Industrial Revolution - DOC by f33sPkI


									Industrial Revolution

The Agricultural revolution
  1700’s - Wealthy landowners buy out smaller farmers
             and putting up fences/hedges around their
             properties, the enclosure movement.
           - more land available, farmers experiment with
             farming techniques. More efficient seed
             planting, crop rotation, different crops on a
             field each year so that the soil stays good.
           - Smaller farmers were forced to move to the
             cities to look for work.
           - Livestock breeding improved, they only to
             breed the best.
           - Food supply increases, standard of living
             increases = population increases
Industrial Revolution begins in Britain because they have
many natural resources. The most important ones included
   Harbors for trade
   Inland rivers for transportation
   Water power
   Coal/ iron ore
They also had:
   An expanding economy with investors willing to
    invest money in business
   Large banking system available to provide loans
   Political stability, and govt that supports business
    through laws
   Large trade network
Textile Industry- the 1st industry to be effected-
   New innovations inspire people to create and improve
     old ways
   Weaving is improved with a new “flying shuttle” and
     thread making by the spinning jenny. Water frame
     invented to sun the machines through water power.
     Cotton Gin (from America cleans to cotton and saves
     lots of time)

   The steam engine- easy source of power
   The steam boat- can move people and products much
    more easily
   Roads improved because of better design
   1820’s the Railroad is invented, by the 1830’s it was
    revolutionizing Britain
      - Easy way to ship materials and products to new
      - Creates thousands of jobs
      - Made travel easier, vacation far away
      - Could transport food fast enough that it doesn’t

Urban Growth- urbanization
   Movement of people to the cities- city populations
    more than doubled between 1800-1850
   Factories often developed in clusters around natural
    resources (coal, iron ore mines, waterways, ect.)
The poor working class
   Living conditions in the cities were often horrible with
    trash and sewer lining the streets. Cramped, dirty,
    dark living spaces contained a majority of the
    population, sometimes not even that was available.
   Sickness was wide spread
   Life expectancy fell as low as 17 years
   Working conditions- worked 12-14 hour days, 6 days
    a week. Machines were unsafe, factory usually not
    well lit and dirty. Pollution poured into the air, water
    and ground

  The middle class/ high class
   Increasing middle class/upper class made of
    merchants, business owners.
       - Eventually a lower middle class emerges of
         doctors, lawyers, managers, skilled workers,
   Money was pouring into the country
   Built homes in the suburbs (outside of town)
   Social distinction between the two wealthy social
    classes- landowners and aristocrats looked down on
    those who made their fortune in the business world.

Response from the lower class
   Ludities smash machines that they think put them out
    of work
   Riots in the streets

Positive effects-
   Created jobs
   Increased technology and innovation
     Creation of goods
     Increase in standard of living
     Increased wealth of the nation
     Overall healthier diet
     Cheaper and better clothing and housing

Industrialization spreads to the U.S.
   War of 1812 with the British (blockade from
    international trade) forces the U.S. to begin its own
   America also rich in natural resources
   Also began in the textile industry with the help of an
    immigrant from Britain.
   Many women from surrounding rural areas came to
    work in the textile mills.
   Biggest industrial boom after the Civil war in 1865.
        - Electric light bulb
        - Telephone
        - Railroads expand to crisscross the nation
        - Corporations are born- companies in which you
           can by stock in
        - Big business starts to take over- control entire
           industries, smaller businesses are pushed out

Industrialization moves to continental Europe
   French Revolution and Napoleon destroyed trade,
    economies and invention until the 1820’s, slowing
    Europe attempts to join in industry
   British ideas first move to Belgium, also rich in coal,
    iron and waterways, soon to follow with machinery,
    steam engines and railways.
   Germany bought machines from Britain and sent their
    children to school there. Germany quickly grew into
    an industrial giant by the end of the 1800’s spurring its
    military power.
   Throughout Europe small pockets of industry arose,
    many nations ran into difficulty with geography and
    transportation, social class and uncooperative
Long Term consequences
   Balance of power shifts to industrialized countries
   Non- industrialized countries become poorer
   “           “ are seen as less important or worthy of
   Begins search overseas of natural resources- leads to
    Imperialism- seizing colonies for their resources
   Increase in middle class creates more educational
    opportunities and more participation in government

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