Ch 14. Psychological Disorders & Ch. 15 Psychological Therapies by CP6oI6v


									   The stress associated with everyday life is
    convincingly portrayed by Michael Douglas in
    Falling Down (1993), while the stress of the
    business world is apparent in films such as
    Jerry Maguire (1996), Glengarry Glen Rose
    (1992), and Death of a Salesman (1951/1985).
   In the emotionally intense Monster’s Ball
    (2001), Hank (Billy Bob Thornton) and Leticia
    (Academy Award winner Halle Berry) are two
    lost, self-hating people who become even more
    lonely and raw after each loses an only child
     Both parents had been physically and
      verbally abusive to their sons as they
      attempted to work through their inner
      turmoil and struggles.
   Bipolar disorder occurs less frequently than
    depressive disorders but affects approximately
    .5 to 1 percent of the population.
   Unlike depression, bipolar disorders occur
    equally often among males and females.
   Like most mental disorders, the prevalence is
    greater in the lower socioeconomic groups, in
    part because these illnesses interfere with a
    person’s ability to work and in part because the
    cost of the illnesses quickly depletes the
    economic resources of all but the very wealthy.
   Suicide is the eighth most frequent cause of
    death throughout the world, but suicide rates
    vary widely among different countries.
   Generally, the suicide rate is low in the less
    prosperous countries and highest in the more
    affluent ones, such as Germany, Switzerland,
    and Sweden.
   However, the suicide rate is also high in all the
    Eastern European nations. The suicide rates in
    the United States and Canada are in the middle
   Glenn Close’s character in Fatal Attraction
    (1987), offers one of the best available depiction
    of psychopathology.
   The performance by Close dramatically illustrates
    many characteristics of patients with a borderline
    personality disorder: anger, impulsivity, emotional
    lability, fear of rejection and abandonment,
    inappropriate behavior, vacillation between adulation
    and disgust, and self-mutilation.
   Although people with Borderline Personality can be
    dangerous to others as displayed dramatically in Fatal
    Attraction, this is not always the case as they are
    probably more likely to be dangerous to themselves.
   If the individual has some strong Antisocial Personality
    characteristics as well (which Close’s character does),
    the risk of danger to others rises.
   Some personality disorders are more common
    in men (e.g., antisocial and narcissistic
    personality disorders). Others are found more
    often in women (e.g., borderline, histrionic, and
    dependent personality disorders).
   Distrust and suspiciousness about the motives
    of others
   Humphrey Bogart in The Caine Mutiny and
    The Treasure of the Sierra Madre
   Disregard for and violation of the rights of
       Malcolm McDowell in A Clockwork Orange
   Instability in emotions and interpersonal
    relationships, inadequate self-image, fear of
    abandonment, and marked impulsively
       Glenn Close in Fatal Attraction
   Grandiosity, a need for admiration, and lack of
    empathy for the problems and needs of others
       Gloria Swanson in Sunset Boulevard
   Excessive emotionality and attention seeking
       Vivien Leigh in A Streetcar Named Desire
   Submissive and clinging behavior and fears of
       Bill Murray in What About Bob?
   Humphrey Bogart’s role as Captain Queeg in
    The Caine Mutiny (1954) is a wonderful
    illustration of the paranoid personality.
       Queeg becomes preoccupied with trivial
        misdemeanors by sailors while he ignores the
        important parts of his job – such as maintaining the
        morale of his men.
   Billy Wilder’s classic film The Lost Weekend
    (1945) is a powerful portrayal of alcoholism
       “Ones too many and a hundred’s not enough.” - A
        bartender chides Don Birnam in Billy Wilder’s The
        Lost Weekend
    In clinical settings, the diagnosis often is based
     on the “Three Cs” of alcoholism:
    1.   Documentation of Compulsive use,
    2.   Loss of Control over alcohol consumption, and
    3.   Continued use in spite of adverse consequences.
   Is defined in terms of a pattern of use
    characterized by recurrent adverse
    consequences related to the use of the
    substance. The diagnosis requires evidence if
    impairment as evidenced by one of the four
    following criteria:
   Failure to meet role obligations
   Recurrent use in situations, such as driving, in
    which clear hazards are present
   Recurrent legal problems, and
   Continued use, despite social or interpersonal
    problems related to the substance
   A Beautiful Mind (2001) depicts the horrors,
    traumas, and suffering of schizophrenia.
   It goes beyond this to show the challenges
    associated with treatment and rehabilitation for
    a severe mental illness.
   Following the active phase of the illness, the
    following must be present in order to meet
    diagnostic criteria: marked social isolation or
    withdrawal, and marked impairment of role
   The Paranoid Type is characterized by
    systematized delusions or frequent
    hallucinations related to a single theme (e.g.,
    hearing denigrating voices).
   These individuals are often extremely anxious,
    angry, or argumentative, and they may become
   The Disorganized Type presents with a picture
    of incoherent speech and disorganized
    behavior. These patients rapidly shift from one
    idea to another
   The most salient symptom of the Catatonic
    Type is psychomotor disturbance.
   Schizophrenia of Residual Type is a category
    for persons who do not exhibit any of the
    symptoms of the active phase (hallucinations,
    delusions, etc.) but do have other symptoms
    such as social withdrawal or eccentric behavior
    (APA, 1994).
   The Undifferentiated Type is characterized by
    psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations,
    etc.) but lacks the salient characteristics of the
    other types
   Often the person committing the violent act in
    movies is mentally ill; some estimates note as
    many as 70% of movie characters with mental
    illness are dangerous.
   Some movies with these dreary though
    memorable settings include The Snake Pit
    (1948), One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest
    (1975), Sling Blade ( 1996), Twelve Monkeys
    (1995), Don Juan Demarco (1994), A Beautiful
    Mind (2001), and Analyze That (2002).
   One important difference between the Snake
    Pit is truly mentally ill, whereas Randle Patrick
    McMurphy is not.
   Chattahoochee (1998) also describes the plight
    of those who disagree with institutional
    authority and power, and Nuts (1987) portrays
    a woman’s struggle to avoid being committed
    to an institution.

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