STUDY .................................................                             42
                4.1 Description of the Data .....................................................            43
           4.2 Test of the Statistical Analysis Requirements .................                       45
               4.2.1 Test of Normality and Homogeneity of
                       Treatments (with pre-questioning and without
                       pre-questioning) .................................................            45
               4.2.2 Test of Normality and Homogeneity of
                       Students’ Gender ..................................................           47
           4.3 Result of the Data Analysis ..............................................            48
               4.3.1 Testing hypothesis I .............................................              49
               4.3.2 Testing hypothesis II .........................................                 52
               4.3.3 Testing hypothesis III .........................................                55

CHAPTER V DISSCUSSION, CONCLUSION, AND SUGGESTION
         5.1 Discussion ........................................................................     57
         5.2 Conclusion .........................................................................    60
         5.3 Suggestion ..........................................................................   62


REFERENCES
                                                  LIST OF TABLE


Page
Table 3.1 Content Specification of Pre-questioning for the experimental class
........................................................................................................................... 24

Table 3.2 Content specification of reading comprehension for
                      the

               Experimental and Control class ...............................
               ................................................................................ 25

Table 3.3 Content Specification of Pre-questioning for the
                         Experimental class                           28

Table 3.4 Content specification of reading comprehension for
                 the

               Experimental and Control class ...............................
               ................................................................................ 29
Table 3.5 Description of score in instrument try out of experimental class which is
used to calculate standard deviation                                  30

Table 3.6 Description of score in instrument try out of the control class which is
                used to calculate standard deviation ................................................
                ......................................................................................................... 33
Table 3.7 The Description of Population .........................................................
.......................................................................................................................... 35
Table 3.8 Several ways to Control the Treats .................................................
.......................................................................................................................... 40
Table 4.1 Data of Students' Reading Comprehension Scores ...............
......................................................................................................... 43
Table 4.2 Table of normality of treatment with pre-questioning and
               without pre-questioning ...................................................................
               .......................................................................................................... 45
Table 4.3 Table of Homogeneity of treatment with pre-questioning and
               without pre-questioning....................................................................
               .......................................................................................................... 46
Table 4.4 Table of Normality of Gender ..........................................................
.......................................................................................................................... 47
Table 4.5 Table of Homogeneity of Gender ....................................................
.......................................................................................................................... 48
Tabel 4.6 Test of between-subjects effect ........................................................
.......................................................................................................................... 49
Table 4.7 Table of Estimates Marginal Means of Treatments
               (with pre-questioning and without pre-questioning) ........................
               .......................................................................................................... 50
Table 4.8 Table of Pairwise comparisons of Treatments .................................
.......................................................................................................................... 51
Table 4.9 Table of Estimates Marginal Means of Gender ...............................
.......................................................................................................................... 53
Table 4.10 Table of Pairwise comparisons of Students’ Gender .....................
.......................................................................................................................... 53
Table 4.11 Table of Estimates Marginal Means of Treatments*Gender .........
.......................................................................................................................... 56
       LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS


PQ                  Pre-questioning

sig.                   significant

                   significant value

<                       less than

>                      more than
                                                LIST OF FIGURES



                                                                                                            Page

Figure 4.1 Profile of Plot of Treatments ........................................................

......................................................................................................................... 52

Figure 4.2 Profile of Plot of Students’ Gender ..............................................

......................................................................................................................... 54

Figure 4.3 Profile plot of estimated marginal means of reading comprehension

......................................................................................................................... 56
                                         LIST OF APPENDICES


Appendices
Page
1.   The Description of raw data of the try out .................................................
2.   The Instrument of the Study.......................................................................
3.   Data ...........................................................................................................
4.   Calculations of SPSS Version 13 ...............................................................
5.   Surat Penunjukan Dosen Pembimbing .......................................................
6.   Surat Izin Try Out dari FKIP Universitas Palangkaraya ............................
7.   Surat Izin Try Out dari Dinas Pendidikan Kota Palangkaraya ..................
8.   Surat Keterangan Telah Mengadakan Try Out ..........................................
9.   Surat Izin Mengadakan Penelitian dari FKIP Universitas Palangkaraya ...
10. Surat Izin Mengadakan Penelitian dari Dinas Pendidikan Kota Palangkaraya
11. Surat Keterangan Telah Mengadakan Penelitian .......................................
Description of score in instrument try out of experimental class

                         Number
No       Student’s
                        of Correct   Scores (x)
          Codes
                         Answer
 1          A1               8           40
 2          A2               7           35
 3          A3               9           45
 4          A4               6           30
 5          A5               8           40
 6          A6               5           25
 7          A7              11           55
 8          A8              11           55
 9          A9              14           70
10          A10             16           80
11          A11              7           35
12          A12              9           45
13          A13              9           45
14          A14             15           75
15          A15             11           55
16          A16             15           75
17          A17              7           35
18          A18              9           45
19          A19             11           55
20          A20              9           35
21          A21             13           65
22          A22              9           45
23          A23              8           40
24          A24              7           35
25          A25              9           45
26          A26             12           60
27          A27             14           70
28          A28             10           50
29          A29             10           50
30          A30             12           60
31          A31             13           65
32          A32             12           60
33          A33             12           60



Description of score in instrument try out of the control class
                      Number
       Student’s
No                   of Correct    Scores (x)
        Codes
                      Answer
 1        B1             12           60
 2        B2              7           35
 3        B3              4           20
 4        B4              4           20
 5        B5              7           35
 6        B6              9           45
 7        B7             10           50
 8        B8             11           55
 9        B9             11           55
10        B10            10           50
11        B11            11           55
12        B12             8           40
13        B13             7           35
14        B14            10           50
15        B15             7           35
16        B16             9           45
17        B17            15           75
18        B18            12           60
19        B19            10           50
20        B20             7           35
21        B21             8           40
22        B22            11           55
23        B23            10           50
24        B24             4           20
25        B25             7           35
26        B26             4           20
27        B27            10           50
28        B28             9           45
29        B29             8           40
30        B30             9           45
31        B31             9           45
32        B32            10           50
33        B33             9           45




Data of Students' Reading Comprehension Scores

No      Student's Codes   Gender    Pre-Questioning   Correct WP   Scores WP
1.    Al    1   1    8   40
2.    A2    1   1   10   50
3.    A3    1   1    7   35
4.    A4    1   1    7   35
5.    A5    1   1    9   45
6.    A6    1   1   12   60
7.    A7    1   1   12   60
8.    A8    1   1    8   40
9.    A9    1   1    9   45
10.   A10   1   1    9   45
11.   All   1   1   10   50
12.   Al2   2   1   10   50
13.   A13   1   1    9   45
14.   A14   1   1   10   50
15.   Al5   1   1    6   30
16.   A16   2   1    8   40
17.   A17   2   1    8   40
18.   A18   1   1   11   55
19.   A19   1   1    8   40
20.   A20   1   1   10   50
21.   A21   2   1    9   45
22.   A22   2   1    6   30
23.   A23   2   1   10   50
24.   A24   2   1   11   55
25.   A25   2   1   11   55
26.   A26   2   1    8   40
27.   A27   2   1   10   50
28.   A28   2   1    5   25
29.   A29   2   1    9   45
30.   A30   2   1    7   35
31.   A31   2   1   12   60
32.   A32   2   1   10   50
33.   A33   2   1   10   50
34.   A34   2   1   10   50
35.   B1    1   2   11   55
36.   B2    1   2    7   35
37.   B3    2   2    5   25
38.   B4    1   2    9   45
39.   B5    1   2   10   50
40.   B6    1   2    6   30
41.   B7    1   2    7   35
42.   B8    2   2    7   35
43.   B9    2   2    8   40
44.   B10   2   2    5   25
45.   B1l   1   2    7   35
46.   B12   1   2    8   40
47.   B13   1   2    8   40
48.   B14   1   2    4   20
49.   B15   2   2    5   25
50.   B16   1   2    4   20
51.   B17   1   2    5   25
52.   B18   2   2    4   20
53.   B19   2   2    5   25
54.   B20   2   2    4   20
55.   B21   1   2    8   40
56.   B22   1   2    8   40
57.   B23   2   2    9   45
58.   B24   2   2    8   40
59.   B25   2   2    7   35
60.   B26   2   2    6   30
61.   B27   1   2    6   30
62.   B28   1   2    8   40
63.   B29   1   2    8   40
64.   B30   2   2    7   35
65.   B31   2   2    5   25
66.   B32   2   2    5   25
67.   B33   1   2   10   50
68.   B34   1   2   10   50
Petunjuk pengerjaan:

1. Isilah nama dan kelas di lembar jawaban dengan benar
2. Jawablah pertanyaan essay (pre-questioning) yang ada di atas teks
   bacaan dengan singkat dan jelas.
3. Bacalah teks bacaan yang tersedia dengan seksama lalu jawablah
   pertanyaan pilihan ganda yang ada di bawah teks bacaan tersebut
   dengan memilih jawaban yang dianggap paling benar.
   Contoh :

   A B C D E                 D adalah jawaban yang benar



   Jika anda ingin meralat jawaban anda berilah tanda ‘=’ pada jawaban
   sebelumnya
   A B C D E
                             A adalah jawaban yang benar

4. Jawablah soal tersebut dilembar jawaban yang telah disediakan
5. Alokasi waktu = 2 x 30 menit

Jumlah butir soal:
1. 10 soal untuk essay
2. 20 soal untuk pilihan ganda




Pertanyaan pembuka untuk teks pertama.

1. Pernahkah kamu pergi ke sebuah museum yang memamerkan koleksi fosil-
   fosil binatang purba? (ya/tidak) jika ya, dimana!
2. Menurutmu, binatang apakah yang paling besar yang pernah hidup didunia
   ini? Apa alasanmu!
3. Tuliskanlah 2 hal yang bisa kita lakukan untuk menjaga binatang-binatang
   yang masih hidup dari ancaman kepunahan?


Pertanyaan pembuka untuk teks kedua.
4. Ada banyak senjata biologi yang dibuat negara-negara maju untuk
   kepentingan militer negaranya. Menurutmu, senjata biologi manakah yang
   paling berbahaya bagi kehidupan manusia?
5. Negara-negara mana sajakah yang pernah membuatnya?
6. Tahukah kamu, keuntungan/manfaat yang bisa didapat jika senjata berbahaya
   tersebut jika digunakan untuk kepentingan perdamaian dan kemajuan
   teknologi? Sebutkan!


Pertanyaan pembuka untuk teks ketiga.

7. Setelah kamu menyelesaikan pendidikanmu, pekerjaan apa yang kira-kira
   akan kamu pilih?
8. Kemampuan atau kepandaian apa sajakah yang kamu perlukan untuk
   melakukan pekerjaan tersebut?


Pertanyaan pembuka untuk teks keempat.

9. Sebutkanlah macam-macam sinar yang biasa digunakan/diperlukan dalam
   kepentingan medis dan teknologi?
10. Vitamin D adalah salah satu vitamin yang sangat berguna untuk tubuh kita.
   Secara alami, bagaimanakah kita mendapatkannya?
Reading text I

        Two new species of dinosaurs, one a quick-moving meat-eater and the
other a giant-plant-eater, have been discovered in Antarctica. The 70 million-year-
old fossil of the carnivore would have rested for millenniums at the bottom of the
Antistatic Sea, while the remains of the 30-meter-long plant-eater were found on
the top of a mountain.
        The little carnivore-about 1.8 meters tall – was found on James Ross
Island, off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula.
        Not yet named, the animal probably floated out the sea after it died and
settled to the bottom of what was then a shallow area of the Weddell Sea. Its
bones and teeth suggest it may represent a population of two-legged carnivores
that survived in the Antarctic long after other predators took over elsewhere on the
globe. “For whatever reason, they were still hanging out on the Antarctic
continent,” Case said in a statement.
        A second team led by William Hammer of Augustana College in Rock

Island, Illinois, found the 200 million-year-old plant-eater’s fossils on a

mountaintop 13,000 feet (3,900 meters) high near the Beardmore Glacier. Now

known as Mt. Kirk Patrick, the area was once a soft riverbed.



Jawablah pertanyaan 1-7, berdasarkan teks bacaan diatas!

1. Which of the following would be the best title ……….
   a.   the earth and its history
   b.   the real giant
   c.   the fossil of dinosaurs
   d.   the dinosaurs
   e.   the secret of Antarctic Sea


2. The article above informs us about…………
   a. two species of dinosaurs
   b. the newest discovery in Antarctica
   c. the two kinds of new dinosaurs
   d. the discovery of two species of dinosaurs in Antarctica
   e. a team of researchers was funded by the National Science Foundation
3. Which of the following statement is TRUE according to the text?
   a. a hundred years ago a real giant was discovered in Antarctic land
   b. few people even knew that fossils are the remains of ancient living things
   c. hundred years ago some people ever saw dinosaurs in Antarctic sea
   d. the little dinosaurs was found on James Ross Island
   e. the two species of dinosaurs still alive in the Antarctic sea


4. The main idea (ide pokok) of the first paragraph is ………
   a. the two species of dinosaurs are carnivores and herbivores
   b. the two species were founded by the National Science Foundation
   c. the two species are a quick moving meat-eater and a giant plant-eater
   d. the two species of dinosaurs were floating at the bottom of the Weddell sea
   e. two species of dinosaurs have been discovered in Antarctica


5. The following information is about the giant plant-eater dinosaurs,
   except…….
   a. it is 30 meters long
   b. it is 200 million years old
   c. it is 1.8 meters tall
   d. it is found on the top of a mountain
   e. it is found by William hammer

6. Which of the following tones represents for the way the writer put his idea in
   the text ……
   a. sarcastic
   b. inform
   c. humorous
   d. serious
   e. sympathetic


7. What is the name of the animal probably floated out the sea after it died and
   settled to the bottom in the shallow area of Weddel Sea ……….

   a.   Hadrosaurus
   b.   Haddonfield giant
   c.   Predator
   d.   a, b, c are true
   e.   not yet named
Reading text II

        There are three separate sources of hazard in the process of supplying

energy by nuclear power. The radioactive material must travel from its place of

manufacture at the power station. Although the power stations themselves are

solidly built, the containers used for the transport of the materials are not. There

are normally only two methods of transport available, namely road or rail.

Unfortunately, both of these involve close contact with the general public, since

the routes are sure to pass near, or even thought, heavily populated areas.

        Next, there is the problem of waste. All nuclear power stations produce
wastes that in most cases will remain radioactive for thousands of years. It is
impossible to make these wastes non radioactive, and so they must be stored in
one of the inconvenient ways that scientist have in vented. For example they may
be buried under the ground, or dropped into abandoned mines, or sunk in the sea.
However, these methods do not solve the problem, since an earthquake could
easily crack the containers open.
        Finally, there is the problem of accidental exposure due to a leak or an
explosion at the power station. As with the other two hazards, this is not every
likely, so it does not provide a serious objection to the nuclear program.
Nevertheless, it can happen.
        Separately, these there types of risks are not a great cause for concern. On
the whole though, the probability of disaster is still high.

Jawablah pertanyaan 8-12, berdasarkan teks bacaan yang ada diatas!

8. The whole text tells us about ………….
   a.   the danger of transporting radioactive materials
   b.   the way to make radioactive wastes not dangerous for people
   c.    the potential dangers in supplying energy by nuclear power
   d.   the accidents caused by nuclear power stations
   e.   people’s objections to the establishment of nuclear stations
9. What makes the transported of radioactive materials dangerously for people’s
   lives?
   a. the road
   b. the containers
   c. the rail
   d. the power station
   e. the heavily populated

10. Which of the following statement is TRUE about radioactive wastes?
   a.   there will be no more danger when radioactive wastes
   b.   there is no chance of saving people’s lives from radioactive wastes
   c.    radioactive wastes become nonradioactive when they are sunk in the sea
   d.   only earthquake can change radioactive wastes
   e.     natural disasters may cause very serious leaks in buried containers of
         radioactive wastes

11. In spite of the problems which are likely at occur in supplying energy by
    nuclear, the writer thinks that ………….
    a. people will strongly object to it
    b. the probability of disaster is high
    c. hazards should be rigidly controlled
    d. it’s worth conducting nuclear programs
    e. there is a great cause for concern

12. We may conclude from the third paragraph that the problem of accidental
    exposure is caused by……

   a.   human error
   b.   an earthquake
   c.    radioactive wastes
   d.   hazards
   e.    bad design of nuclear station
Reading text III

          Ultraviolet light means the invisible part of the spectrum beyond violet.

This light has always been regarded as very useful because it is used to cure

certain skin diseases, kill bacteria, detect counterfeit money, from vitamins, etc.

          Along with the increasingly extensive use of computers in financial
activities, ultraviolet light has been widely applied by banks to identify the
signatures of the costumers in passbook. When the card is removed, the trace of
his signature will be left; this can be used to compare with the signature on the
customer’s withdrawal slip under ultraviolet light.
          Ultraviolet light certainly has many practical applications, but it may also
be harmful to human being on some occasions. To everyone’s knowledge, the
direct impact of the light on the yes for an excessive length of time may blind a
person.
          Even though it can cure certain skin disease, it is also very harmful to the
skin. A study just completed in the United States says that the light may cause
skin cancer. The ultraviolet rays of the sun have been ranked as the third most
dangerous cancer-causing agent after alcohol and tobacco.
          It is high time to warn sun-worshippers in the quest for a bronzed look to
be careful of excessive and uncontrolled exposure to the sun.

Jawablah pertanyaan 13-17, berdasarkan teks bacaan yang ada diatas!

13. We may conclude that the main information of the text is about ………….
   a.   the advantages and disadvantages of ultraviolet light
   b.   the use of ultraviolet light in business
   c.    the application of ultraviolet light in people’s lives
   d.   the effect of ultraviolet rays on human beings
   e.   the danger of ultraviolet light to people’s health

14. Which of the following statements about ultraviolet light is TRUE according
    to the text?
    a. ultraviolet is used by banks for computers
    b. the position of ultraviolet rays is above the spectrum
    c. skin disease can only be cause by ultraviolet ray
    d. ultraviolet light, which is part of the spectrum, cannot be seen
    e. ultraviolet light is one of the exciting vitamins
15. We benefit from ultraviolet rays as they can …………
   a.   sign customers’ passbook
   b.   detect false signatures
   c.    cure a particular kind of cancer
   d.   check customers’ deposits
   e.    be a component in medicines

16. Ultraviolet rays may endanger people who ………
   a.   take a vitamins regularly
   b.   stay indoors
   c.    have skin cancer
   d.   consume alcohol and tobacco
   e.   like sunbathing


17. We may conclude that the writer’s main purpose in writing the text is to ……
    a. encourage people to get the best advantage of ultraviolet rays
    b. explain that sunrise consist of violet and ultraviolet rays
    c. introduce the effective use of ultraviolet light in banks
    d. warn people against the alarming dangers caused bay sunrise
    e. ask people to avoid the use of ultraviolet light as much as possible
Reading text IV

         If you want to advance your career, you will have to make some careful

decisions about which jobs you take. Consider a job offered for the value it has to

your career. It may mean sacrifices at first. You may have to move to a different

region or country to get a job that is right for you. You may have to work late

hours, at least temporarily. You might even have to take a lower salary for a job

that offers you the experience that you need. But you should never accept a job if

it is not related to your career goals.

         Accepting a job that is not within your career path will not give you the

skill or experience you need or want. You will find yourself frustrated in such a

position and consequently will not perform your best. This will have an effect on

the people around you, who will not feel as if you are being part of the team. The

best advice is to think carefully before accepting any position and make sure that

the job is one you to have.



Jawablah pertanyaan 18-20, berdasarkan teks bacaan yang ada diatas!

18. What is mainly discussed in the text? …………
    a.   how to look for a job
    b.   how to advance a career
    c.    what to do to get a good job
    d.   how to lessen your stress in your office
    e.    how to make the people around happy

19. The main idea (ide pokok) of the second paragraph is that ………
    a.   considering a job offered is necessary
    b.   moving to a different region to get a job can help you
    c.    relating your jobs to your career goals will be advantageous for your boss
    d.   making a careful decision before accepting a job is important
     e. looking for a higher salary and experience will benefit you

20. According to the text, the author advice the reader about……..
     a.   how to increase the career
     b.   make a decision in a job
     c.   think carefully before accepting position in a job
     d.   how to get a good job
     e.   never accept a job if it is not related to your career

First text: DEPDIKNAS (IPA/IPS), 31 Mei 2005, dokumen negara Rahasia
Second text: tes hari I UMPTN 2000
Third text: test hari I UMPTN 1996
Fourth text: DEPDIKNAS (IPA/IPS), 31 Mei 2005, dokumen negara Rahasia


KEY ANSWER FOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS


1.    D
2.    D
3.    D
4.    C
5.    C
6.    B
7.    E
8.    C
9.    B
10. E
11. B
12. B
13. C
14. D
15. B
16. E
17. C
18. B
19. D
20. C
Nama: ………

Kelas: ………

             ANSWER SHEET (LEMBAR JAWABAN)



ESSAY

1. …

2   …….

    …….

3. A. ….

    B. …

4. …

5. …

6. …

7. …

8. …

9. …

10. …
PILIHAN GANDA


1.   A    B     C   D   E

2.   A    B     C   D   E

3    A    B     C   D   E

4    A    B     C   D   E

5    A    B     C   D   E

6    A    B     C   D   E

7    A    B     C   D   E

8    A    B     C   D   E

9    A    B     C   D   E

10   A    B     C   D   E

11   A    B     C   D   E

12   A    B     C   D   E

13   A    B     C   D   E

14   A    B     C   D   E

15   A    B     C   D   E

16   A    B     C   D   E

17   A    B     C   D   E

18   A    B     C   D   E

19   A    B     C   D   E
20       A     B     C      D      E


             KEY ANSWER FOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS


 21. D
 22. D
 23. D
 24. C
 25. C
 26. B
 27. E
 28. C
 29. B
 30. E
 31. B
 32. B
 33. C
 34. D
 35. B
 36. E
 37. C
 38. B
 39. D
 40. C
                                        CHAPTER I

                                     INTRODUCTION



1.1 Background of the Study

        Language is one of the most important things in communication and it is

used as a toll of communication among the nations in all over the world. As an

international language, English is very important and has many interrelationships

with various aspects of life owned by human being. In Indonesia, English

considered as the first foreign language and taught formally from elementary

school up to the university level.

        In English, there are four skills that should be mastered, they are: listening,

speaking, reading, and writing. The reading skill became very important in the

education field, students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good

reading skill.

        Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students

because the success of their study depends on the greater part of their ability to

read. If their reading skill is poor they are very likely to fail in their study or at

least they will have difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have

a good ability in reading, they will have a better chance to succeed in their study.

        In reading, to comprehend the text the readers should be able to manage

every part of the text, because it is easy to gain the comprehension in reading
when the readers are able to organize the text. Sometimes, they may find form of

pre-questioning and it is important for them to comprehend a reading text with

having knowledge in general view of the text. Theoretically, pre-questioning itself

can build the students’ interest and motivation before students read the whole text.

Moreover, the students can predict what will be discussed on the text. In line with

this study, students may improve their reading comprehension if they know about

pre-questioning and it is very important to understand about pre-questioning in

order to get good comprehension in reading.

       Based on the explanation above, the writer is interested in finding out the

effects of treatment with pre-questioning and without pre-questioning on students’

reading comprehension achievement and concluded that the pre-questioning

consist of some questions provided before the students read the whole text. It

tends to build the students’ interest and motivation to read the text.




1.2 Problem of the Study

      Based on the background of study above, the problem of the study is as

follows:

1. What is the effect of treatment with pre-questioning on the Reading

   Comprehension Achievement of the Second Grade Students of IPS classes at

   SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in Academic year 2006/2007?”
2. What is the effect of the student’s gender on the reading comprehension

   achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan

   Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007?

3. What is the effect of treatments and student’s gender on the reading

   comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at

   SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007?



1.3 The Objective of the Study

       The objectives of the study are:

1. To find out the effect of treatment with pre-questioning on the reading

   comprehension achievement of the second grade student of IPS classes at

   SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.

2. To find out the effect of the student’s gender on the reading comprehension

   achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes of SMAN-2 Jekan

   Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007

3. To find out the interaction effect between treatment and student’s gender on

   the reading comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS

   classes at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007.



1.4 Assumptions

     In relation to the study, the writer states some assumptions as follows:

1. Pre-questioning can help the students to comprehend the reading text.
2. The students have been taught about how to identify the main idea and

   supporting details of a paragraph and how to recognize kinds of text.




1.5 Hypothesis

     The hypotheses of this study can be mastered alternative and null

hypotheses. The hypotheses are, as follows:

1. Ha: There is significant effect of treatment with pre-questioning and without

       pre-questioning on the reading comprehension achievement of the second

       grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.

  Ho: There is no significant effect of treatment with pre-questioning and

       without pre-questioning on the reading comprehension achievement of the

       second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya

       Palangkaraya.

2. Ha: There is significant effect of the student’s gender on the reading

       comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes of

       SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.

   Ho: There is no significant effect of the student’s gender on the reading

       comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes of

       SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.

3. Ha: There is significant effect of treatments with pre-questioning, without pre-

       questioning and student’s gender on the reading comprehension
       achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan

       Raya Palangkaraya.

  Ho: There is no significant effect of treatments with pre-questioning, without

       pre-questioning and student’s gender on the reading comprehension

       achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan

       Raya Palangkaraya.



1.6 Delimitation of the Study

     In this study, the writer delimits the study only to meet the effect of

treatments (with pre-questioning, without pre-questioning) and students’ gender

on the reading comprehension achievement of second grade students of IPS

classes at SMA N-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007.



1.7 Limitation Of The Study

       In this study, the writer only focuses the effects of treatment (with pre-

questioning, without pre-questioning) and student’s gender on the students’

reading comprehension. It is conducted only for the second grade student of IPS

classes of SMUN-2 Jekan Raya in Academic year 2006/2007.Thus, the result of

this study only generalized or applied to the target population, specifically to the

Second Grade Students of IPS classes of SMAN-2 Jekan Raya in Kodya

Palangkaraya.



1.8 Significance of the Study
     The study is expected to be significance as follows:

1. Giving a description about the effects of treatment with pre-questioning and

   without pre-questioning on the students’ reading comprehension achievement.

2. To prove the result in reading comprehension scores between experimental

   and control classes of students’ gender (female and male) on the second grade

   students of IPS classes at SMA Negeri 2 Jekan Raya are different.

3. Giving a reference to development of teaching learning process especially in

   reading, that pre-questioning can make the students’ reading comprehension

   will be better.

4. Giving a contribution to the students how to improve their skill in

   comprehending about the reading text.

5. Giving a profitable description to any further researcher which wants to study

   the same case, so this study becomes a helpful information and useful

   reference for the next study.



1.9 Clarification of Key Terms

     There are some terms in this study that should be clarified, as follows:

Pre-questioning

       Some questions which are provided before the students read the whole

text, in order to build the reading schemata and background knowledge of the

students and also to rise their interest, and their cognitive aspect to predict what

will faced by them in the next whole text.
Reading Comprehension

      Theoretically, reading comprehension is a process of interaction between the

reader with the text and the reader relates the idea from the text to prior

experiences and their knowledge. In other words, comprehension is a process by

which the reader constructs meaning by interacting with the text.

        In this study, reading comprehension achievement operationally defined as

the students’ scores in comprehending the text on the reading comprehension

tests, after having and without having the pre-questioning.




SMAN-2 Jekan Raya

        It is clearly stated on the research problem that the SMAN-2 Jekan Raya is

the location or site of the research.
                                     CHAPTER II

                     REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



2.1 The Essence of Reading

     There are four skills in English which should be mastered, they are: reading,

speaking, listening and writing and it cannot be denied that reading is one of the

most important. According to Harmer in The Practice of English Language

Testing (1985:153) “Reading is an exercise dominated by the eyes and the brain”.

Specifically, Nunan (1989:17) in his book also said that “Reading is a process of

decoding written symbols, working from smaller units (individual letters) to

larges ones (words, clauses and sentences)”.

     Based on explanation above, the writer concludes that reading is a process

to convey the message or information. By reading, the reader will know what they

read and challenged to response the ideas of the author. In order to make the

messages or information that comes from the author can be understood and

comprehended easily by the reader.



2.2 Reading Comprehension

     It is necessary for the students of Senior High School to master reading

comprehension. Cooper (1986:11) stated that Comprehension is a process in
which the reader may construct meaning by interacting with the text. In reading

comprehension, a reader should have knowledge about understanding the reading

passage. The common questions on the passages are primarily about the main

ideas, details, and an inference that can be drawn from the passages.

     According to Singer (1985) reading comprehension has been defined as an

interpretation of written symbols, the apprehending of meaning, the assimilation

of ideas presented by the written, and the process of thinking while deciphering

symbols. Further, reading comprehension is related closely to the cognitive

competence of the readers, because this will produce comprehension. This idea

also supported by Parera in Kahayanto (2005:9), he states as follows:

       “Memahami adalah memperhatikan naskah tertulis dengan maksud
       memahami isinya. Proses ini dilakukan dengan mata diam atau membaca
       dalam hati. Hasil pemahaman disebut pemahaman bacaan. Cara
       membaca yang demikian disebut cara membaca pemahaman”.

     In comprehending a topic, the readers interacts with the text relates to the

pre-questioning of the text to prior experiences of construct meaning which can be

found in the text. Skimming and scanning are two very useful techniques that will

help the reader become a better reader.

1. Skimming

       Skimming is a technique used to look for the “gist” of what the author is

saying without a lot of detail (Kustaryo, 1988:5). This reading technique is used if

one wants to get a general impression of a book, essay, article and determine

whether or not to read it more carefully. Moreover, Yorkey (134) defines that there

are two purposes of skimming: to locate a specific word, fact, or idea quickly, and
to get a rapid general impression of the material. Azies & Alwasilah (1996:114)

said “Aktifitas skimming melibatkan proses membaca, sekalipun dengan

kecepatan melebihi kecepatan membaca pada umumnya”.

         Thus, in skimming the text, a reader needs to practice in order he or she can

learn the key words and phrases which can cover all the material he or she is

reading. To do the skimming, the reader should go through a passage quickly,

jumping over parts of it, in order to get a general idea of what it is about.



2. Scanning

        Scanning is quickly reading to find the specific information Brown

(2001:308) stated that, scanning is quickly searching for some particular piece or

pieces of information in a text.

        By scanning, a reader mean glancing rapidly through a text either a text

either to search a specific piece of information (e.g. name, date) or to get an initial

impression of whether the text is suitable for a given purpose”, Nuttall in

Kahayanto (2005:11). When scanning the reader lets his or her eyes wander over

the text until he or she is looking for, whether it is a place, a kind of food, a kind

of verb, or a specific information. To enable the student to scan effectively, he or

she should know what kinds of information he or she needs, also, he or she should

have the strong belief where he or she will find such information needed from the

text.
2.3 Schema Theory Background and Knowledge in Reading

         Schema Theory is the source of some questions like: How do readers

construct meaning? How do they decide what to hold on to, and having made that

decision, how do they infer a writer’s message? The reader brings information,

knowledge, emotion, experience, and culture – that is, schemata (plural) – to the

printed word, Brown (2001: 299).

         Beside that, this idea also support by Clarke and Silberstein in Brown

(2001) capture the definition of schema theory as follows:

         “Research has shown that reading is only incidentally visual. More
         information is contributed by the reader than by the print on the page.
         That is, readers understand what they read because they are able to take
         the stimulus beyond its graphic representation and assign it membership
         to an appropriate group of concepts already stored in their
         memories…….Skill in reading depends on the efficient interaction
         between linguistic knowledge and knowledge of the world”.


       There are two categories of schemata, as follows:

1. Content Schemata include what we know about people, the world, culture,

    and the universe

2. Formal Schemata consist of our knowledge about discourse structure.

          In line with the explanation above, the writer conclude that the use of

pre-questioning is to build readers’ content schemata which are related to the

background of knowledge.




2.4 Cognitive Factors in Reading
          According to Harris and Sipay (1980:251) there are several cognitive

factors in reading such as perception, attention, memory, and cognitive style.

2.4.1 Perception

         Perception starts with the stimulation of sense organs such as the eyes

and ears, but it is far more than simple sensing. In perceiving, the brain selects,

groups, organizes, and sequences the sensory data so that people perceive

meaningful experiences that can lead to appropriate responses. Among the

important characteristics of perception, several seem to have particular relevance

for reading, such as follows:

1. Figure and Ground

   Normally, one major unit or group of units is perceived clearly against a

   background that is more vaguely perceived.

2. Closure

   The abilities to get the correct meaning of a sentence in which not all the

   words are recognized, and to pronounce a word correctly when some letters

   are blotted out, are examples of closure.

3. Sequence

   In reading, all the stimuli are on the page and sequence is imposed by the

   reader.

4. Learning
   Perception becomes meaningful units as they become associated with learned

   concepts and their verbal labels.

5. Set

   One’s immediate mind set provides an anticipation of what is likely to come

   that is helpful when the anticipation is correct, but leads to errors when the

   anticipation is incorrect.

6. Discrimination

   The abilities to analyze a whole perception into its parts, and to synthesize the

   parts correctly are basic to success in visual and auditory discrimination of

   words.

2.4.2    Memory

           Psychologists distinguish between iconic memory, the fraction of a

second that a sensory impression lasts before it fades out. Short term memory,

which lasts a view second and long term memory. A distinction is also made rote

memory, in which the material may be without structure (as in a sequence of

digits), and memory for meaningful material.




2.4.3    Attention

           According to Harris and Sipay (1980:277) attention based on the

cognitive is the ability to attend and concentrate is basic to efficiency in

perception, learning, and memory.
           Related to this study, it means the person can maintain focus on

particular stimuli and disregard or suppress other stimulation that reaches him at

the same time, thus maintaining a stable figure in the focus of attention, against a

non interfering background.

2.4.4    Cognitive Style

           Cognitive style refers to the tendency to prefer certain ways of handling

cognitive tasks to other ways. The preferred may be a relatively strong aptitude or

a fairly consistent behavioral tendency. Some explorations of cognitive style seem

relevant to the understanding of reading disabilities.




2.5     Reading as a Process of Predicting

           Reading has been considered only as a visual activity, because we do

with the eyes. But, in The Book of Study Skills for Students of English, Yorkey

(1982:100) stated reading is not only a visual activity. It is more than just simply

run your eyes accumulating information as each words, phrase, and sentences is

progressively recognized. Reading is also an active process of predicting what is

likely to come next. Our brain processes the visual information from our eyes,

rapidly forming and revising hypotheses about the form and content of what you

are reading.
          Thus, in this study the writer conclude that pre-questioning as the

strategy to build up and to rise the students’ skill in predicting what will face by

them in the whole text.




2.6     Some Factors that Influence Students’ Reading Comprehension
        Achievement

          There are two factors that influence the students’ reading

comprehension achievements and they are related one another, they are: internal

factor and the external factor.




2.6.1   The Internal Factor

          The internal factor means the factor which come from the reader himself

(Kahayanto, 2005:13). Or usually known as personal factor, because the factor has

existed inside the reader. This factor dealt with self-motivation and interest.




2.6.1.1 Motivation

          Motivation plays an important role in comprehending the text. The

students will be motivated to read when they fell that they need something from

the text. Brown (2001:75) divided the motivation theory into two kinds, they are:

intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
            Edward Deci in Brown (2001:76) defined intrinsic motivation, as

follow:

            “Intrinsically motivated activities are ones from which there is no
            apparent reward except the activity itself. People seem to engage in the
            activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic
            reward. It is aimed at bringing about curtaining internally rewarding
            consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self-determination.”


            On the other one, extrinsic motivation defined by him as extrinsically

motivated behaviors that carried out in anticipation of a reward from outside and

beyond the self. Such as; money, prizes, grades, and even certain of positive

feedback.



2.6.1.2 Interest

            Interest is being one of the important factors in order to increasing the

students’ comprehension achievement in reading. If one has interest to read, it

means that he or she will get a good achievement. On the other side, if the reader

has no any interest to read, it can influence his or her achievement.

            In line with the explanation of motivation and interest above, in this

study the writer interested to use pre-questioning to build up the students’

motivation and interest, and also want to see the effect of using pre-questioning in

relationship with the students’ reading comprehension achievements. Because, it

is impossible for the students to understand the text if he or she has no interest and

motivation to read. So, it can be concluded that the good interest and motivation

result the good achievement of the students.
2.6.2    The External Factor

            The external factor has a close relationship to reading material and

teacher of reading. They are related one another.

2.6.2.1 Reading Material

            The students’ achievements’ in reading depends on the level of the

difficulty of the text. Thus, it can influence students’ achievement if the text given

is not at the right level of the difficulty of the readers or the students.




2.6.2.2 Teacher of Reading

            The teacher of reading should be careful in choosing the text and giving

the tasks because they are related to the students’ reading comprehension

achievements.




2.7     Questioning Strategies

            The most important key to create an interactive learning is the initiation

of interaction from the teacher by using question, Brown (2001:169). Appropriate

questioning can fulfill a number of different functions, such as:

1. Teacher questions give students the opportunity to produce language

      comfortably without having to risk initiating language themselves. It is very

      scary for the students to have to initiate conversation or topics for discussion.
2. Teacher question can serve to initiate a chain reaction of students interaction

      among themselves.

3. Teacher questions giving immediate feedback about students’ comprehension.

4. Teacher questions provide students with opportunities to find out what they

      think. As they are nudged into responding to questions about, say, a reading,

      they can discover what their own opinions and reactions are. This self-

      discovery can be especially useful for a pre-reading activity.

            Perhaps the simplest way to conceptualize the possibilities is to think of

a range of questions, beginning with display questions that attempt to elicit

information already known by the teacher and the students. In this study, the

writer interested to use pre-questioning in order to make the general frame of the

knowledge.




2.8     Pre-questioning

            Based on Brown’s (2001) explanation of display questions, schema

theory and students’ background knowledge explanation. He also defined pre-

questioning implicitly as some questions which are provided before the students

read the whole text, in order to build the students’ interest and motivation, also

their cognitive factors and pre-questioning is very useful to activate the schemata,

thus the students can predict what will be faced by them in the reading text.

2.9     Kinds of Pre-questioning
          According to Harmer (1985:153), there are some kinds of pre-

questioning, they are: Pre-questioning before reading to confirm expectations, pre-

questioning before reading to extract specific information, pre-questioning before

reading for general comprehension, and pre-questioning before reading for detail

comprehension. The explanations are as following:

-   Pre-questioning before reading to confirm expectations

          The use of pre-questioning as a tool for placing great emphasis on the

    lead-in stage (where students are encouraged to become interested in the

    subject matter of the text), encourages students to predict the content of the

    text, and gives them an interesting and motivating purpose for reading.

-   Pre-questioning before reading to extract specific information

          Pre-questioning as a tool to force the students to extract specific

    information from the text. They are going to answer before reading the text. If

    they do this it will be possible for them to read in the required way, they

    should seen the text only to extract the information the questions demand.

-   Pre-questioning before reading for general comprehension

          In this case pre-questioning used to build up the students’ prior

    knowledge.

-   Pre-questioning before reading for detailed comprehension

          This kind of pre-questioning intends to give the students some detailed

    information that should be found by them in the whole of the text.
          Based on the explanation above, in this study the writer only concern

two kinds of pre-questioning, they are: Pre-questioning before reading for general

comprehension and the pre-questioning before reading to confirm expectations. In

order to deal with students’ background knowledge and activating schemata.

          Related to this study, the writer used pre-questioning with Indonesian

version, because the form of pre-questioning is only to deal the students’

background knowledge. Thus, the students can predict easily what will be

discussed on the text, after they read and answer the pre-questioning.




2.10 Kind of Questions in Reading Comprehension

       According to Loughed and TOEFL Information Bulletin in Djiwandono

(2002:97), usually the questions in reading comprehension tests are about:

1. Main idea

2. Supporting details

3. Inferring meaning

4. Passage structure

5. Author’s aim

6. Knowledge about certain vocabulary

7. Defining vocabulary based on the context
       In this study, the writer only concerns on main ideas and supporting

details, because two kinds of reading comprehension test above are most

important specific comprehension skills.

a. Main Ideas

         The question about main idea asks the reader to determine the main idea

   or topic from a reading text, and commonly it is signed by words such as:

   main point; mainly discussed; main idea; best title; main purpose; mainly

   concerned; main topic.

   Here are some examples of questions to ask about main idea:

   - What is the main idea of the passage?

   - With which of the following is the passage mainly concerned?

   - What is the main part of the passage?

   - Which of the following would be the best title?

                                                          (Djiwandono, 2002 : 98)

b. Supporting Details

         The question about supporting details asks the reader to find detail

   information that is printed explicitly in the text. It is commonly signed by

   words such as: according to the author…; according to the passage…; who,

   what, when, where, why, how, which.

   Here are some examples of questions to ask about supporting details:

   - Which of the following question does the passage answer?

   - According to the passage, which statement is true?

   - When did ‘something’ happen?
    - Who did ‘something’?

                                                            (Djiwandono, 2002:99)




2.11 The Differences between Male and Female in Learning Attitudes and
     Reading Habit

2.11.1 Learning Attitudes

        All the human brain works for the same purpose. But, there is a difference

in the way of working between the male’s brain and the female has. It is because

there is a difference on the density of cells of nerve or the neuron between the

male’s and female’s brain.

        Moreover, female speaks clever, reads and occasionally has interference

experience on learn than male. This fact is guessed by the scientist relating to

female’s ability in using both of her hemispheres, left and right, in reading and

doing verbal activity. Meanwhile, male only uses his one of his hemisphere that is

usually the left.

        Abdul Chaer (2002: 134) said, “the adult women are more energetic in

case of verbal because they use their left and right brain jointly”. This statement

support the fact that female has better development of linguistics ability compared

to male.

        The attitudes on reading give influence on the linguistics ability.

According to Callaghan in an article of Editorial Jurnal Pendidikan dan

Kebudayaan no 37 (2002: 34), there is a little influence on the performance and

linguistics ability given by the women’s superiorities linguistics.
2.11.2 Reading Habit

       Attitudes toward reading will influence the male and female linguistics

ability. For examples male likes talking spontaneously and has courage to do that.

Meanwhile, female, though talkative, is not firm in making decision. But, the

female could see the cases that male could not see. It is because male has problem

in reading and writing has problems in reading and writing. Supported by

Maubach and Morgan in article of Editorial Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan

(2002: 472) says, “Men have more problems on reading and writing field.”

       Haris in the article of Editorial Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (2002:

471), “Men choose the factual information and only look for the definite

information that they want than read from start to finish.”
                                  CHAPTER III

                        METHOD AND PROCEDURES


3.1 Data

3.1.1   The Data Needed

        The data needed of this study were taken from the students’ scores that are

collected by the test. The source of the data was collected from the Second Grade

Students of IPS classes at SMA N-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in Academic year

2006/2007.



3.1.2   Criteria for the Admissibility of the Data

        The writer took the students answer sheets as the valid out of data. In this

study, the data concern to the students’ reading comprehension achievements after

and without having pre-questioning.



3.1.3   Data Collection and Data Processing Procedures

        The writer used a test to collect the data. After collecting the data, they

were processed with the following procedures:

1. Editing

   Find out the data of the Second Grade Students of SMA N-2 Jekan Raya.

2. Coding

   Each answer sheet is coded by giving code such as A1, A2,B1,B2,…and so on

   in order to keep the students privacy.
3. Scoring

      In this step, the writer gives the score for the students’ work based on the

      correct answer that the students make by using the following formula:

                 Number of correc t an swer
      SCORE                                X 100
                  Number of items tested

                                                                  (Depdikbud, 1989:7)

4. Tabulating

      After scoring the students’ works, the data will be classified on the table.



3.2 Instrumentation

3.2.1    Instrumentation Development

         The writer used the test as an instrument to collect the data. There were

two kinds of instruments in this study, they were: Instruments for the

experimental class and for the control class. The tests were in the form of essay

and multiple-choice. The multiple-choice used for the reading comprehension

tests and essay used for the Pre-questioning questions. The total numbers of test

items for the experimental class were 30 items and 20 test items for the control

class. Below are the descriptions of content specification of the test:


Table 3.1 Content Specification of Pre-questioning for the
         experimental class
                                             Number of test
No            Content of the tests                               Number of item
                                                 item
 1.      Pre-questioning before reading         4 items                2, 4, 9, 10
         for general comprehension
       Pre-questioning before reading
 2.                                            6 items               1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8
           to confirm expectations

      Total                                    10 items                 10 items




Table 3.2 Content specification of reading comprehension
          for the Experimental and Control class


No      Content of test      Number of test                      Item number
                             item
 1.        Main Idea                    9                 1, 2, 4, 8, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20
                                                          3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14,
 2.    Supporting Details               11
                                                                       15, 16

      Total                         20 items                        20 items



3.2.2 Instrumentation Try Out

       In order to know whether the instrument is suitable or not, the writer tried

out the instrument. The try out was held on SMA Negeri-1 Jekan Raya

Palangkaraya.

       The result of try out was useful for the following:

1. To decide the time allocation.

2. To find out whether the instruction is understandable or not.

3. To gather evidence to support the instruments validity and reliability.

       Before the writer made instrument try out, there were some procedures

need to be followed:

a. Getting the permissions letter from:
    -   The Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of Palangka Raya

        University

    -   Dinas Pendidikan Kota Palangkaraya

b. Asking the permission from the Head Master of SMAN-1 Jekan Raya

    Palangkaraya and the second grade English teacher in IPS classes.

        In the process to try out the instruments, the writer found some problems

to get the permission letter from the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of

Palangka Raya University. It needed a long time to get the letter. Whereas, the

writer needed to conduct the try out as soon as possible. Realizing this reason, the

writer had an initiative to ask the second grade English teacher of IPS classes for

the permission to conduct the try out while the letter was in process. Fortunately,

the writer got it.

        Thus, the instrument was tried out to the second year students of IPS

classes in SMA Negeri 1 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya. The writer took 2 (two)

classes to become the sample of try out. The classes were: XI IPS 2 which

consisted of 33 students, and XI IPS 4 which consisted of 35 students. The try out

for the instrument without pre-questioning treatment was held on Wednesday,

January 17th , 2007 (10.45 - 12.15 am) and with pre-questioning treatment was

held on Thursday, January 18, 2007 (08.15 - 09.45 am). The time allocation for

try out was 60 minutes for each class.

        In this study, the writer did not measure and use the index of items

difficulty, because this study belongs to proficiency test. In other words, the writer

only gave the test to measure the students’ comprehension in text.
        Based on the result of try out, it can be concluded that:

1. In experimental class, the testees could answer the 30 try out items in 2 x 45

   minutes, it means they did one items in 3 minutes. Based on the instruction,

   the time allocation provided for the sample of the study, was 2 x 30 minutes.

   So, the time allocation for the experimental class was added to 2 x 45 minutes.

   In control class, the testees could answer the 20 try out items in 2 x 30

   minutes, it means they did one items in 3 minutes. Based on the instruction,

   the time allocation provided for the sample of the study was 2 x 25 minutes.

   So, the time allocation for the experimental class was added to 2 x 30 minutes.

2. Based on the result of the try out, the testees could answer the test based on

   the instruction. As evidence, the students did not ask too much about how to

   answer the test. It meant the instruction of the test was not needed to be

   revised because it was understandable for the students.

3. From the result of the try out, the writer could get the data needed to count the

   reliability of the instrument. In calculating the result, the writer eliminated two

   of the students’ scores in XI IPS 4 from the list to make the equal group. So,

   the numbers of students from both of class were same.



3.2.3   Instrumentation Validity

        Arikunto (2002:145), said “Sebuah instrumen dikatakan valid apabila

mampu mengukur apa yang diinginkan”. Furthermore, Sudjana and Ibrahim

(1989:117) have opinion that: “Validitas berkenaan dengan ketepatan alat ukur,

sehingga betul-betul mengukur apa yang seharusnya diukur”.
      In this study, the writer used two kinds of validity, they are; construct

validity and content validity.

3.2.3.1 Construct validity

          Based on Toendan (2006:133), construct validity refers to the extent to

which the results of the data collection process can be interpreted in terms of

underlying psychological construct. The instrument has construct validity if there

is a relationship between theory and concept of the competence needed to

accomplish the tests in this study. In this study, the theories are about pre-

questioning and reading comprehension. Those, theories can be seen in Chapter II,

Review of related literature, on page 18 (theory of pre-questioning) and on page 6

(theory of reading comprehension). The competence in this study means that the

students ability in answering the reading comprehension tests with pre-

questioning treatment and without pre-questioning treatment. The instrument in

this study belonged to proficiency test, it meant the test is not measure the

students’ ability after learning process. The form of the reading comprehension

tests for experimental and control classes are multiple choices and form pre-

questioning for experimental class is essay.



3.2.3.2 Content Validity

          According to Toendan (2006:132), content validity refers to the extent

to which data collection process measures a representative sample of the subject

matter or behavior that should be encompassed by the operational definition.
           Related to this study, the test content is about reading comprehension,

about main idea and supporting details, with or without pre-questioning. The

following are the tables of content specification of test instrument:


Table 3.3 Content Specification of Pre-questioning for the
           Experimental class

                                              Number of test
No           Content of the tests                                 Number of item
                                                 item
        Pre-questioning before reading
 1.                                              4 items                2, 4, 9, 10
        for general comprehension
        Pre-questioning before reading
 2.                                              6 items              1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8
        to confirm expectations

        Total                                    10 items                10 items


Table 3.4 Content specification of reading comprehension
          for the Experimental and Control class


No        Content of test     Number of test                      Item number
                              item
 1.     Main Idea                        9                 1, 2, 4, 8, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20
                                                           3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14,
 2.     Supporting Details               11
                                                                     15, 16, 20

        Total                       20 items                         20 items



3.2.4    Instrumentation Reliability

         According to Arikunto (2002:154): “Reliabilitas menunjuk pada satu

pengertian bahwa sesuatu instrumen cukup dapat dipercaya untuk digunakan

sebagai alat pengumpul data karena instrumen itu sudah baik”. Based on that
opinion, the writer measured the reliability of the instrument by using the

following formula:

           VEM
rxx = 1-
            Sd 2


Where :

rxx        = Coefficient Reliability

VEM = Variance Error of Measurement

Sd         = Standard Deviation

VEM = 1/5 n

n          = Number of Items

                                                                  (Kasiram, 1984.80)




           To find out the standard deviation, the writer used following formula:

                        2
           ( x  x )
Sd =
              n 1



Where :

Sd = Standard deviation

n = Number of students tested

∑ = Sum Total

The value will be consulted to the standardization of coefficient reliability.
Where:

(+0.90) – (+1.00)        : Excellent Reliability

(+0.85) – (+0.89)        : Very Good Reliability

(+0.80) – (+0.84)        : Good Reliability

(+0.70) – (+0.79)        : Fair Reliability

Less than (+0.70)        : Poor Reliability

                                                            ( Soehartono, 1998: 86 )

         Based on the result of instrumentation try out, the writer fulfilled them on

the table, as follows:

Table 3.5 Description of score in instrument try out of experimental class
          which is used to calculate standard deviation

                           Number
           Student’s
No
            Codes
                          of Correct     Scores (x)      (x- x )         (x- x )2
                           Answer
 1            A1               8              40         -10.9           118.81
 2            A2               7              35         -15.9           252.81
 3            A3               9              45          -5.9           34.81
 4            A4               6              30         -20.9           436.81
 5            A5               8              40         -10.9           118.81
 6            A6               5              25         -25.9           670.81
 7            A7              11              55          4.1            16.81
 8            A8              11              55          4.1            16.81
 9            A9              14              70         19.1            364.81
10            A10             16              80         29.1            846.81
11            A11              7              35         -15.9           252.81
12            A12              9              45          -5.9           34.81
13            A13              9              45          -5.9           34.81
14            A14             15              75         24.1            580.81
15            A15             11              55          4.1            16.81
16            A16             15              75         24.1            580.81
17            A17              7              35         -15.9           252.81
18            A18              9              45          -5.9           34.81
19            A19             11              55          4.1            16.81
20            A20              9              35         -15.9           252.81
21            A21              13           65            14.1            198.81
22            A22               9           45             -5.9           34.81
23            A23               8           40            -10.9           118.81
24            A24               7           35            -15.9           252.81
25            A25               9           45             -5.9           34.81
26            A26              12           60             9.1            82.81
27            A27              14           70            19.1            364.81
28            A28              10           50             -0.9            0.81
29            A29              10           50             -0.9            0.81
30            A30              12           60             9.1            82.81
31            A31              13           65            14.1            198.81
32            A32              12           60             9.1            82.81
33            A33              12           60             9.1            82.81
                                          = 1680                      ∑ = 6472.73
                                         x = 50.90


The Number in the table were fulfilled into the standard deviation formula, as

follows:

                6472.73
       Sd =
                 33  1

                6472.73
       Sd =
                  32

       Sd =     202.272

       Sd = 14.22



Then, this value was fullfilled into the previous reliability formula, as follow:

                   VEM
       rxx = 1 -
                    Sd 2

                   1
                     x 20
       rxx = 1 -   5
                 (14 .22 ) 2
                       4
         rxx = 1 -
                     202.20

         rxx = 1 – 0,019

         rxx = 0,98



The value was consulted to the standardization of coefficient reliability.

Where:

(+0.90) – (+1.00)          : Excellent Reliability

(+0.85) – (+0.89)          : Very Good Reliability

(+0.80) – (+0.84)          : Good Reliability

(+0.70) – (+0.79)          : Fair Reliability

Less than (+0.70)          : Poor Reliability

                                                            ( Soehartono, 1998: 86 )

         Based on the calculation above, the instrumentation try out for the

experimental class was categorized into “Excellent Reliability”.



Table 3.6 Description of score in instrument try out of the control class which
          is used to calculate standard deviation


                               Number
           Student’s
No
            Codes
                              of Correct   Scores (x)    (x- x )         (x- x )2
                               Answer
 1             B1                 12            60      16.22                263.0884
 2             B2                  7            35       -8.78                77.0884
 3             B3                  4            20      -23.78               565.4884
 4             B4                  4            20      -23.78               565.4884
 5             B5                  7            35       -8.78                77.0884
 6             B6                  9            45       1.22                  1.4884
 7            B7           10           50           6.22            38.6884
 8            B8           11           55          11.22           125.8884
 9            B9           11           55          11.22           125.8884
10            B10          10           50           6.22            38.6884
11            B11          11           55          11.22           125.8884
12            B12           8           40           -3.78           14.2884
13            B13           7           35           -8.78           77.0884
14            B14          10           50           6.22            38.6884
15            B15           7           35           -8.78           77.0884
16            B16           9           45           1.22             1.4884
17            B17          15           75          31.22           974.6884
18            B18          12           60          16.22           263.0884
19            B19          10           50           6.22            38.6884
20            B20           7           35           -8.78           77.0884
21            B21           8           40           -3.78           14.2884
22            B22          11           55          11.22           125.8884
23            B23          10           50           6.22            38.6884
24            B24           4           20          -23.78          565.4884
25            B25           7           35           -8.78           77.0884
26            B26           4           20          -23.78          565.4884
27            B27          10           50           6.22            38.6884
28            B28           9           45           1.22             1.4884
29            B29           8           40           -3.78           14.2884
30            B30           9           45           1.22             1.4884
31            B31           9           45           1.22             1.4884
32            B32          10           50           6.22            38.6884
33            B33           9           45           1.22             1.4884
                                      = 1445                   ∑ = 5051.51
                                     x = 43.78


The Number in the table were fulfilled into the standard deviation formula, as

follows:

               5051.51
       Sd =
                33  1

               5051.51
       Sd =
                 32

       Sd = 157.85
         Sd = 12.56



Then, this value was fullfilled into the previous reliability formula, as follow:

                     VEM
         rxx = 1 -
                      Sd 2

                    1
                      x 20
         rxx = 1 - 5
                  (12.56 ) 2

                       4
         rxx = 1 -
                     157.75

         rxx = 1 – 0,025

         rxx = 0,97


The value will be consulted to the standardization of coefficient reliability.

Where:

(+0.90) – (+1.00)             : Excellent Reliability

(+0.85) – (+0.89)             : Very Good Reliability

(+0.80) – (+0.84)             : Good Reliability

(+0.70) – (+0.79)             : Fair Reliability

Less than (+0.70)            : Poor Reliability

                                                             ( Soehartono, 1998: 86 )

         Based on calculation above, the instrumentation try out for the control

class was categorized into “Excellent Reliability”.



3.3    Population and Sample
3.3.1   Population

        The population of this study was all the second grade students of SMA

Negeri 2 Jekan Raya Palangka Raya in academic year 2006/2007. There were five

classes on the second grade in SMA Negeri 2 Jekan Raya Palangka Raya. The

following is the description of population of the study:


Table 3.7 The Description of Population
 No               Population                            Number of the
                                                         Population
 1.     Class XI IPA 1                                      40
 2.     Class XI IPA 2                                      40
 3.                                                         38
 4.     Class XI IPS 1                                      39
 5.                                                         41
        Class XI IPS 2
        Class Bahasa
                                                           198 students
        Total


3.3.2   Sample

        In taking the sample, the writer used the cluster sampling technique.

According to Toendan (2006:93), the cluster sampling is used when it is more

feasible or convenient to select groups of individual then it is to select individuals

than it is to select individuals from a defined population.

        Based on the theory of Toendan above, it is clear that the result of this

study can be interpreted or generalized to the target population, as long there are

some similarities and homogeneities on the sample and target population.
            But, this technique also has the weaknesses that the results of this study

cannot be generalized to the all the SMU in Indonesia, especially in Palangkaraya,

and this technique is less accurate than simple random sampling technique.

            Related to the explanation above, the populations of this study was the

sample and it is clear that the sample of this study was the Second Grade Students

of IPS classes of SMA N-2 Jekan Raya in Kodya Palangkaraya. The step in taking

the sample, first, the writer randomized the three programs: IPA, IPS, and Bahasa.

As a result, IPS had been chosen as the sample of the study. From the result of the

observation, there were two classes of IPS that the writer divided into

experimental and control classes. The results were XI IPS 1 as the experimental

class and XI IPS 2 as the control class.



3.4 Research Methodology

3.4.1       Research Method

            In this study the writer used the experimental method. According to

Toendan (2006: 230) this study belongs to Factorial Experimental Design.

The design is as follow:
                                               1             X1            O1

                               C1
                                               2             X1            O2

        R
                                               3             X2            O3
Where:
                               C2
R                          : Random assignment
                                             4               X2            O4
C1                         : Experimental Class
C2,                       : Control Class

1                        : Female students of experimental class

2                        : Male students of experimental class

3                        : Female students of control class

4                        : Male students of control class

X1,                      : Treatment using Pre-questioning

X2                       : Treatment without using Pre-questioning

O1, O2, O3, O4           : Stands for an observation or measurement of the subject

                           in the design treatment



         In this study, the writer investigated:

1. The effect of using pre-questioning and without using pre-questioning on the

      students’ reading comprehension achievement.

2. The effect of students’ gender on the students’ reading comprehension

      achievement.

3. The effect of treatments with pre-questioning, without pre-questioning and

      student’s gender on the reading comprehension.

         The writer focused his study on the second grade students of IPS classes at

SMA N-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in Academic year 2006/2007. The writer

gave the treatment to the experimental groups in the form of reading

comprehension tests with pre-questioning as the beginning before the students

answer the reading comprehension test and the control group had no Pre-

questioning as the beginning of the reading comprehension text.
3.4.2   Variables of the Study

        There are two variables on this study, that can be explained as follow:

1. Independent Variable

   The treatments (with pre-questioning and without pre-questioning) and

   Students’ Gender

2. Dependent Variable

   Students’ reading comprehension scores



   The relationship between variables:



            Treatments
                                                               Students’ reading
                                                                comprehension
              Gender                                             achievements



3.4.3   Data Analysis Procedures

        To analyze the data, the writer followed the procedures:

1. Checking the students’ answers and give scores.

2. Analyzing the data by statistic technique of ANOVA using statistical

   computerized program named SPSS version 13.

3. Taking the conclusion based on the statistical result.

        There are some steps should be fulfilled in order to use ANOVA.

According to Usman and Akbar (1995:159):
       Langkah-langkah menghitung ANOVA:
       1. Uji atau asumsikan bahwa data masing-masing dipilih secara acak.
       2. Uji atau asumsikan bahwa data masing-masing berdistribusi normal.
       3. Uji atau asumsikan bahwa data masing-masing homogen.

       Moreover, Usman and Akbar (1995:251) said that: “sebelum ANOVA

digunakan, maka persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi adalah: data setiap kelompok

berdistribusi normal, data semua kelompok harus homogen, dan data dipilih

secara acak (random)”.

       Furthermore, there is a value level whether to know that data were resulted

from normal distribution of population and from homogen variance. Safari

(2004:84-85), said that:

       Kaidah penetapan normalitas data:
        Jika signifikan > 0.50, sampel berasal dari populasi berdistribusi
         normal.
        Jika signifikan < 0.50, sampel berasal dari populasi berdistribusi tidak
         normal.
       Kaidah penetapan homogenitas data:
        Jika signifikan > 0.50, variansi setiap sampel sama (homogen).
        Jika signifikan < 0.50, variansi setiap sampel tidak sama (tidak
         homogen).

        In statistical analysis, the writer used significance based on Saphiro-Wilk

formula. Finally, in order to see whether Ho or H1 was accepted, the calculation of

the data can be seen in ANOVA table. According to Welkowitz, Ewen, and Cohen

(1982:251), the result was consulted to the level significant below:

        If significant > 0.50, Ho was accepted

        If significant < 0.50, Ho was rejected



3.5 Validity of the Study
          There are two validity factors to support this study:

  2. External Validity

      In this study, the writer used cluster-sampling technique, therefore the result of

      this study can be generalized to the target population, as long as there are

      some similarities and homogeneity on the sample and target population, but

      the generalization is less accurate than simple random sampling technique.

  3. Internal Validity

      There are two variables that have strong relationship, cause and effect. Thus,

      the result of this study can be interpreted. According to Toendan (2006:209)

      there are several ways to control the treats, as follows:

  3.8 Several ways to Control the Treats

    Threats                       Description
                                                                  How to control threat
History            Extraneous events occurring at the same        -   Carefully ascertain that
                   time as the treatment may influence                no extraneous events
                   performance with regard to the outcome             occur
                   variable                                       -   Make sure that what
                                                                      happens to one group
                                                                      happens to other(s)
Selection bias     It may be the composition of the group         -   Make groups initially
                   rather than the treatment that accounts            equal-preferably        by
                   for performance with regard to the                 random assignment
                   outcome variable                               -   Pretest to check initial
                                                                      performance of group(s)

Maturation         Improvements between one testing               -   Randomly assign groups
                   occasion and another may result from               to true experiment
                   routine changer that occur as time             -   Rule     out    maturation
                   passes                                             logically
                                                                      (e.g.development-
                                                                      ally implausible)
Instrumentation    Differences on various testing occasions       -   Carefully ascertain that
                   may occur because the data collection              no changes occur in the
                process has somehow changed                    data collection process
                                                           -   If changes do occur, make
                                                               them happen to both
                                                               groups
Statistical     Groups selected on the basis of extreme    -   Don’t select on the basis
regression      score tend to shift toward the mean of         of extreme scores
                the original group when re-tested          -   If you select extreme
                                                               groups,     use     random
                                                               assignment afterwards
Experimental    Differences on subsequent testing          -   Strive to prevent dropouts
mortality       occasions may occur because the            -   Analyze characteristics of
                composition of the group has changed           dropouts
                                                           -   Use a matching strategy
                                                               with subsequent random
                                                               assignment
Pretesting      The experience of taking the pretest may   -   Do not use a pretest
                sensitize subjects to perform better on    -   Use an unobtrusive pretest
                the posttest                               -   Use random assignment to
                                                               true experiment
Instability     Chance fluctuations in score arising       -   Use reliable tests
                from unreliability may cause changes in    -   Use test to significance-
                performance      on    various   testing       after random assignment,
                occasions                                      if possible
Social-         Dynamic of the experimental situation      -   Make the experiment as
psychological   may set up alternative treatment that          natural and unobtrusive
threats         may account for differences                    as possible

Expectancy      Outcomes     may     occur     because     -   Discourage expectancies
effects         experimenter or subjects expected those    -   Foster opposite rather
                outcomes                                       than           supportive
                                                               expectancies
                                  CHAPTER IV

                             RESULT OF THE STUDY


       In this chapter, the writer would like to present the description of the data

obtained. The population of this study was the second grade students of IPS

classes of SMA N-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007. The

sample was chosen by using cluster-sampling technique, so the sample in this

study divided into two class; they are: XI IPS 1 as the experimental class

(treatment with pre-questioning) and XI IPS 2 as the control class (treatment

without pre-questioning), the total number of the sample is 68 students.

       Description in this chapter is divided into three parts, as follows:

1. The first part shows the description of the data, this part has an aim to present

   the students’ reading comprehension scores after receiving the treatment.

2. The second part is test of statistical analysis requirement which involved the

   testing the normality of treatment and test of homogeneity of variances across

   each group, the purpose of this part is to prove the use of ANOVA in testing

   the hypothesis.

3. The last part is result of data analysis that consists of hypothesis testing based

   on the result of the statistical computation of ANOVA.




The following is the explanation for each part:
4.1 Description of the Data

           To describe the comprehensive data gained, the writer firstly presented the

students’ score. There are 68 students which had been signed by codes. Below are

the descriptions of data of students’ reading comprehension scores for

experimental class and control class:


Table 4.1 Data of Students' Reading Comprehension Scores

No            Student's Codes    Gender    Pre-Questioning     Correct WP     Scores WP
     69.            Al             1             1                       8            40
     70.            A2             1             1                      10            50
     71.            A3             1             1                       7            35
     72.            A4             1             1                       7            35
     73.            A5             1             1                       9            45
     74.            A6             1             1                      12            60
     75.            A7             1             1                      12            60
     76.            A8             1             1                       8            40
     77.            A9             1             1                       9            45
     78.           A10             1             1                       9            45
     79.            All            1             1                      10            50
     80.           Al2             2             1                      10            50
     81.           A13             1             1                       9            45
     82.           A14             1             1                      10            50
     83.           Al5             1             1                       6            30
     84.           A16             2             1                       8            40
     85.           A17             2             1                       8            40
     86.           A18             1             1                      11            55
     87.           A19             1             1                       8            40
     88.           A20             1             1                      10            50
     89.           A21             2             1                       9            45
     90.           A22             2             1                       6            30
     91.           A23             2             1                      10            50
     92.           A24             2             1                      11            55
     93.           A25             2             1                      11            55
     94.           A26             2             1                       8            40
     95.           A27             2             1                      10            50
     96.           A28             2             1                       5            25
     97.           A29             2             1                       9            45
   98.          A30            2             1       7   35
   99.          A31            2             1      12   60
   100.         A32            2             1      10   50
   101.         A33            2             1      10   50
   102.         A34            2             1      10   50
   103.         B1             1             2      11   55
   104.         B2             1             2       7   35
   105.         B3             2             2       5   25
   106.         B4             1             2       9   45
   107.         B5             1             2      10   50
   108.         B6             1             2       6   30
   109.         B7             1             2       7   35
   110.         B8             2             2       7   35
   111.         B9             2             2       8   40
   112.         B10            2             2       5   25
   113.         B1l            1             2       7   35
   114.         B12            1             2       8   40
   115.         B13            1             2       8   40
   116.         B14            1             2       4   20
   117.         B15            2             2       5   25
   118.         B16            1             2       4   20
   119.         B17            1             2       5   25
   120.         B18            2             2       4   20
   121.         B19            2             2       5   25
   122.         B20            2             2       4   20
   123.         B21            1             2       8   40
   124.         B22            1             2       8   40
   125.         B23            2             2       9   45
   126.         B24            2             2       8   40
   127.         B25            2             2       7   35
   128.         B26            2             2       6   30
   129.         B27            1             2       6   30
   130.         B28            1             2       8   40
   131.         B29            1             2       8   40
   132.         B30            2             2       7   35
   133.         B31            2             2       5   25
   134.         B32            2             2       5   25
   135.         B33            1             2      10   50
   136.         B34            1             2      10   50


4.2 Test of the Statistical Analysis Requirements
         This part is necessary to be involved since the analysis of the data was

conducted by using parametric statistic. The parametric assumption should be

fulfilled into the test of normality and test of homogeneity.

         The following are the result of test of normality and homogeneity:

4.3.4    Test of Normality and Homogeneity of Treatments (with pre-
         questioning and without pre-questioning)

Table 4.2 Table of normality of treatment with pre-questioning and without
          pre-questioning.

                                                  Tes ts of Norm ality
                                                                                  a
                                                                Kolmogorov-Smirnov            Shapiro-Wilk
                                   Pre-Ques tioning           Statistic  df     Sig.   Statistic    df     Sig.
    Reading Comprehens ion         With Pre-Questioning          .170     34    .014      .953       34    .148
                                   Without Pre-Ques tioning      .156     34    .035      .940       34    .062
      a. Lillief ors Signif icance Correc tion

Based on the tables of tests of normality above, it can be described that:

         From the table 4.2, there are two formulas of normality value,

Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk.

    From the table of Normality of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, the treatment with

     pre-questioning was .014 and without pre-questioning was .035. Then, this

     significant value consulted to qualification of normality of the data and their

     significances value < .05. So, it shows the data was not resulted from the

     normal distribution population.

    In the table of Normality of the Shapiro-Wilk, the treatment with pre-

     questioning was .148 and without pre-questioning was .062. Then, this

     significant value then consulted to qualification of normality of the data and
   their significances > = .05. So, it means the data was resulted from the normal

   distribution population.



Table 4.3 Table of Homogeneity of treatment with pre-questioning and without

           pre-questioning.


                           Tes t of Hom ogeneity of V ar iance

                                                      Levene
                                                      Statistic   df 1     df 2     Sig.
  Reading Comprehens ion   Based on Mean                   .756       1        66   .388
                           Based on Median                 .624       1        66   .433
                           Based on Median and
                                                          .624       1    65.800    .433
                           w ith adjusted df
                           Based on trimmed mean          .805       1        66    .373


        In the table 4.2.2, the homogeneity of variance for the treatment with and

without pre-questioning shows 4 items of test of homogeneity, they are; based on

mean = .388, based on median = .433, based on median and with adjusted df =

.433, based on trimmed mean = .373. Then, this significances value consulted to

qualification of homogeneity of the data. In brief, the significances values of 4

items > = .05, it means that the homogeneity of variance of Treatments in this

study was homogenous.




4.3.5   Test of Normality and Homogeneity of Students’ Gender
Below are the description of normality and homogeneity of variable of gender:

Table 4.4 Table of Normality of Gender


                                           Tes ts of Norm ality
                                                                        a
                                                   Kolmogorov-Smirnov                Shapiro-Wilk
                                   Gender        Statistic  df     Sig.       Statistic    df     Sig.
    Reading Comprehens ion         Female           .133     36    .107          .963       36    .266
                                   Male             .155     32    .050          .936       32    .058
      a. Lillief ors Signif icance Correc tion




Based on the tables of tests of normality above, it can be described that:

         There are two formulas of normality value, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and

Shapiro-Wilk.

    From the table of Normality of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, female was .107

     and male was .050. Then, this significant value consulted to qualification of

     normality of the data and their significances value > = .05. So, it shows the

     data was resulted from the normal distribution population.

    In the table of Normality of the Shapiro-Wilk, female was .266 and without

     pre-questioning was .058. Then, this significant value then consulted to

     qualification of normality of the data and their significances > .05. So, it

     means the data was resulted from the normal distribution population.



Table 4.5 Table of Homogeneity of Gender

                                 T es t o f Ho m o g en eity o f V ar iance

                                                                 Levene
                                                                 Statistic     df 1     df 2     Sig.
    Reading Comprehens ion        Based on Mean                     1.974          1        66   .165
                                  Based on Median                   1.790          1        66   .185
                                  Based on Median and
                                                                     1.790        1    65.955    .185
                                  w ith adjusted df
                                  Based on trimmed mean              1.961        1        66    .166
       In the table 4.5, the homogeneity of variance for the treatment with and

without pre-questioning shows 4 items of test of homogeneity, they are; based on

mean = .165, based on median = .185, based on median and with adjusted df =

.185, based on trimmed mean = .166. Then, this significances value consulted to

qualification of homogeneity of the data. In brief, the significances values of 4

items > = .05, it means that the homogeneity of variance of this study was

homogenous



4.3 Result of the Data Analysis

       In analyzing the data, the writer interpreted the data from the table of two

way of ANOVA. The following table shows the summary result of two way of

ANOVA.


Tabel 4.6 Test of between-subjects effect
                      Tes ts of Be tw e en-Subje cts Effects

   Dependent V ariable: Reading Comprehension
                      Ty pe III Sum
   Sourc e            of Squares        df     Mean Square         F         Sig.
   Correc ted Model      2591.196a        3        863.732        10.768     .000
   Intercept          106396.556          1     106396.556      1326.476     .000
   PQ                    2230.179         1       2230.179        27.804     .000
   Gender                 283.008         1        283.008         3.528     .065
   PQ * Gender            243.809         1        243.809         3.040     .086
   Error                 5133.437        64         80.210
   Total              116125.000         68
   Correc ted Total      7724.632        67
     a. R Squared = .335 (A djus ted R Squared = .304)
       From the table above, it can be found general result that the treatments

with pre-questioning have effect to the students’ reading comprehension,

Students’ Gender have no effect to the students’ reading comprehension and

Treatments*Gender have no effect to the students reading comprehension

achievement. In chapter I of this study, there are two hypotheses, null hypothesis

(Ho) and alternative hypothesis (Ha) that should be proved. The conclusion based

on the significant value is as follows:


4.3.1 Testing hypothesis I

       The hypothesis of this study, states that:

Ha:    There is significant effect of treatment with pre-questioning on the reading

       comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at

       SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.

Ho:    There is no significant effect of treatment with pre-questioning on the

       reading comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS

       classes at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.

       Related to the hypothesis and the summary result of ANOVA in table 4.6,

it can be seen that the F value of Treatments is F = 27,804 with significance value

= .000. Since significance value = .000 < .05, Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted.

So, based on calculation of ANOVA above, it can be said, “There is significant

effect of treatment with pre-questioning on the reading comprehension

achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya

Palangkaraya.”
Table 4.7 Table of Estimates Marginal Means of Treatments (with pre-
           questioning and without pre-questioning)

                                                     Es tim ate s

   Dependent V ariable: Reading Comprehension
                                                                              95% Conf idence Interval
   Pre-Ques tioning                          Mean         Std. Error        Low er Bound Upper Bound
   With Pre-Questioning                     45.441            1.536               42.373         48.510
   Without Pre-Ques tioning                 33.947            1.547               30.858         37.037

         On the table above, mean of treatment with pre-questioning = 45.441 and

mean of treatment without pre-questioning = 33.947. It means the higher mean

value (treatment with pre-questioning) would be better than treatment without pre-

questioning on the students’ reading comprehension. It related with the result of

ANOVA that show the significant effect of pre-questioning on the students’

reading comprehension achievement.

         To compare the group each other, the pairwise comparison for treatments

(with pre-questioning and without pre-questioning) can be presented as follows:



Table 4.8 Table of Pairwise comparisons of Treatments

                                                     Pairw ise Com paris ons

  Dependent Variable: Reading Comprehens ion


                                                                 Mean                                95% Conf idence Interval f or
                                                                                                                         a
                                                              Dif f erence                                   Dif f erence
                                                                                                a
  (I) Pre-Ques tioning          (J) Pre-Questioning                (I-J)    Std. Error      Sig.    Low er Bound Upper Bound
  With Pre-Questioning          Without Pre-Questioning             11.494*     2.180       .000           7.139           15.848
  Without Pre-Questioning       With Pre-Questioning               -11.494*     2.180       .000         -15.848           -7.139
  Based on estimated marginal means
    *. The mean dif f erenc e is signif icant at the .05 level.
     a. A djustment f or multiple comparis ons : Leas t Signif icant Dif f erenc e (equivalent to no adjus tments).
             Based on the table 4.8 Pairwise comparisons of Treatment, it can be

seen that:

1. The mean difference of with pre-questioning and without pre-questioning =

   11.494 and the significant value = .000. It means treatment with pre-

   questioning and without pre-questioning is significantly different

2. The mean difference of without pre-questioning and with pre-questioning = -

   11.494 and the significant value = .000. It means treatment without pre-

   questioning and with pre-questioning is significantly different


       Below is the profile plot of treatments (with pre-questioning and without

pre-questioning) on the reading comprehension:




Figure 4.1 Profile of Plot of Treatments
4.3.2 Testing hypothesis II

The hypotheses of this study, states that:

Ha:    There is significant effect of the student’s gender on the reading

       comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes of

       SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya

Ho:    There is no significant effect of the student’s gender on the reading

       comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes of

       SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya

       Related to the hypothesis and the summary result of ANOVA in table 4.6,

it can be seen that the F value of Gender is F = 3.528 with significance value =
.065. Since significance value = .065 < .05, Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted. So,

based on calculation of ANOVA above, it can be said, “There is no significant

effect of the student’s gender of treatment with pre-questioning and without pre-

questioning on the reading comprehension achievement of the second grade

students of IPS classes of SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya”


Table 4.9 Table of Estimates Marginal Means of Gender
                                Es tim ate s

   Dependent V ariable: Reading Comprehension
                                           95% Conf idence Interval
   Gender       Mean      Std. Error     Low er Bound Upper Bound
   Female      41.741         1.495            38.755         44.728
   Male        37.647         1.586            34.478         40.816


       To compare the group each other, the pairwise comparison for Gender can

be presented as follows:

Table 4.10 Table of Pairwise comparisons of Students’ Gender

                                    Pairw ise Com parisons

  Dependent Variable: Reading Comprehension


                                 Mean                               95% Conf idence Interval f or
                                                                                         a
                              Dif f erence                                   Dif f erence
                                                               a
  (I) Gender   (J) Gender          (I-J)      Std. Error   Sig.    Low er Bound Upper Bound
  Female       Male                   4.094       2.180    .065            -.260           8.449
  Male         Female                -4.094       2.180    .065           -8.449            .260
  Based on estimated marginal means
    a. A djustment f or multiple comparisons: Least Signif icant Dif ferenc e (equiv alent to no
       adjustments).
             Based on the table 4.10 Pairwise comparisons of Treatment, it can be

seen that:

1. The mean difference of female and male = 4.094 and the significant value =

   .065. It means female and male is not significantly different

2. The mean difference of male and female = -4.094 and the significant value =

   .065. It means male and female is not significantly different

       Below is the profile plot of treatments (with pre-questioning and without

pre-questioning) on the students’ reading comprehension achievement:

Figure 4.2 Profile of Plot of Students’ Gender




4.3.3 Testing hypothesis III
The hypotheses of this study, states that:

Ha:    There is significant effect of treatments with pre-questioning, without pre-

       questioning and student’s gender on the reading comprehension

       achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan

       Raya Palangkaraya

Ho:    There is no significant effect of treatments with pre-questioning, without

       pre-questioning and student’s gender on the reading comprehension

       achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan

       Raya Palangkaraya

       Related to the hypothesis and the summary result of ANOVA in table 4.6,

it can be seen that the F value of Treatments*Gender is F = 3.040 with

significance value = .086. Since significance value = .086 < .05, Ha is rejected

and Ho is accepted. So, based on calculation of ANOVA above, it can be said,

“There is no significant effect of treatments with pre-questioning, without pre-

questioning and student’s gender on the reading comprehension achievement of

the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya”

Table 4.11 Table of Estimates Marginal Means of Treatments*Gender

                              3. Pr e-Ques tioning * Gender

  Dependent V ariable: Reading Comprehension
                                                              95% Conf idence Interval
  Pre-Ques tioning           Gender    Mean    Std. Error   Low er Bound Upper Bound
  With Pre-Questioning       Female   45.588       2.172          41.249         49.928
                             Male     45.294       2.172          40.955         49.633
  Without Pre-Ques tioning   Female   37.895       2.055          33.790         41.999
                             Male     30.000       2.312          25.380         34.620
Figure 4.3     Profile plot of estimated marginal means of reading
             comprehension
                                   CHAPTER V

              DISSCUSSION, CONCLUSION, AND SUGGESTION



       In this chapter, there are three parts that the writer wants to present, they

are: discussion, conclusion and suggestion.

5.1 Discussion

       This study has objective to find out the effect of treatment (with pre-

questioning, without pre-questioning) and students gender on the students’

reading comprehension achievement. Especially, for the second grade students of

IPS classes of SMA N-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007.

So it is necessary to discuss and interpret of the result of the study. From the result

of the data in this study, table of ANOVA can be used to test the hypothesis stated

in the chapter I. The result of testing hypothesis is presented below:



A. Testing of hypothesis of treatment with pre-questioning and without pre-
   questioning (Testing Hipotesis I)

       Based on the hypothesis testing in chapter IV, significance value of

Treatments = .000 or can be said that sig. = .000 <  = .05, it means that Ho is

rejected and Ha is accepted. This result gives description that treatment with pre-

questioning and without pre-questioning has significant effect on the students’

reading comprehension. In brief, pre-questioning has significant effect on the

students’ reading comprehension achievement. It is in line with the statement

stated by Harmer (1985:153):
-    Pre-questioning before reading to confirm expectations

           The use of pre-questioning as a tool for placing great emphasis on the

     lead-in stage (where students are encouraged to become interested in the

     subject matter of the text), encourages students to predict the content of the

     text, and gives them an interesting and motivating purpose for reading.

-    Pre-questioning before reading for general comprehension

     In this case pre-questioning used to build up the students’ prior knowledge

           Related to this study, two kinds of pre-questioning above can make the

students easily to predict and delimit the topic that is discussed or inform in the

text after they read and answer the pre-questioning. In the instruments, the writer

used pre-questioning with Indonesian version, thus, the students can predict easily

what will be discussed on the text, after they read and answer the pre-questioning.




B. Testing of hypothesis of Gender (Testing Hipotesis II)
           Based on the hypothesis testing in Chapter IV, There is no significant effect of the student’s gender on the
reading comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes of SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.
Because, from the summary result of ANOVA in table 4.6, it can be seen that the F value of Gender is F = 3.528 with
significance value = .065. Since significance value = .065 < .05 Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted.
            But it is possible, if the writer adding more samples for this research, the probability result “there is significant
effect of gender on the students’ reading comprehension achievement” will be happening. So, the writer suggest for next
researchers that have the same topic with this study to use the bigger sample, in order to ensure the effect of Gender on the
students’ reading comprehension in this study.




C. Testing of hypothesis of Treatments*Gender (Testing Hipotesis III)

           Based on the result of Testing Hipotesis III in Chapter IV, it can be

conclude “There is no significant effect of treatments with pre-questioning,
without pre-questioning and student’s gender on the reading comprehension

achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at SMAN-2 Jekan Raya

Palangkaraya”. It is related to the result of ANOVA in table 4.6, the F value of

Treatments*Gender is F = 3.040 with significance value = .086. Since

significance value = .086 < .05, Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted.



         So, based on the result of testing hipotesis above it can conclude that:

1. Pre-questioning has significant effect on the students’ reading comprehension

   achievement

2. There is no significant effect in the student’s gender of treatments on the

   students’ reading comprehension achievement

3. There is no significant effect of treatments and student’s gender on the

   students’ reading comprehension achievement.

       Furthermore, based on the delimitation of this study in Chapter one, the

writer only focuses on finding the effect of treatments, the effects of students’

gender in treatments and students’ gender and treatment on the students’ reading

comprehension achievement. Thus, that is why the result of this study cannot be

generalized to the other kind of subject.

       In fact, the writer in this study used cluster-sampling technique to choose

sample from the population, that is why the result of this study only can be

generalized to the second grade students of IPS classes of SMA Negeri 2 Jekan

Raya Palangka Raya, and not to the other population.
       So, based on the discussion above it is hoped that for the next time there

will be a such kind of this research conducted by the other researchers by using

the bigger population, the better instrument, and many more variables included in

order to have more valid and reliable result.



5.2 Conclusion

       Based on the result of this study, the writer can answer the problem of the

study that has been stated in Chapter I, they are as follows:

   What is the effect of treatment with pre-questioning on the Reading

    Comprehension Achievement of the Second Grade Students of IPS classes at

    SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in Academic year 2006/2007?

   What is the effect of the student’s gender with treatments on the reading

    comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at

    SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007?

   What is the effect of treatments and student’s gender on the reading

    comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at

    SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya in academic year 2006/2007?

From the result of data analysis, it can be answered that:

   There is significant effect of treatment with pre-questioning on the reading

    comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at

    SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya.
   There is no significant effect of the student’s gender with treatments on the

    reading comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS

    classes of SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya

   There is no significant effect of treatments and student’s gender on the reading

    comprehension achievement of the second grade students of IPS classes at

    SMAN-2 Jekan Raya Palangkaraya



       There are some intervening variables that can influence the result of this

study. They are as follow:

   Students’ prior knowledge

   Learning style of the students

   Background education of the teacher

   Social economic of the students




5.3 Suggestion

       Considering the result of this study, the writer would like to give some

suggestions. They are as follows:

1. It is important for the teacher to improve the students’ comprehension in

    reading text by giving any assignment or home work, especially the question

    in form of main idea and supporting detail, which is regarded more difficult

    for the students.
2. It hoped that the teacher teach the reading comprehension from the easiest to

   the most difficult one.

3. The teacher should build a favorable atmosphere at times of teaching-learning

   process conducted, because a conductive condition in teaching would become

   one access to carry the success of material to be taught.

4. It is necessary to another researcher conduct a further research, in order to

   validate the result of this study.

       Finally, the writer considers that this study still need validation from the

next researcher that has the same topic with this study.
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