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CHAPTER 4 Evolution and Biodiversity

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CHAPTER 4 Evolution and Biodiversity Powered By Docstoc
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Michelle Moscow and Shannon Dooley
Chapter 1 & 2 Multiple Choice Questions

CORRECT ANSWER IN RED

1. All of the following are causes of environmental problems EXCEPT

a. Population growth
b. Unsustainable resource use
c. Poverty
d. Environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices
e. Managing and simplifying nature with too little knowledge about how it works

2. ________ is the sum total of all living and nonliving things that affect any living organism.

a. Environmental sustainability
b. Ecology
c. Environmental science
d. Environment
e. Environmental

3. Which is not a natural resource?

a. Soil
b. Water
c. Air
d. Fertilizer
e. Land

4. Which is NOT a basic component of the earth’s natural sustainability?

a. Reliance on solar energy
b. Cropping in masses
c. Biodiversity
d. Population Control
e. Nutrient Recycling

5. Which is NOT a worldview?

a. Frontier environmental worldview
b. Stewardship worldview
c. Environmentalism worldview
d. Environmental wisdom worldview
e. Planetary management worldview

6. Melting aluminum and feeding it back into an economics system to make new aluminum products is an example of …
a. Input
b. Positive feedback loop
c. Throughput
d. Negative feedback loop
e. Output

7. Which of the following is not a nondegradable pollutant?

a. Arsenic
b. Thallium
c. Hydrogen
d. Mercury
e. Lead

8. When energy changes from one form to another, some of the useful energy is always degraded to lower quality, more dispersed, less
useful energy. This is the …

a. First law of thermodynamics
b. Second law of thermodynamics
c. Third law of thermodynamics
d. Law of conservation of energy
e. Low-quality energy law
                                                                                       2

9. Which is not a macromolecule?

a. Complex carbohydrates
b. Proteins
c. Nucleic acid
d. Simple carbohydrates
e. Lipids

10. The type of results that have not been widely accepted or tested:

a. Frontier science
b. Secondary science
c. Consensus science
d. Junk science
e. Sound science

Lauren Mancuso & Chelsea Wortham
Ch. 1 & 2 Multiple choice Questions

     1.    The rule of 70 is a easy way to estimate what?
                a.     Carrying capacity
                b.     Per capita income
                c.     Doubling time Correct Answer
                d.     GDP
                e.     GNP

     2.    Africa and Latin America are examples of what kind of countries?
                 a.   Developing Correct Answer
                 b.   Developed
                 c.   Non Existent
                 d.   Non-Developed
                 e.   None of the Above

     3.    The world’s population increases at what amount per year?
                a.    10.4
                b.    1.23 Correct Answer
                c.    1.00
                d.    5.02
                e.    10.57

     4.    What percent of the world’s population lives in developing countries?
                a.   59%
                b.   80% Correct Answer
                c.   12%
                d.   83%
                e.   99%

     5.    What is the study of relationships between organisms & their environment?
                a.    Biology
                b.    Ecology Correct Answer
                c.    Science
                d.    None of the Above
                e.    Bio-Chemistry

     6.    What are the two different kinds of feedback loops?
                a.    Positive & Bad
                b.    Negative & Good
                c.    Positive & Negative Correct Answer
                d.    None of The Above
                e.    Good & Bad

     7.    What are the four states of matter?
                a.    Plasma, Gas, & Liquid
                b.    Liquid, Solid, & Gas
                c.    Plasma, Liquid, Water & Gas
                d.    Gas, Liquid, Solid & Plasma Correct Answer
                e.    There are only 3 states of matter
                                                                                                                      3

     8.    Which of the following is not an environmental view?
               a.     planetary management
               b.     stewardship wisdom Correct Answer
               c.     stewardship
               d.     environmental wisdom
               e.     All of the above are environmental views

     9.    What is the number range for ACIDS on the pH scale?
                a.    7.1-14
                b.    0-7
                c.    0-6.9 Correct Answer
                d.    0-14
                e.    1-6.9

     10.   Which of the following has NO nucleus?
               a.     Prokaryotic Cell correct Answer
               b.     Eukaryotic Cell
               c.     Both A & B
               d.     Plant Cell
               e.     None of the Above

Jessica Stevens- Carr & Meghan Calhoun
Period # 2


Chapter 3 - Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?
Multiple Choice Review Questions


     1.    Which of the following is not considered one of the three processes that help sustain life on earth?

                 a)    matter cycling
                 b)    the one way flow of energy from the sun
                 c)    entropy
                 d)    gravity
                 e)    none of the above are processes

           Correct answer: C

     2.    What is the biosphere?

                 a)    the portion of the earth in which living organisms exist
                 b)    includes none of the hydrosphere
                 c)    includes some of the mantle
                 d)    includes all of the lithosphere
                 e)    the portion of earth in which living organisms are not able to survive

           Correct Answer: A

     3.    Which of the following is a limiting factor for an aquatic life zone?

                 a)    depth of water
                 b)    number of species
                 c)    size of population
                 d)    dissolved oxygen content
                 e)    temperature of water

           Correct Answer: D

     4.    The percentage of usable energy transferred as biomass from one trophic level to another is called what?

                 a)    energy flow
                 b)    ecological efficiency
                 c)    the limiting factor
                 d)    biomass
                 e)    trophic level

           Correct Answer: B
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     5.    What are the soil horizons in order from the top layer to the bottom layer?

                 a)    O, B, E, A, C, R
                 b)    R, B, E, A, O, C
                 c)    O, A, E, B, C, R
                 d)    A, B, E, C, R, O
                 e)    R, C, B, E, A, R

           Correct Answer: C

     Rachel Laudel and Austin Roybal
     Chapter 3: Ecosystems

     1)    In what order do the levels of organization of matter go in from specific to broad?

     a.    population, organism, community, ecosystem, biosphere
     b.    organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
     c.    community, organism, population, ecosystem, biosphere
     d.    biosphere, ecosystem, community, organism, population
     e.    ecosystem, biosphere, community, population, biosphere

     2)    Which of the following components of an ecosystem are not like the others?

     a.    solar energy
     b.    air
     c.    plants
     d.    nutrients
     e.    water

     3)    In an ecosystem, bacteria and fungi serve as what?

     a.    primary consumers
     b.    producers
     c.    autotrophs
     d.    detritivores
     e.    decomposers

     4)    The C layer of soil in a soil horizon consists of what?

     a.    parent material
     b.    top soil
     c.    bedrock
     d.    subsoil
     e.    leaf litter

     5)    In what step if the nitrogen cycle does specialized bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen to ammonia and then ammonium ions to
           be used by plants?

     a.    ammonification
     b.    nitrification
     c.    nitrogen fixation
     d.    denitrification
     e.    ammoniumization

Lauren Lyons
Lindsay Krause
Chapter 3 Multiple Choice

Answers: A, D, E, A,

1. What is the difference between decomposers and detritivores?
  a. decomposers recycle nutrients and detritivores feed on wastes from organisms and dead organisms.
  b. decomposers recycle nutrients and detritivores only eat plants.
  c. decomposers are used in landfills to reduce the volume of wastes and detritivore only eat plants.
  d. decomposers are used in landfills to reduce the volume of wastes and detritivores feed on wastes of organisms and dead organisms.
  e. decomposers only eat detritivores and detritivores only eat plants
                                                                                                                                           5

2. What does HIPPO stand for?
  a. Hibernation disruption, isolated habitats, phosphorous, human population, and ocean creatures.
  b. Harvesting, indicator species, pesticides, parasites, oil spill
  c. H max, integrated pest management, plate tectonics, polar ice caps, O horizon
  d. Habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, (human) population growth, overexploitation
  e. Habitat destruction, iodine deficiency, pollution, petrochemicals, ozone depletion

3. Ecology is the study of
  a. plants
  b. animals
  c. children
  d. hurricanes
  e. relationships between organisms and their environment

4. An abiotic factors is
  a. nonliving
  b. sunlight
  c. living
  d. round
  e. also biotic

5. The hydrosphere
  a. includes the stratosphere
  b. includes all earths liquids and water vapors
  c. is underneath the earth’s crust
  d. does not exist
  e. exists in space


CHAPTER 4: Evolution and Biodiversity
Lindsay Krause and Lauren Lyons

      5 Multiple Choice Questions: D B A B D

      1. According to scientific evidence __________________ by natural selection involves the change in a population’s genetic makeup
      through successive generations.

      A.    Adaptation
      B.    Geographic Isolation
      C.    Reproductive Isolation
      D.    Biological Evolution
      E.    Speciation

   2. A species’ _______________________ consists of the full potential range of physical, chemical, and biological conditions and
resources it could theoretically use if it could avoid direct competition from another species.

     A.    Realized Niche
     B.    Fundamental Niche
     C.    Artificial Selection
     D.    Mass Depletion
     E.    Mass Extinction

     3.    As local environmental conditions change, a species starts to disappear at a low rate. Which of the following terms describes this
           scenario?

    A.     Background Extinction
    B.     Mass Extinction
    C.     Mass Depletion
    D.     Extinction
    E.     Isolation

     4.    In __________________ mutation and change by natural selection operate independently in the gene pools of geographically
           isolated populations.

    A.     Geographic Isolation
    B.     Reproductive Isolation
    C.     Background Extinction
    D.     Mass Extinction
    E.     Mass Depletion
                                                                                                                                  6

    5.     DNA that has been altered to contain genes or portions of genes from organisms of different species is called
           ______________________.

   A.     Transgenic
   B.     Artificial Selection
   C.     Genetically Modified Organisms
   D.     Recombinant DNA
   E.     Engineered

Chapter 4 Questions
Austin Roybal
Rachel Laudel

     1.     Which is not a common misconception about evolution through natural selection?
                A. Survival of the fittest means survival of the strongest
                B.     Natural selection helps a species survive
                C. Organisms develop certain traits because they want or need them
                D. Evolution by natural selection involves some grand plan of nature in which species become more perfectly adapted
                E. None of the above

     2.     How many continents was the earth 225 million years ago?
                A. One
                B. Two
                C. Three
                D. Four
                E. Five

     3.     Which is not one of the human’s three major successful adaptations
                A. Complex brain
                B. Walk upright
                C. Strong senses
                D. Strong opposable thumbs
                E. None of the above

     4.     Which scientist was first to theorize and publish the concept of natural selection?
                A. Alfred Wallace
                B. Isaac Newton
                C. Charles Darwin
                D. Thomas Edison
                E. Albert Einstein

     5.     The fossils found so far most likely represent what percent of all species?
                 A. 1%
                 B. 3%
                 C. 5%
                 D. 7%
                 E. 9%

Meghan Calhoun
Chp. 4 Test Questions

1.______ is the term used to describe the small genetic changes that occur in a population.
 a. The theory of evolution
 b. Macroevolution
 c. Chemical evolution
 d. Microevolution

2. Most of what we know of the earth's life history comes from
  a. fossils.
  b. DNA analysis.
  c. ice cores.
  d. chemical analysis.
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3. Evolution refers to
   a. changes in an individual's traits over time.
   b. the survival of the fittest.
   c. changes in a population's genetic makeup through successive generations.
   d. extinction of species that can no longer compete.

 4. A(n) ______ always has a narrow niche.
    a. keystone species
    b. generalist species
    c. alien species
    d. specialist species

  5. The first phase of speciation is
     a. background extinction of predators.
     b. reproductive isolation.
     c. geographic isolation.

Answers:
1. A
2. A
3. C
4. D
5. C

Chapter 5: Multiple Choice Questions

     1.    What are the two main factors that determine climate?
                A. average temperature and amount of cloud cover
                B. proximity to a body of water and average temperature
                C. the jet stream and average amount of precipitation
                D. average temperature and average precipitation
                E. average precipitation and amount of cloud cover
     2.    Which type of forest contains the largest diversity of plant species?
                A. boreal forest
                B. temperate forest
                C. tropical rain forest
                D. chaparral
                E. savanna
     3.    Which of the following is NOT a type of natural capital degradation to grassland biomes?
                A. conversion to tree plantations
                B. overgrazing by livestock
                C. conversion to cropland
                D. oil production in arctic tundra
                E. release of CO2 to atmosphere from grassland burning
     4.    Which of the following is NOT a greenhouse gas?
                A. carbon dioxide
                B. water vapor
                C. carbon monoxide
                D. methane
                E. nitrous oxide
     5.    A(n) ________ is a terrestrial region consisting of communities of organisms that are adapted to the region.
                A. biome
                B. ecosystem
                C. climate
                D. latitude
                E. niche

Answers

     1.    A. average temperature and average precipitation
     2.    C. tropical rain forest
     3.    A. conversion to tree plantations
     4.    C. carbon monoxide
     5.    A. biome
                                                                                                                    8

Chapters 5/7
Noah Ta and Eliot Lehrman

1.) Which of the following are greenhouse gases?
     a. H2O, N2O, CH2
     b. CO2, CH4, N2O
     c. NaO3, CO2, CH4
     d. N2O, PH3, H2O
     e. NH4, CO2, NaO3

2.) What are the two main factors used in determining climate?
     a.    average temperature and deviation
     b.    average temperature and precipitation
     c.    average precipitation and altitude
     d.    average temperature and location
     e.    proximity to water and average precipitation

3.) A ____________ is a terrestrial region consisting of communities of organisms that are adapted to the region.
      a. latitude
      b. climate
      c. planet
      d. biome
      e. continent

4.) Deserts take a long time to recover from disturbance because of their
      a.    permafrost
      b.    fast nutrient recycling
      c.    slow plant growth
      d.    high biodiversity
      e.    high temperature

5.) Which of the following is a pioneer species?
     a.    lichen
     b.    humus
     c.    oak tree
     d.    redwood fern
     e.    hedgehog

6.) Permafrost underlies regions of
      a.   grasslands
      b.   adobes
      c.   Egyptian meadows
      d.   Deserts
      e.   Arctic tundra

7.) Which of the following factors most affects terrestrial species diversity?
     a.    latitude
     b.    elevation
     c.    concavity
     d.    plasmodium
     e.    abundance

8.) Trout are an excellent _________because they are very sensitive to water quality.
      a.    generalist species
      b.    fish species
      c.    alienated species
      d.    foreign species
      e.    indicator species

9.) Parasitism occurs when
      a.     parasite benefits and host is harmed
      b.     when species feed on another part of an organism
      c.     neither benefit
      d.     both benefit
      e.     an STD is contracted

10.) Which of the following represents species interacting through mutualism?
      a.   Bugs living in a swamp
      b.   Gnats on humans
      c.   Fleas on a dog
      d.   Bees pollinating flowers
      e.   Wolves eating a dead lamb
                                                                                                         9

Lauren McFarlane 2nd Period Ch. 7

1. Which of the following is a pioneer species?
           a. Redwood Tree
           b. Oak Tree
           c. Holly Shrub
           d. Lichen
           e. Grass

2. Which of the following are indicator species of particular current interest to biologists?
           a. Amphibians
           b. Insects
           c. Birds
           d. Reptiles
           e. Mammals

3. Which of the following factors most affects terrestrial species diversity?
           a. Latitude
           b. Longitude
           c. Elevation
           d. Depth
           e. Temperature

4. The ability of a living system to bounce back after a disturbance that is not too drastic is called
             a. Primary succession
             b. Inertia
             c. Constancy
             d. Resilience
             e. Recovery

5. Which of the following represents a mutualistic species interaction?

            a. Ferns growing on a tree branch
            b. Fleas on a dog
            c. Bees pollinating flowers
            d. Lions eating a dead gazelle
            e. Parasites in someone’s intestines

Answers:
1. Lichen
2. Amphibians
3. Latitude
4. Resilience
5. Bees pollinating flowers

Chapter 8 questions
Mary Pannier
Katura Finn

1. Elephants are a K selected species for what reason?
           A. They have early reproductive ages
           B. Low ability to compete
           C. Adapted to stable climate and environmental conditions*
           D. Small adults
           E. Many small offspring

2. A rhino has what survivorship curve?
            A. Late loss*
            B. Constant loss
            C. Early loss
            D. No loss
            E. None of the above

3. Sea Otters are categorized as a Key Stone species for which reason(s)?
            A. They eat all of the kelp
            B. They keep the kelp eating organisms under control by eating them.*
            C. They keep the water they live in clean by swimming in it
            D. They keep the bacteria under control.
            E. They aren’t a Key Stone species.
                                                                                                                                     10

4. Which one is not a population change curves in nature?
          A. Stable
          B. Irruptive
          C. Cyclic
          D. Regular*
          E. Irregular

5. Those too old to reproduce are categorized as ________.
           A. Reproductive age
           B. Old age
           C. Pre reproductive age
           D. Post reproductive age*
           E. None of the above

                                                                  Chapter 8/10
                                                            Chris Ritter & Lily Boulle

     1.    Name three general patterns of population dispersion:
               a)    Clumping, Uniform, Random
               b) Heterogeneous, Random, Popular
               c)    Clustered, Ordinary, Spread
               d) Intrinsic, Biotic, Clumping
               e)    Homogeneous, Normal, Big

     2.    Which of the following species is K-Selected:
               a)     Elephant
               b) Cockroach
               c)     Mouse
               d) Algae
               e)     Ant

     3.    Population change= Birth + immigration, minus which of the following?
                a)    Deaths + immigration
                b) Deaths + emigration
                c)    Births + emigration
                d) Birth + Death
                e)    Immigration + emigration

     4.    What two things directly affect population diversity?
                a)   Climate change and pollution
                b) Degradation and destruction of ecosystems
                c)   Population size and resources
                d) Water and soil quality
                e)   Agricultural practices

     5.    One solution to overgrazing is to confine cattle to one area for a short time and then move them to another before overgrazing
           occurs. This method is called:
                a)    Full-range agriculture
                b) Rangeland control
                c)    Rotational grazing
                d) Free-style grazing
                e)    Part-time grazing

     6.    What is the correct definition for instrumental value?
                a)    An item that has numerous values in the forms of economic and ecological services
                b) An item in nature that can be turned into a musical instrument
                c)    An item that has one specific purpose/use
                d) An item that is specific to a certain culture
                e)    No such term

     7.    Which of the following is a major problem with the US national parks:
               a)     Wild fires
               b) Population control
               c)     Dangerous wildlife
               d) Lack of resources
               e)     Disease

     8.    What is a main product of deforestation?
                a)    Decreased soil fertility
                b) Lack of wildlife
                c)    Deceleration of flooding
                d) Increased crop yield
                                                                                                                    11

                   e)    Famine

        9.    Which of the following is a density-independent population control?
                  a)     Fire
                  b) Parasitism
                  c)     Disease
                  d) War
                  e)     None of the above

        10.   Which of the following is not a characteristic of population dynamics?
                  a)    Distribution
                  b) Numbers
                  c)    Age Structure
                  d) Density
                  e)    Climate

Key:
1) a
2) a
3) b
4) b
5) c
6) a
7) b
8) a
9) c
10) e

Chapter 9

1) Human populations grow or decline through the interplay of births, deaths, and

              A. family planning.
              B. illness.
              C. migration
              D. level of economic development.
              E. interactions with society

2) Since 1963, the rate of the world's annual population growth rate has

              A. dropped by almost one-third
              B. dropped by almost one-half
              C. doubled
              D. tripled
              E. stayed the same

3) The world's most populous country is

              A. Nigeria
              B. India
              C. China
              D. Bangladesh
              E. The United States

4) Labor shortages and increased per capita health care costs are associated with

              A. slow population decline
              B. rapid population growth
              C. slow population growth
              D. rapid population decline
              E. slow rapid decline


5) As countries become more industrialized, first their ______ rates decline and then their ______ rates decline.

              A. birth, immigration
              B. immigration, death
              C. death, birth
              D. birth, death
              E. death, immigration
                                                                                                                                      12

Answers
1) C
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) C

Chapter 9: Applying Population Ecology: The Human Population and Its Impact

1. ________ is the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.
          a. death rate
          b. crude birth rate
          c. replacement-level fertility
          d. crude death rate
          e. infant mortality rate

2. What is the movement of people out of a specific geographic area?
            a. emigration
            b. immigration
            c. demographic transition
            d. succession
            e. digression

3. (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration) is equal to _______.
            a. birth rate
            b. total fertility rate
            c. population change
            d. population size
            e. total wealth

4. Hypothesis that countries, as they become industrialized, have declines in death rates
   followed by declines in birth rates
           a. transitional stage
           b. Alfred Miller Hypothesis
           c. developed stage
           d. social transition
           e. demographic transition

5. Which of the following is NOT a way to slow population growth?
           a. investment in family planning
           b. reducing poverty
           c. help countries develop and implement national population policies
           d. increase government spending on welfare programs
           e. provide universal education with special emphasis on girls and women and
               adult literacy programs


Answer key:
1. d
2. a
3. c
4. e
5. d

Katura Finn and Mary Pannier
Chapter 10 Questions

     1.    What is another name for a tree plantation?
     A.    Tree Village
     B.    Tree Farm
     C.    Tree City
     D.    Tree Town
     E.    Tree Sanctuary

     2.    Surveys by the World Resources Institute (WRI) indicate that over the past 8,000 years human activities have reduced the
           earth’s original forest cover by ____%.
     A.    100
     B.    70
     C.    10
     D.    1
     E.    50
                                                                                                                                      13

      3.    Three types of fires that can affect forest ecosystems are surface fires, crown fires and ________.
      A.    Ground Fires
      B.    Coal Fires
      C.    Tree Top Fires
      D.    Undergrowth Fire
      E.    Human- Caused Fire

      4.    What is a cause of undergrazing?
      A.    Lack of water in an area.
      B.    Too many animals grazing in one spot.
      C.    An absence of grazing for a long period of time. (At least 5 years.)
      D.    Humans destroying fields used for grazing.
      E.    One type of the same animal grazing in one spot.

      5.    What act allowed the government to protect undeveloped tracts of public land from developmental as part of the National
            Wilderness Preservation System?
      A.    Wilderness Act
      B.    Save the Animals Act
      C.    Protection Act
      D.    Tracts Act
      E.    CERCLA

                                                            Chapter 11 Questions
1) Which of the following didn’t contribute to the extinction of the passenger pigeon?
   a.   uncontrolled hunting
   b. DDT-induced weakening of egg shells !
   c.   habitat loss
   d. flooding
   e.   Time change

2) Which term describes the situation where a species no longer exists in a given area, but still occurs in other areas?
     a.    biological extinction
     b.    ecological extinction
     c.    Local extinction !
     d.    Extinction
     e.    World extinction

3) What is the difference between an endangered species and a threatened species?
     a.     A threatened species is becoming endangered specifically because of human activities.
     b.     A threatened species was previously labeled endangered but has increased its numbers
     c.     There is no difference. The two terms are interchangeable.
     d.     A threatened species is still abundant now but likely to become endangered in the near future. !
     e.     One is real one is not

4) Why should we preserve wild species?
     a.   All of the choices. !
     b.   They provide important economic and ecological services
     c.   Wild species help us to learn how nature works and use that information for genetic research.
     d.   They provide recreational pleasure
     e.   They are great

5) Which of the following represents the greatest threat to wild species populations?
     a.    Habitat loss !
     b.    hunting for sport
     c.    playing with a bear
     d.    collecting for zoos
     e.    Cheese burgers

Chapter 13 Questions

            1. Which of the following is one of the three primary crops?
            A. Wheat (Answer)
            B. Chicken
            C. Soybeans
            D. Peanuts
            E. Plantains
                                                                                                                  14

           2. All of the following are main agents of erosion except
           A. Wind
           B. Human Recreation(Answer)
           C. Deforestation
           D. Logging
           E. Overgrazing

           3. The erosion that causes the most damage is
           A. Rill Erosion
           B. Gully Erosion(Answer)
           C. Sand Erosion
           D. Sheet Erosion
           E. Ice erosion

           4. Which of the following health issues is most common in the United States?
           A. Over nutrition(Answer)
           B. Malnutrition
           C. Under nutrition
           D. Polio
           E. Malaria

           5. All of the following is true about genetic engineering except
           A. Increased food yields
           B. Increased food size
           C. Desired Traits
           D. Changing reproduction time
           E. Well-known long term effects(Answer)

Jenni Dreher & Christine Brown
2nd Period
Chapter 14 (Water) & Chapter 21 (Water Pollution)

     1.    About two-thirds of the world’s annual runoff is lost by _______ and is not available for human use.
                 a.   evaporation
                 b.   percolation into the ground
                 c.   pollution of the water supply
                 d.   seasonal floods
                 e.   condensation
     2.    Diversion of water from the Aral Sea has led to
                 a.   decrease in its salinity
                 b.   increased crop yields in the neighboring areas
                 c.   extinction of native fish species
                 d.   more moderate temperature and increased rain
                 e.   decreased rainfall
     3.    Which of the following is a strategy of using water more sustainably?
                 a.   Build more dams and levees
                 b.   Regulate withdrawals to prevent depletion of renewable aquifers
                 c.   Slow the rate of ozone depletion
                 d.   Increase efficiency and productivity in livestock production
                 e.   Switch to less water intensive crops
     4.    Which is the most efficient irrigation technique?
                 a.   gravity flow through ditches
                 b.   center pivot sprinkler systems
                 c.   surge valves
                 d.   drip irrigation systems
                 e.   watering hose
     5.    The removal of vegetation, especially on hillsides, increases the risk of
                 a.   salinization
                 b.   groundwater overdrafts
                 c.   saltwater intrusion
                 d.   flooding
                 e.   pollution
     6.    In the United States, the majority of water pollution of streams and lakes is from
                 a.   point pollution from sewage treatment plants.
                 b.   point pollution from abandoned mines
                 c.   point pollution from factories.
                 d.   nonpoint pollution from agriculture
                 e.   nonpoint pollution from transportation
                                                                                                 15

      7.    The oxygen sag curve is caused by
                    a.    inorganic wastes
                    b.    oxygen-demanding wastes
                    c.    sediments
                    d.    plant nutrients
                    e.    organic wastes
    8. Cultural eutrophication of lakes is most often caused by input of
            a. nitrates and phosphates
            b. selenium
            c. PCBs
            d. sediment
            e. DDT
9. Which of the following is a major groundwater pollutant in parts of India and   Bangladesh?
            a. fluoride
            b. arsenic
            c. selenium
            d. PCBs
            e. methane
10. Secondary sewage treatment
            a. removes about 60% of suspended solids from sewage
            b. does not remove any phosphorous or nitrogen from sewage
            c. utilizes aerobic bacteria
            d. is a mechanical process
            e. removes all sediment

Jenni Dreher & Christine Brown
Chapter 14 (Water) & Chapter 21 (Water Pollution)
ANSWER SHEET

            1.    D
            2.    C
            3.    B
            4.    D
            5.    D
            6.    D
            7.    B
            8.    A
            9.    B
            10.   C

Katie Meek and Rachel Adams
Chapter 14 and 21


Many countries in the Middle East face water shortages and rising
tensions over water sources they must share. Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia
are three countries involved in this conflict and have which of the
following options to resolve it?

  1. Egypt could declare war on both Ethiopia and Sudan
  2. countries could import more grain to reduce the need for
    irrigation water
  3. work-out water sharing agreements between other countries
  4. suffer human and economic consequences
  5. all of the above

Which of the following is NOT a benefit from flooding?

  1. water sport attractions for tourists
  2. soils are enriched with silt left behind making ideal farmland
  3. groundwater supplies recharged
  4. wetlands refilled
  5. ecosystems are revived

The most efficient irrigation technique available is

  1. flood irrigation
  2. drip irrigation
  3. gravity flow
  4. center pivot irrigation
  5. low-energy precision application sprinklers
                                                                          16

Which of the following is a method of desalination?

  1. boiling
  2. freezing
  3. distillation
  4. inverse osmosis
  5. none of the above

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of dams?

  1. spawning of fish disrupted
  2. water evaporation
  3. hydroelectricity
  4. risk of failure
  5. none of the above

Only ________% of the world’s water is available to us as liquid
freshwater in accessible groundwater deposits and in lakes, rivers, and
streams.

  1. 17
  2. 70
  3. .024
  4. .07
  5. .7

Good water quality contains a DO of

1. below 4.5 ppm
2. 4.5-6.7 ppm
3. 6.7-8 ppm
4. 8-9 ppm
5. 9-10 ppm

The decomposition zone of a stream contains

1. trout, perch, bass
2. Fungi, sludge, worms
3. carp, gar, leeches
4. mayfly, stonefly, bass
5. none of the above

What causes the oxygen sag curve?

1. oxygen demanding wastes
2. organic wastes
3. plant nutrients
4. phosphates
5. pesticide runoff

What percentage of sewage sludge is dumped in conventional landfills?

1. 83
2. 55
3. 60
4. 70
5. 25

What contributes to the pollution of coastal waters and bays?

1. residential areas
2. factories
3. farms
4. none of the above
5. all of the above

Catherine Flanery
2nd Period
Chapter 17
Review Questions
                                                                                                                                      17

     1.    In an active solar heating system energy from the sun is absorbed by a pumping heat-absorbing fluid through special collectors
           usually mounted on a roof. What is a type of heat-absorbing fluid that would be used?
                       A. Gas
                       B. Antifreeze
                       C. Water
                       D. Answers B and C
                       E. All of the above.

     2.    What percent of efficiency does large-scale hydropower have?
                     A. 80%
                     B. 70%
                     C. 72%
                     D. 30%
                     E. 20%

     3.    What is an advantage of using biodiesel fuel?
                A. Easy to start in cold weather
                B. Better gas mileage
                C. High yield fro soybean crops
                D. Slightly decreased emissions of nitrogen oxides
                E. Lower cost than regular diesel

     4.    Which of the following is a widely used device that waste large amounts of energy?
               A. Hydroelectric power
               B. Hybrid cars
               C. Nuclear power plant
               D. Solar cells
               E. Combined heat and power systems (CHP)

     5.    Which of the following is not a type of superefficient car?
               A. Hybrid car
               B. Energy-efficient diesel car
               C. Fuel cell
               D. Internal combustion engine
               E. Ultralight car
Answers
    1.     C
    2.     A
    3.     B
    4.     C
    5.     D

Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 17 and 23 (correct answers are in RED)

     1.    How would shifting to hydrogen as our primary energy source affect the environment?
                a)    eliminate most air pollution
                b) eliminate many greenhouse gases
                c)    slow global warming
                d) promote cleaner air
                e)    all of the above
     2.    What percentage of energy used by the US is wasted?
                a)    56%
                b) 43%
                c)    98%
                d) 15%
                e)    32%
     3.    What form of energy system utilizes solar energy by absorbing heat directly from the sun with no help of fans or pumps?
                a)    active solar heating system
                b) hydro powered dams
                c)    wind tunnels
                d) passive solar heating system
                e)    none of the above
     4.    The indirect form of perpetual energy is called what?
                a)    active solar energy
                b) biofuel
                c)    hydropower
                d) hydroelectric energy
                e)    passive solar energy
                                                                                                                              18

      5.    What energy source is made up of organic plant materials and animal wastes that can be burned to create energy?
                 a)    gasohol
                 b) hydropower
                 c)    biofuel
                 d) biomass
                 e)    solid waste
      6.    The “ecological capital” of Brazil is
                 a)    Sao Paulo
                 b) Rio de Janerio
                 c)    Curitiba
                 d) Salvador
                 e)    Brasilia
      7.    Urban sprawl is the product of
                 a)    Affordable land
                 b) Automobiles
                 c)    Cheap gasoline
                 d) Poor urban planning
                 e)    All of these
      8.    Urban dwellers consume how much of the earth’s resources?
                 a)    ¾
                 b) ½
                 c)    ¼
                 d) 2/3
                 e)    1/8
      9.    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an urban area
                 a)    Lack of plants
                 b) Water problems
                 c)    Pollution and health problems
                 d) Absence of light pollution
                 e)    Poverty and social problems
      10.   Smart growth tools:
                 a)    Limit building permits
                 b) Preserve existing open space
                 c)    Concentrate development along mass transportation routes
                 d) Tax breaks for cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields)
                 e)    All of these

Chapter 18 Questions


1. Which of the following is a cultural hazard?

      a. wind
      b. poisonous snake
      c. driving
      d. mercury
      e. walking

2. Viruses cause

      a. strep throat
      b. tuberculosis.
      c. AIDS.
      d. cholera.
      e. pregnancy

3. Which of the following viruses is the biggest killer?

      a. HIV
      b. influenza
      c. hepatitis B
      d. ebola
      e. chicken pox

4. Which of the following is responsible for the greatest number of deaths per year worldwide?

      a. tuberculosis
      b. sitting in APES class
      c. pneumonia and flu
      d. malaria
      e. plane crashes
                                                                                                               19

5. ______ is the science that examines the effects of harmful chemicals on humans, wildlife, and ecosystems.

     a. Risk assessment
     b. Toxicology
     c. Ecological or conservation medicine
     d. Ecology
     e. physiology


Chapter 18 Answers

     1.    c. driving
     2.    c. AIDS
     3.    a. HIV
     4.    c. pneumonia and flu
     5.    b. toxicology

Ch. 19

Casey Crum's Questions

1)What compound gives photochemical smog its brownish yellow color?

a. sulfur dioxide
b. argon
c. carbon dioxide
d. nitrogen dioxide
e. H2O

CORRECT ANSWER: D

2)Industrial smog contains large amounts of

a. ozone.
b. nitrous oxides.
c. sulfur dioxide.
d. PANs.
e. CFCs

CORRECT ANSWER: C

3)Which of the following countries currently has the worst problem with industrial smog?

a. The United States
b. China
c. England
d. Canada
e. Japan

CORRECT ANSWER: B

4)True or false? Acid deposition is a contributor to the levels of lead and copper in our water supply.

a. True
b. False

CORRECT ANSWER: A

5)The single best way to reduce acid deposition would be to

a. reduce the use of coal.
b. decrease emissions from automobiles.
c. prohibit the construction of nuclear power plants.
d. add limestone or lime to lakes and soil.
e. decrease amount of runoff pesticides

CORRECT ANSWER: A
                                                                                                                    20

6)Which two of the following is not considered one of the four most dangerous indoor air pollutants by the EPA?

a. formaldehyde
b. cigarette smoke
c. radon
d. carbon monoxide
e. carbon dioxide

CORRECT ANSWER: D&E

7)In the U.S., the estimated number of deaths related to indoor and outdoor air pollutants is at least

a. 60,000.
b. 100,000.
c. 150,000.
d. 350,000.
e. 500,000.

CORRECT ANSWER: C

8)Ninety-nine percent of the volume of air in the troposphere consists of oxygen and

a. nitrogen.
b. argon.
c. carbon dioxide.
d. water vapor.
e. carbon monoxide.

CORRECT ANSWER: A

9)The composition of the stratosphere is like the troposphere except there is a

a. higher concentration of water vapor.
b. lower concentration of nitrogen.
c. higher concentration of ozone.
d. higher concentration of CO2.
e. higher concentration of carbon dioxide.

CORRECT ANSWER:C

10)Which of the following can cause air pollutants at ground level to rise to harmful levels?

a. offshore wind
b. onshore wind
c. temperature inversion
d. rain shadow
e. water vapor

CORRECT ANSWER: C

Chapter 23 Questions

     1.       What is the threshold above which permanent damage begins after an eight hour exposure?
                   a.     0dB
                   b.     20dB
                   c.     85dB
                   d.     120dB
                   e.     200dB
     2.       What is full-cost pricing?
                   a.     The actual price of producing the good is paid for
                   b.     Government subsidies’ impact on the price is removed
                   c.     Payment for a full unit of a good, even if only part of it is used
                   d.     A tax added to the price of a good that makes up for environmental effects of the goods
                   e.     Paying the full price of the good at one time instead of buying on credit
     3.       Which of these is not an advantage of the use of buses?
                   a.     Can reduce car use and pollution greatly
                   b.     More flexible than a rail system
                   c.     Can be rerouted at need
                   d.     Cost less to develop and maintain than a heavy rail system
                   e.     None of these
                                                                                                                                 21

     4.    Which of the following is an eco-city?
                a.    Atlanta, GA, USA
                b.    Mexico City, Mexico
                c.    Curibita, Brazil
                d.    None of these
                e.    All of these
     5.    Smart growth is:
                a.    A means to encourage more environmentally sustainable development that requires less dependence on cars,
                      controls and directs sprawl, and reduces wasteful resource use
                b.    Planting plants with computer chips in them that control the growth of the crop
                c.    Encouragement of more wasteful use of resources to preserve money
                d.    A genetic modification that makes people grow bigger and smarter
                e.    None of these
Answers:
    1.     c
    2.     d
    3.     e
    4.     c
    5.     a


     1. Why are large cities not self-sustaining?
          A) blocked sunlight access
          B) pollution
          C) high waste output
          D) overcrowding
          E) too many Starbucks

     2. What does Oregon use for an effecting land-use plan?
          A) zoning of land
          B) mass transportation
          C) deforestation regulation
          D) development bans
          E) overconsumption

     3. What part of modern cities kills 40,000 people every year in the United States?
          A) automobiles
          B) pollution
          C) poverty
          D) pesticides
          E) Chuck Norris

     4. What is urban sprawl?
          A) increase of population in downtown areas
          B) migration from cities to rural areas
          C) migration from rural areas to cities
          D) population growth around the edges of cities
          E) a diving technique

     5. Where will most of the world’s population growth occur for the next 25 years?
          A) suburbs
          B) overcrowded cities
          C) rural areas
          D) small towns
          E) Roswell

     6.The energy which is not derived from the sun is ______.
          A.bio-mass
          B.fossil fuels
          C.nuclear energy
          D.geo-thermal energy
          E. eclectic energy

     7.Which of the following causes the least pollution when burnt?
          A.Petrol
          B.Diesel
          C. Uraniam
          D.Coal
          E.Natural gas
                                                                                                                                              22

     8.A solar cell converts ______.
           A.heat energy into electrical energy
           B.solar energy into electrical energy
           C.heat energy into light energy
           D.solar energy into light energy
           E. electrical energy into solar power

     9. The primary source of energy for Earth is
          A. solar energy.
          B. hydroelectric energy.
          C.thermal energy.
          D.none of the above
          E. A and C

10. _________: convert light into electrical energy
          A. photovoltaic PV cells
          B. Solar Cells
          C. Heat waves
          D. CHD
          E. Solar Converter Cells (SCC)

     11.   What is the leading cause of death in the world?
                a)    Air pollution
                b) Hepatitis B
                c)    Poverty/malnutrition
                d) Malaria
                e)    Diarrhea

     12.   A (an) ____________ can cause harm because it is flammable or explosive, can irritate or damage the skin or lungs, or can
           cause allergic reactions of the immune system.
                 a)    biological disease
                 b) hazardous chemical
                 c)    nuclear reactor
                 d) prescription drug
                 e)    spraying of DDT

     13.   A (an) ________ is a chemical that causes birth defects.
                a)    teratogen
                b) mutagen
                c)    carcinogen
                d) toxin
                e)    organic compound

     14.   Which of the following is NOT a determinate of how hazardous a chemical is?
               a)     toxicity
               b) dose
               c)     genetic makeup
               d) solubility
               e)     color

     15.   The amount of a toxic material per unit of body weight of test animals that kills half the test population in a certain time is:
                a)  Median death rate
                b) LD50 (the median lethal dose)
                c)  Catastrophic dose
                d) Population extinction dose
                e)  The DDT aggravation constant
                                                                            23




                                     2009 AP EXAM SAMPLE QUESTIONS

                       STUDENT PREPARED BASED ON TEXT CHAPTERS




                                         Course: AP Environmental Science
                                              Instructor: CH Williams
                                                  APRIL 17, 2009




* The deadline for submission was April 17, 2009; 4:00p.m..
  No late submissions or those that contained errors were not accepted.

				
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