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Poetry An Introduction Mrs by rQVXV8Q


 An Introduction
      Mrs. Yoder’s
 Freshman Language Arts
                        Figurative Language
Term                Definition                                 Example

Simile              A comparison of two unrelated nouns,       The man was as big as a bear
                    using like or as.

Metaphor            A comparison of two unrelated nouns        By the end of the day I am a wet dish rag.
                    using the to be verb. (is, am was, were)

Extended Metaphor   The representation of an abstract idea,    The road in “The road not Taken”
                    using a concrete object. Carries through
                    An entire work.
Personification     Applying human characteristics to non      My car loves me.
                    human items,

Onomatopoeia        Words that sound like the sound they       Boom, buzz, whirr, creak, slap, snap, crackle, pop
                    make (words that sound like what they
Hyperbole           Extreme Exaggeration                       It’s a thousand degrees in here!

Imagery             Words that cause you to see a picture in   Host of Golden Daffodils
                    your mind.                                 A crystal blue lake
                      Figurative Language
Term             Definition                                  Example
Alliteration     Repeated beginning sounds of words          Four fat frogs frolicked in the first light.
                 (primarily consonants)
Assonance        Repeated middle sounds of words             The twitchy witch will miss the boat.

Rhyme            Repeated ending sounds of words             I wish for fish to go on my dish

Idiom            A saying that cannot be directly            “Don’t have a cow!”
                 translated, Culture specific                “Let’s paint the town red”

Apostrophe       Speaking to an inanimate object, or to a    Screaming at your computer
                 person who is not present                   Talking to someone you miss even when they aren’t there

Understatement   Purposely down playing an event in          When you are soaking wet and you say, “I’m a little
                 order to emphasize it.                      damp.” In order to point out how wet you are.

Irony            Stating the opposite of what is actually    The whole town is attending Juliet’s funeral, but she is not
                 occurring.                                  really dead.

Paradox          Co-existence of two things that in nature   Darkness and Light
                 would cancel out each other                 Fire and Ice
             Rhyme Scheme
 You find the rhyme scheme of a poem by
 marking the last word in each line with a
 letter. Letters of words that rhyme are the
 same. Start with A. Every line that rhymes
 with that line is also an A. The first line that
 does not rhyme with A is a B. Every line
 that rhymes with that word is also B. The
 next line that does not rhyme with the A’s
 or the B’s is C and so on…
             Rhyme Scheme
Roses are Red      A
Violets are Blue   B
Sugar is Sweet     C
And so are you     B
       Rhyme Scheme
  It's all I have to bring to – day A
     This, and my heart beside,        B
This, and my heart and all the fields, C
     And all the meadows wide.         B
 Be sure you count, should I forget, D
   Some one the sum could tell, E
This, and my heart, and all the bees F
 Which in the clover dwell.          E Emily Dickenson
   Iamb – One unstressed and one stressed
    syllable in combination

            a      wall
   Iambic Pentameter – A line of poetry with five
    iambs in it

       When I / do COUNT / the CLOCK / that TELLS / the TIME

 Iambic Tetrameter – A line of poetry with
 four iambs in it.

     They dropped / like flakes /, they dropped /
      like stars

 Iambic Trimeter - A line of poetry with
 three iambs in it

     Like pe / tals from / a rose
Combining one meter with
 another creates a rhythm in
 the poetry – Example of
 Iambic tetrameter mixed with
 Iambic trimeter:
They dropped like flakes, they dropped like stars,
             Like petals from a rose,
        When suddenly across the June
            A wind with fingers goes.

      They perished in the seamless grass,
           No eye could find the place;
         But God on his repealless list
            Can summon every face.
                                          Emily Dickenson

Quatrain – four line stanzas of any kind, rhymed,
  metered, or otherwise. There are many variations of the
  quatrain. Some of the more popular as passed through
  tradition are:

   Alternating - ABAB
   Envelope - ABBA
   The sense of danger must not disappear:

  The way is certainly both short and steep,

       However gradual it looks from here;

   Look if you like, but you will have to leap.

W.H. Auden
               Free Verse

Free   Verse – Poetry that is based on
 the irregular rhythmic CADENCE or the
 recurrence, with variations, of phrases,
 images, and syntactical patterns rather
 than the conventional use of METER.
 RHYME may or may not be present in free
 verse, but when it is, it is used with great
Running through a field of clover,
Stop to pick a daffodil
I play he loves me, loves me not,
The daffy lies, it says
    he does not love me!
Well, what use a daffy
When Jimmy gives me roses?
-- Flora Launa
                    Couplet / Ode

 Couplet       – two lines of poetry that
     For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings
     That then I scorn to change my state with kings

 Ode     - An ode is a poem that is written for an
 occasion or on a particular subject. They are
 usually dignified and more serious as a form
 than other forms of poetry
      Excerpt from an Ode
         Hail to thee blithe spirit
            Bird thou never wert
       That from heaven or near it
           Pourest thou full heart
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art

                        Excerpt - Shelley
 Limerick   – is a five-line poem written with one
 couplet and one triplet. If a couplet is a two-lines
 rhymed, then a triplet would be a three-lines
 rhymed. Limericks all have the same distinct

     There once was a woman named Meg
       Who accidentally broke her leg
           She slipped on the ice
            Not once, but thrice
         Take no pity on her, I beg

Haiku      – Haiku is a poetic form from the Japanese
 culture. Haiku combines form, content, and language in
 a meaningful, yet compact form. These poems are
 spare, using no extra words. Three lines containing 17
 syllables, 5 in line 1, 7 in line 2, and 5 in line 3.
       The red blossom bends
  and drips its dew to the ground.
         Like a tear it falls
          Sonnet – Italian
Sonnet  (Italian) – A fourteen line
 poem broken down into two verses,
 one of eight lines, and one of six
  Eight line section abbaabba
  Six line section cdecde, cdccdc,

   or cdedce
                   Italian Sonnet
A pure – white doe in an emerald glade
Appeared to me, with two antlers of gold
Between two streams, under a laurel’s shade
At sunrise, in the season’s bitter cold
Her sight was so suavely merciless
That I left work to follow her at leisure
Like the miser who looking for his treasure
Sweetens with that delight his bitterness

Around her lovely neck “Do not touch me”
Was written with topaz and diamond stone,
“My Caesar’s will has been to make me free”
Already toward noon had climbed the sun,
My weary eyes were not sated to see
When I fell in the stream and she was gone    Petrarch
            Sonnet – English
Sonnet  (English) – A fourteen line
 poem broken down into three four
 line sections (quatrains) and one
 two line section (couplet)
    Quatrain 1abab
    Quatrain 2cdcd
    Quatrain 3efef
    Couplet gg
                  English Sonnet
Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove,

O, no! It is an ever – fixed mark
That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken.

Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle’s compass come;
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.

  If this be error, and upon me proved,
  I never writ, nor no man ever loved           Shakespeare

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