"Industrial Revolution - DOC"
Industrial Revolution The Agricultural revolution 1700’s - Wealthy landowners buy out smaller farmers and putting up fences/hedges around their properties, the enclosure movement. - more land available, farmers experiment with farming techniques. More efficient seed planting, crop rotation, different crops on a field each year so that the soil stays good. - Smaller farmers were forced to move to the cities to look for work. - Livestock breeding improved, they only to breed the best. - Food supply increases, standard of living increases = population increases Industrial Revolution begins in Britain because they have many natural resources. The most important ones included Harbors for trade Inland rivers for transportation Water power Coal/ iron ore They also had: An expanding economy with investors willing to invest money in business Large banking system available to provide loans Political stability, and govt that supports business through laws Large trade network Textile Industry- the 1st industry to be effected- New innovations inspire people to create and improve old ways Weaving is improved with a new “flying shuttle” and thread making by the spinning jenny. Water frame invented to sun the machines through water power. Cotton Gin (from America cleans to cotton and saves lots of time) Transportation The steam engine- easy source of power The steam boat- can move people and products much more easily Roads improved because of better design 1820’s the Railroad is invented, by the 1830’s it was revolutionizing Britain - Easy way to ship materials and products to new markets - Creates thousands of jobs - Made travel easier, vacation far away - Could transport food fast enough that it doesn’t spoil Urban Growth- urbanization Movement of people to the cities- city populations more than doubled between 1800-1850 Factories often developed in clusters around natural resources (coal, iron ore mines, waterways, ect.) The poor working class Living conditions in the cities were often horrible with trash and sewer lining the streets. Cramped, dirty, dark living spaces contained a majority of the population, sometimes not even that was available. Sickness was wide spread Life expectancy fell as low as 17 years Working conditions- worked 12-14 hour days, 6 days a week. Machines were unsafe, factory usually not well lit and dirty. Pollution poured into the air, water and ground The middle class/ high class Increasing middle class/upper class made of merchants, business owners. - Eventually a lower middle class emerges of doctors, lawyers, managers, skilled workers, Money was pouring into the country Built homes in the suburbs (outside of town) Social distinction between the two wealthy social classes- landowners and aristocrats looked down on those who made their fortune in the business world. Response from the lower class Ludities smash machines that they think put them out of work Riots in the streets Positive effects- Created jobs Increased technology and innovation Creation of goods Increase in standard of living Increased wealth of the nation Overall healthier diet Cheaper and better clothing and housing Industrialization spreads to the U.S. War of 1812 with the British (blockade from international trade) forces the U.S. to begin its own industries. America also rich in natural resources Also began in the textile industry with the help of an immigrant from Britain. Many women from surrounding rural areas came to work in the textile mills. Biggest industrial boom after the Civil war in 1865. - Electric light bulb - Telephone - Railroads expand to crisscross the nation - Corporations are born- companies in which you can by stock in - Big business starts to take over- control entire industries, smaller businesses are pushed out Industrialization moves to continental Europe French Revolution and Napoleon destroyed trade, economies and invention until the 1820’s, slowing Europe attempts to join in industry British ideas first move to Belgium, also rich in coal, iron and waterways, soon to follow with machinery, steam engines and railways. Germany bought machines from Britain and sent their children to school there. Germany quickly grew into an industrial giant by the end of the 1800’s spurring its military power. Throughout Europe small pockets of industry arose, many nations ran into difficulty with geography and transportation, social class and uncooperative governments. Long Term consequences Balance of power shifts to industrialized countries Non- industrialized countries become poorer “ “ are seen as less important or worthy of self-government Begins search overseas of natural resources- leads to Imperialism- seizing colonies for their resources Increase in middle class creates more educational opportunities and more participation in government