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Geant4 applications to Medical Physics

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 21

									Overview of Geant4
   applications
in Medical Physics
2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium
   And Medical Imaging Conference

     Tuesday, 21st October, 2003
       Portland, Oregon, USA


          Susanna Guatelli
         INFN, Genova, Italy




                                      1
MonteCarlo Methods in radiotherapy
MonteCarlo methods have been explored for years as a tool for precise
dosimetry, in alternative to analytical methods



                       De facto,
  MonteCarlo simulation is not used in clinical practice
                        (only side studies)

                                              Challenge : develop MC
                                                   for clinical use
The limiting factor is the speed
                     Reliable?
Other limitations:
                     For “software specialists only”, not user-friendly for
                     general practice
                                                                               2
                                               Specific facilities
   Extensibility to
                                           controlled by a friendly UI
accommodate new user
requirements (thanks to
  the OO technology)
                                                             A rigorous
                                                         software process



The transparency of
       physics


                                                     Independent validation
Use of evaluated
                                                         by a large user
 data libraries
                                                      community worldwide

Adoption of standards wherever available              User support
(de jure or de facto)                                 from experts
                                                                         3
                              Geant4
                            Geant4
Geant4 is an Object Oriented Toolkit for the simulation of the passage of
particles through matter.


 Its application areas include high energy and nuclear physics experiments,
astrophysics, medical physics, radiation background studies, radioprotection
and space science

  Geant4 exploits advanced Software Engineering techniques and Object
Oriented technology

 Geant4 has been developed and maintained by a world-wide collaboration of
more than 100 scientists

  The source code and libraries are freely distributed from the Geant4 web site
Katsuya Amako: Geant4 Simulation
                                                           www.cern.ch/geant4
Toolkit: Overview and Its Object-          useful links:   www.ge.infn.it/geant4
Oriented Design , 22 October, 8.15                                                 4
Geant4 applications in Medical Physics

    Verification of conventional radiotherapy treatment planning
 (as required by protocols)

    Investigation of innovative methods of radiotherapy

    Radiodiagnostic

    Dosimetric studies at cellular level



                                                                   5
                                   Geometry
             Detailed set-up description and efficient navigation
                                          CSG (Constructed Solid Geometries)
                                            simple solids

                                          BREPS (Boundary REPresented Solids)
                                            volumes defined by boundary
                                           surfaces
                                            polyhedra, cylinders, cones, toroids etc.
                                          Boolean solids
                                           union, subtraction…




                       Proton line beam

Fields: variable non-
                                                                                  6
uniformity and differentiability                                       ATLAS
                           Geant4-Dicom
                             interface

                   Modelisation of complex
                         structures

                              file


     Reproduce patient’s
anatomy in a Geant4 application




  Developed by L. Archambault, L. Beaulieu, V.-H. Tremblay
          (Univ. Laval and l'Hôtel-Dieu, Québec)
                                                             7
  Modelisation of beam lines                 Modelisation of
                                          electromagnetic field

Head Radiotherapy                      IntraOperative Radiation
                                            Therapy(IORT)
High energy electron                       Electron beam
beam, 50 MeV

           Karolinska Institutet,
               Stockholm
            Susanne Larsson          IORT Novac7
            Roger Svensson
            Irena Gudowska
            Björn Andreasen


                                      G. Barca*, F. Castrovillari**, D. Cucè**,
                                             E. Lamanna**, M. Veltri*
                                    * Azienda Ospedaliera (Hospital) of Cosenza
                                     **Physics Dep., UNICAL & INFN, Cosenza
                                                                            8
         GATE Collaboration
 Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) is a recently
 developed simulation platform based on Geant4, specifically
 designed for PET and SPECT studies.
                                     Experimental set-up changing
Talk:                                         with time
Steven Staelens, Overview of GATE,



   PEM
   Positron Emission
  Mammography (PEM)
Talk:
A. Trindade
Geant4 Applications and Developments for Medical Physics Experiments   9
                                   Electromagnetic physics
  Multiple scattering
  Bremsstrahlung                               electrons and positrons
  Ionisation                               gamma, X-ray and optical photons
  Annihilation                                         muons
  Photoelectric effect
                                                  charged hadrons
  Compton scattering
  Rayleigh effect                                        ions
  g conversion
  e+e- pair production
  Synchrotron radiation           High energy extensions
  Transition radiation
                                  needed for LHC experiments, cosmic ray experiments…
  Cherenkov
  Refraction
  Reflection                      LowEnergy extensions
  Absorption                      fundamental for medical applications
  Scintillation
  Fluorescence
  Auger                           Alternative models for the same process

Data driven, Parameterised and theoretical models
 – the most complete hadronic simulation kit on                    Hadronic
   the market
 – alternative and complementary models                            physics
Cross section data sets: transparent and interchangeable                        10
            Geant4 dosimetric validations
             Dosimetric validations
Validation is fundamental for Medical Physics Applications
  The validation process includes different levels

  Microscopic validation: physics models validation

 Macroscopic validation: experimental set-up
validation                                                         Macroscopic
                                                                    validation
 Validation in respect to experimental
measurements                                                       Microscopic
                                                                    validation
See S. Guatelli, Precision Validation of Geant4 Electromagnetic
Physics (22 October)
See G.Folger, Validation of Geant4 Hadronic Physics (22 October)


Talk J.F Carrier:
Validation of GEANT4 for Simulations in Medical Physics                          11
     Brachytherapy


                                      Low Energy Physics
                                     for accurate dosimetry


                               Dosimetry for all brachytherapic
                                           devices


                                 Collaboration of frameworks
                                   Analysis, UI, Visualisation, Access
                                        to distributed resources
Talk:
S. Guatelli
From DICOM to GRID: a dosimetric system for brachytherapy born from HEP
                                                                         12
Hadron therapy
 Hadrontherapy

     Electromagnetic and hadronic interactions
     for protons, ions(and secondary particles)




                  Proton beam line




    Talk:
    P. Cirrone
    Implementation of a New Monte Carlo
    Simulation Tool for the Development of a
    Proton Therapy Beam Line and Verification of
    the Related Dose Distributions
                                                  13
         Metabolic Therapy with 131I

   Isotope accumulated in the damaged lobe can destroy pathological cells
    without any surgical operation


     131I      131Xe +   - + g
                                              Radioactive Decay Module

                131I


    -
                          131Xe   (excited)
                                                G. Barca*, F. Castrovillari**, D. Cucè**,
                g                                      E. Lamanna**, M. Veltri*
                          131Xe   (stable)    * Azienda Ospedaliera (Hospital) of Cosenza
                                               **Physics Dep., UNICAL & INFN, Cosenza

                                                                                    14
         Shielding and radioprotection in
                 space missions
     Collaboration ESA, ALENIA SPAZIO, INFN Genova in AURORA
                                            project
G.Brambati1,V.Guarnieri1, S.Guatelli2, C.
Lobascio1,P.Parodi1, M. G. Pia2                     Geant4 application not only
1.ALENIA SPAZIO, Torino, Italy,2.INFN Genova, Italy
                                                      in hospital treatments
               AURORA
 explore the solar system and the Universe        Geant4 application for
                                                  shielding and astronauts’
                                                  radioprotection studies




                                                                              15
             Simulation of Interactions of Radiation with
Geant4-DNA   Biological Systems at the Cellular and DNA Level



                                 Geant4 applications
                            in chemistry and biochemistry




                                                            16
           Dosimetry at cellular level


 Light-ion microbeams provide a unique opportunity to irradiate biological
samples at the cellular level and to investigate radiobiological effects


 Accurate description at cellular level




                           Talk S. Incerti:
Simulation of cellular irradiation with the CENBG microbeam line
                           using GEANT4




                                                                             17
How to achieve quick response?




                                 18
                         Network

  network of Personal Computer as a realistic alternative to a
high-costs dedicated parallel hardware to be used in clinical
practice


                        Talk S. Schauvie:
 Radiotherapy treatment planning with Monte Carlo on a distributed
                             system
                    S. Chauvie1,2, G. Scielzo1
                   1Ordine Mauriziano - IRCC
                             2INFN




                                                                     19
    Parallel mode:distributed resources



Distributed
Geant4                    talk: DIANE -- Distributed Analysis Environment
                          for GRID-enabled Simulation and Analysis of
Simulation                Physics Data (Friday 24th October)




                                                                  20
                        Conclusions

Geant4 is a powerful and reliable tool for medical physics
studies
 adoption of rigorous software process
 Transparency of the physics
 Alternative and complementary physics models
 Accurate description of experimental set-up
 Many applications in Medical Physics and Medical
Imaging


Valid example of technology transfer



Integration to the GRID offers quick response                21

								
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