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First Semester Exam Review Topics – Life Characteristics NOT ALIVE! ALIVE! Biology is all about being Alive! Know what that means! O – H – M – R – G&D – E&A First Semester Exam Review Topics – Pyramids All about Energy! Who has the energy? Where from? How? How much flows “upwards” between the levels? Can you Name the Levels? What is wrong with this Diagram? First Semester Exam Review Topics – Food Webs What are these Illustrations Called? Know the energy levels, -vores, -trophs, niche, etc… What is the Spider? Fox?! Rabbit? What would happen if the area was sprayed the area and the Herbivorous Why is the Toad the most fragile animal here? Insects were wiped out? First Semester Exam Review Topics - Symbiosis One Consumes the other! Both Benefit! One Benefits without One Benefits at affecting the the expense of other! the other! First Semester Exam Review Topics – Limiting Factors Limiting Factors and Seasons that support/control the Producers. What do the Producers require to Thrive?! First Semester Exam Review Topics – Population Growth Balance Small populations are in danger because: (?) First Semester Exam Review Topics – Human Population Remember! Growth Rate (GR) = Birth Rate (BR) – Death Rate (DR) Age Structure Graph Shows the pattern of growth of a population. How many offspring = How fast the Population will grow! Developing Slow Growing Developed Country Country = Fast Developed = Stable Zero Growing Pop. Country. Growth. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Carbon Cycle ?! Photosynthesis collects CO2 vs. Cellular Respiration releases CO2 in rough Balance to maintain atmospheric levels. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Global Warming Rapid and Recent Increase in the average temperature of the Earth following the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Linked to the release of CO2 into the atmosphere which absorbs radiation and traps heat. Excess CO2 results from Combustion of fossil fuels. All related to the Greenhouse Effect. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Nitrogen Cycle Why is Nitrogen essential to all living things? What form does that Nitrogen need to be in to become available to the Food Web? What important plants are especially important in the Nitrogen Cycle and what do they have? First Semester Exam Review Topics – Bioaccumulation Pollution affects Who is affected? organisms Where is the when it become Toxic concentrated Chemical enough to Stored? damage them. How did the environment Producers collect become a little of the exposed? toxic chemicals, Why did the but the higher Producers not organisms in die? the Food Web end up with toxic levels. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Dead Zones Ecosystems SHOULD be in rough Balance! If there is an over-abundance of Nutrient Run-off from farmlands, the algae “Bloom” and this leads to loss of Oxygen – Dead Zones! Nutrients cause too much Algal Growth, leaving too much dead algae! Decomposers then Overgrow and use the Oxygen!! Red Tide does Something Else! Toxic! First Semester Exam Review Topics – Organic Compounds Living Things are mostly composed of Organic Compounds. Organic mean Based on CARBON!! Carbon is the BFF Typically, other that holds all of the elements involved various atoms in Organic together. Molecules include Bonds in three H,N, and O = dimensions and can 96+% of all living form highly matter! complex, large molecules. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Organic Compounds There are four (4) basic types of Organic Compounds. CARBOHYDRATES are LIPIDS are Fats and Sugars and are universal are good for energy energy sources! storage! Photosynthesis!! Triglyceride with Monosaccharides such as three Fatty Acids. Glucose = Blood Sugar! P Benedict’s Test turns Orange Phospholipid found in Membranes. Polysaccharides that store glucose and thus energy. Starch stores energy in Plants – Iodine Lipids are Non-Polar and do not test = Black. dissolve in Water = Insoluble. Cellulose in Cell Walls of Plants. Brown Paper Bag Test!! Glycogen stores energy in Animals. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Enzyme First Semester Exam Review Topics – Plasma Membrane ? Receptor for ? Information and Control of the Cell Phospholipid Bilayer Barrier. ? Selective Permeability and Homeostasis! First Semester Exam Review Topics - Prokaryotes How do you KNOW that it is a “Pro” karyote? First Semester Exam Review Topics - Eukaryotes Must Know! Nucleus, Plasma Membrane, Also Must Know! Cell Wall, Vacuole, Mitochondrion, Food Vacuole, Ribosome Chloroplast and what THEY do! and what they do! First Semester Exam Review Topics – Cell Organization Cell Cell Organize into Cell Cell Cell Cell TISSUES Cell Cell Cell Organize into Epithelial Blood Muscular ORGANS Nervous Connective ORGANISM ORGAN SYSTEM Organize into ORGAN ORGAN ORGAN ORGAN SYSTEM First Semester Exam Review Topics - Osmosis Movement of Water to maintain Equilibrium. Uncontrolled. Low Higher concentration concentration of solutes = lots of solutes = less of water! water! 0% i.e., 10% First Semester Exam Review Topics – Membrane Transport Active Passive Transport Transport always always forces flows High from ↓ Low Low ↓ High “with” the conc. Need ATP gradient. to move “against” ATP! the conc. gradient. First Semester Exam Review Topics - Photosynthesis Plants Require CO2 and H2O!!! They then use those Reactants to produce Glucose!! Stomata Control Everything since they determine TRANSPIRATION and delivery of the Reactants!! First Semester Exam Review Topics – Cellular Respiration Fermentation If O2 present = in cytoplasm Aerobic! If O2 NOT present = Anaerobic! 2 ATP 36-38 ATP! First Semester Exam Review Topics – ATP Adenosine Triphosphate. THE Basic Energy Carrying Molecule of Cells. Can pass energy on to other molecules to drive Metabolism via the third Phosphate Group. Cycles back and forth with ADP. NH2 ATP! Adenine N P P P Respiration ADP Metabolism Universal Energy Source means that Enzymes and various Chemical Reactions can become specialized to use THIS molecule. Little Variation = Same Shapes! First Semester Exam Review Topics – Fermentation Fermentation is Anaerobic!! Useful Process for many different Foods. All are sealed during their Production! Lactic Acid Fermentation leaves a sour taste as the Alcoholic pH changes – Fermentation Goes Down!! produces CO2 = Bubbly!! Psst!! CO2! Fluffy with CO2 holes!! Remember! What happens to Muscle as a result of Lactic Acid Fermentation? First Semester Exam Review Topics – DNA Structure DeoxyriboNucleic Bases represent Acid the information THE Genetic and always form Material carries Complementary Information of the Base Pairs. Organism. A T If DNA Strand G C GT A Stable as a Double T A T T C G C A C G T A A C G C Other Strand isC G Helix protecting A T A A G C G T G C A T T G C A T Complementary the information Base Pairs! on the Inside. Building Blocks are Nucleotides. This Illustration shows the copying of DNA. What is this process called and what is the final product? Why is it “Semi-Conservative”? First Semester Exam Review Topics – RNA How is RNA different from DNA: Structurally? Bases? Function? Location? What is this Process called? What is the Original Sequence Called? If DNA Strand G C T A T T C G C A C G T A A C G T A RNA Strand is C G A U A A G C G U G C A U U G C A U First Semester Exam Review Topics – Protein Synthesis DNA Transcription RNA Translation Protein First Semester Exam Review Topics - Translation GGAATGCCAGCGAAAAATGCCCATTAA CCTTACGGTCGCTTTTTACGGGTAATT GGAAUGCCAGCGAAAAAUGCCCAUUAA Met Pro Ala Lys Asn Ala His STOP NOW – Have an Amino Acid Chain. mRNA Genetic Code What has to happen to get a functional Protein? First Semester Exam Review Topics - Mutation CAG ↓ Q = Glu CAA ↓ Q = Glu Same = Silent AAG ↓ K = Lys Problem! TAG ↓ STOP Disaster! Delete AG ↓ Only 2?! Usually caused during Replication Disaster! (=Error) OR as a result of exposure to damaging Mutagens (=radiation, Usually caused during chemicals, etc…). Random and Meiosis! Random! Constant. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Cell Cycle The Production of new cells should be tightly controlled! Daughter Cells are only made when there is space during Growth and Healing. Cells have to “shut-down” DNA as Chromosomes! Most Cells Do Not Divide as they are specialized to function. G0 cells are “working” and typically cannot do Mitosis. DNA is Chromatin and in Use! In Mitosis, all of the Daughter Cells are Genetically Identical (barring Mutation), but since they “Express” different genes in different ways, they can “Differentiate” into very different cellis: e.g., Muscle and Nerve Cells that are very active (lots of Mitochondria!), or Connective Tissue Cells, etc… First Semester Exam Review Topics – Cancer The Cell Cycle is controlled by Genes just like everything else! If those genes are mutated, then the Cell Cycle will be affected. Those Daughter Cells SHOULD stop growing when they contact each other (Contact Inhibition!) and then shift to G0 and get to Work!. IF the Cell Cycle is disrupted (e.g., by mutated Oncogenes), this process cannot stop when it SHOULD! Cancer is caused by Mutation. Major causes include UV Radiation (Ozone is Important!!), Smoking (Don’t do it!), Viruses (new vaccines can prevent!), and Replication Errors (No Fix There). First Semester Exam Review Topics – Cell Division/Mitosis Controlled growth. UNControlled growth. First Semester Exam Review Topics – Cell Division/Mitosis Asexual Identical Clone Daughter Cells Growth/Dev. Do not need to know the four Phases, but need to be able to recognize the parts and put the phases in order.
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