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Entry Issues

 Realistic Job Preview (RJP) and The
  Psychological Contract
 Developing commitment in the new
 Understanding Culture/Climate
 Orientation
 Socialization

What is Socialization?
   Process by which an employee begins to
    adapt to the values, norms, and beliefs of
    the organization and its members

    ◦ Focus on a long term program
    ◦ Involves learning the organization’s climate
      and “learning to fit in”
    ◦ Foster links between employees and

Strategic Importance of Socialization
    Sets the tone of employment relationship

    Clarifies expectations / how things are

    Reduces anxiety for new employees
     ◦ Will I fit in? Will I enjoy the

    Effects employee attitudes and behaviour
     ◦ Job satisfaction, commitment
     ◦ Job performance                          4
     Socialization vs Orientation
   Socialization
    ◦ Process of employees adapting to organization
    ◦ Long-term process, often informal

   Orientation
    ◦ Program that informs new employees about
      their job and company
    ◦ Short-term, often formal

   Examples of Tim Hortons employee
    orientation and socialization
    techniques                                        5
Stages of Socialization
1.   Anticipatory (Pre-Arrival)
     • Employees begin with certain expectations
       about organization and job
     ◦ May be unrealistic – if unmet, result in
       dissatisfaction, turnover, etc.

     ◦ Realistic Job Preview (RJP) may be
        Info about job demands and working conditions
         – both positive and negative aspects

Stages of Socialization
2.   Encounter
     ◦ Employee has started new job
     ◦ Inconsistencies between expectations and
       reality emerge
     ◦ Needs info re: policies, procedures, etc.
         E.g., via Orientation program
              Organizational issues, policies, etc.
              Benefits
              Introductions
              Job Duties

Stages of Socialization
2.   Encounter (cont’d)

     ◦ Benefits of a good orientation
          Shows organization values to employee
          Reduces employee anxiety and turnover
          Reduces start-up costs
          Clarifies job and organizational expectations
          Improves job performance

Stages of Socialization
3.   Change (Settling in)
     ◦ Inconsistencies start to get worked out
     ◦ Employee begins to identify with
     ◦ Transition from being an “outsider” to
       feeling like an “insider”
     ◦ Often involves taking on new attitudes,
       values, and behaviours to align with
     ◦ Misalignment = dissatisfaction and turnover
   New employees face many challenges

   Realistic job previews and employee
    orientation programs can:
    ◦ Reduce stress
    ◦ Reduce turnover
    ◦ Improve productivity

          The challenge?

 Information overload
 Information irrelevance
 Too much “selling” of the organization
 No evaluation program
 Lack of follow up

        Training and Development
   Training vs Development
    ◦ Both refer to the learning of job-related behaviour

   Training
    ◦ Focuses on job performance
    ◦ Emphasis is on acquisition of specific KSAs needed for
      present job

   Development
    ◦ Focuses on personal growth, longer-term
    ◦ Emphasis is on acquiring KSAs needed for future job
      or organizational need
              Trends Affecting Training
   Low unemployment = tight labour market
    ◦   T&D opportunities to attract & retain employees

   Alternatively, high unemployment , or economic
    ◦   T&D opportunities to create more and better work
    ◦   However, some companies may offer less T&D to cut costs

   Globalization
    ◦   Training for employees with international assignments

   New and changing technology – new KSAs

   Mergers, acquisitions, restructuring
    ◦   Jobs change, employees need new KSAs
Training Process Model
1.   Needs assessment

2.   Design training objectives

3.   Develop program content

4.   Implement training program

5.   Evaluate effectiveness of training
Step 1: Needs Assessment
   Needs Analysis
    ◦ Proactive or Reactive
    ◦ Diagnosis of problems and future challenges that can be met
      through training & development

   Organizational analysis
    ◦ Culture, values, mission, goals, strategy

   Job / task analysis
    ◦ KSA requirements

   Person analysis
    ◦ Consider pre-training states: predicted by individual (e.g., age,
      anxiety, cognitive ability, etc.) and situational characteristics
      (e.g., organizational climate) (Colquitt et al., 2000).
    ◦ Gaps between employee KSAs and KSAs required by jobs
    ◦ E.g., performance evaluations, self- or supervisor
      identification                                                    15
Step 2: Develop Training Objectives

   Must include:
    ◦   The desired behaviour
    ◦   The conditions under which it is to occur
    ◦   Performance criteria
    ◦   E.g., “By the end of this week, you will be able
        to list and define the 5 main steps involved in
        the development of a training program,
        without referring to your notes”
   Objectives are standards that allow the
    success of training to be measured
Step 3: Develop Program Content and
Learning Principles
   Issues to consider
    ◦   Needs assessment
    ◦   Training objectives
    ◦   Audience
    ◦   Class size
    ◦   Time availability
    ◦   Cost
    ◦   Training format
    ◦   Learning principles

             Learning Principles
   How do people learn most effectively?

   Participation
    ◦ Participants are actively involved

   Repetition
    ◦ Repeated review of material

   Relevance
    ◦ Material is meaningful

   Transference
    ◦ Application of training to actual job situations

   Feedback
    ◦ Information given to learners re: their progress

    Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

   High self-efficacy
    ◦ Belief one can achieve a
      behaviour                         Higher
                                        level of
   High outcome expectancy
    ◦ Belief that behaviour will lead
      to an outcome of value

Organizational Influences on Transfer of
   Relates to trainee’s outcome expectancies
    ◦ Will the behaviour lead to desired outcomes?

   Rewards, pay, & promotion
    ◦ Are there rewards for demonstrating the new behaviour?

   Environmental constraints / obstacles
    ◦ Is equipment, time, etc. avail. for person to use skills?

   Supervisory and peer support
    ◦ Is the training reinforced / encouraged / rewarded on the job?
    ◦ Train coworkers together – reinforce each other

   Organization’s learning climate
    ◦ Learning is encouraged, supported, rewarded, etc.

 Step 4: Deliver Training
Numerous methods to choose from:
  On-the-job          Off-the-job
• Job instruction   • Lectures & videos
                    • Vestibule training
• Job rotation      • Role-playing/Cases
• Apprenticeships   • Simulation
                    • Self-Study & Programmed
• Coaching
                    • Computer-based (CBT)
                    • Virtual reality
                    • Internet/Web-based/Intranet
                    • Video-conferencing
             Strengths and Weaknesses
                of various Methods

Method       Knowledge   Skills   Attitudes   Transfer

Lecture         Yes       No         No         Low

Video           Yes       No        Yes        Med

Role play       No       Yes        Yes        High

Simulation      Yes      Yes         No        High

Case study      Yes      Med        Yes        Med

Step 5: Evaluating Training Effectiveness

   5 Criteria - Kirkpatrick’s 4 levels plus 1
    1. Reaction
        Are participants satisfied with training?
    2. Learning
        How much has been learned?
    3. Attitude Change (not 1 of Kirkpatrick’s 4
        Did training result in attitude change?
    4. Behaviour change
        Did the learning transfer to the job?
    5. Results criteria
        Was the training worth the cost to the company?
Evaluating Training
   Evaluation method used should assess all
    important training objectives

    ◦ Typically, focuses on whether change has

   If possible, use an evaluation method that
    will allow you to draw accurate
    conclusions about the program’s
Training Evaluation Designs
   Reaction measures
    ◦ Important, but don’t refer to effectiveness

   Measure behaviour post-training
    ◦ Can’t determine whether change occurred

   Pre-test – Post-test Design
    ◦   Measure → Training → Measure
    ◦   Allows you to see if change has occurred
    ◦   E.g., # of items produced before training = 10/minute
    ◦   # produced after training = 16/minute

   But, what if other employees who did not receive
    training average 15 items/minute?
    ◦ Is training effective?                                    25
Training Evaluation Designs

   Mere passage of time or task experience could
    also influence post-test performance.
    ◦ Could not necessarily attribute post-test scores to

   Should also use a control group
    ◦ Employees who did not receive training – often called
      a “waiting list” control group
    ◦ Control group post-test could also be influenced by
      time and experience – therefore, the only difference
      between the groups would be training
Cost benefit analysis at Fed Ex Canada
   2 week training program for new courier van drivers
   Costs of accidents:
    ◦ $ 399 for a trained driver compared to $1920 for an untrained
    ◦ Annual cost of all accidents for trained drivers was $2492 and
      $4833 for untrained drivers
   Value of the training course:
    ◦ Difference between trained and untrained driver which is $2341
   Costs of training was $1890
   Thus net benefit was $451 ($2341-$1890)
   ROI is 1.24 ($2341/$1890). Thus training program
    resulted in a return of $1.24 on every dollar spent on
Does training increase turnover?
   Debate: Do employers see a return on
    investment in tuition reimbursement?
    ◦ 2 sides of the debate:
      Employee development leads to positive employee
       attitudes and motivates them to stay
      Employee development increases employees’
       employment options outside the organization and
       results in increased voluntary turnover (as per
       human capital theory)

    ◦ Which do you think is true?
Does training increase turnover?
   Study: Benson et al. (2004) AMJ, 47(3), 315-331.

 In this study, 9543 workers whose
  company provided full tuition
  reimbursement were studied
 Results
    ◦ Turnover is very low while participants are
      taking classes or pursuing a degree
    ◦ When participants complete
      advanced/graduate degrees, turnover
      increases dramatically
    ◦ However…
Does training increase turnover?
   When these participants (who completed
    advanced degrees) were promoted,
    turnover was less
    ◦ 56% less than participants who earned
      degrees but were not promoted
    ◦ 55% less than participants who were
      promoted but did not take part in tuition

   Conclusion – tuition reimbursement can
    be an effective retention strategy,
    provided attention is paid to job-skill
    match after someone has received an
    advanced degree                               30

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