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Written Corrective Feedback: by 8uY01S7r


									How Should We Respond to Student Writing?
First Things First:
Good Writing is Always a Process
 Gathering ideas
 Planning/Outlining
 Drafting
 Seeking advice from others
 Revising for content
 Revising for language
Written Corrective Feedback:
What Is It?
   Includes written teacher comments on the
     Format
     Organization/structure of writing
     Content
     Advice/encouragement for future
     Language (grammar, word choice, spelling,
   But also includes written student
     Peer review worksheets
Sample Correction Symbols
 wf – word form
 wc – word choice
 vt – verb tense
 p – punctuation/capitalization
 wo – word order
 sp - spelling
Problems with Error Correction
   Research tends to show that it does not
    work (possibly because it is hard to
   Some have suggested that it is harmful.
   Corrected students tend to avoid rather
    than address.
   Students can rely too much on their
    professor for correction.
   Long-term benefits are not always visible in
    the classroom setting.
   Still, students expect it.
When Not to Use Error Correction
 Student journals
 Freewriting activities
 Any single-draft assignment
 Any assignment designed to develop
  fluency over accuracy
Problems with Comments on
Content and Organization
   If it is vague, it can be confusing to
   There is no guarantee that students will
    read it.
   It is counterproductive if comments are
    mostly negative.
   It is less effective when used without one-
    on-one conferences.
   Despite this, such comments have proven
    more effective than error correction.
Based on a three-draft written assignment
Before the First Draft
 Students read authentic texts related to
  their topic.
 Students engage in group work, pair work
  and classroom discussion to explore their
 Students choose their own topic (possibly
  from a limited set provided by teacher).
 Students plan the various sections of their
  assignment and compare with classmates.
First Draft
 Students divide into pairs and read each
  other’s essays.
 Students fill out a teacher-prepared
  worksheet designed to help them give
  constructive advice to their peers.
 The teacher collects all essays and
  provides written feedback on
  content/organization only.
Sample Peer Review Questions
1.   Write one thing you liked about your
     partner’s essay. What is especially
     good about it?
2.   What is your opinion of your partner’s
     arguments? Are they generally good?
     Did your partner use examples from our
     readings? Explain.
3.   Write two or three things your partner
     can do to improve her essay. Be
Second Draft
 Students conference with teacher to
  discuss comments (no more than 3-5
  minutes each).
 Students use the comments from their
  peers and their teacher to make
  improvements to their essay.
 Students submit all drafts together.
 The teacher provides written feedback on
  language errors only (assuming content
  and organization have been addressed).
Third Draft
 Students use teacher comments to
  make improvements to their essay.
 Students submit all drafts together.
 Teacher writes minimal comments, often
  little more than a grade.
     Students rarely read comments when they
     feel their work is done.
Thank You!
Badger, R., and G. White. 2000. A process genre approach to
   teaching writing. ELT Journal 54 (2): 153–60.
Bartels, N. 2003. Written peer response in L2 writing. English
   Teaching Forum 41 (1): 34–37
Mendonça, C. O., and K. E. Johnson. 1994. Peer review
   negotiations: Revision activities in ESL writing instruction.
   TESOL Quarterly 28 (4): 745–69.
Truscott, J. 2007. The effect of error correction on learners’
   ability to write accurately. Journal of Second Language
   Writing 16 (4): 255–72.
Williams, Jason Gordon. 2003 .Providing feedback on ESL
   students’ written assignments. The Internet TESL Journal
   Vol. IX, No. 10.,

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