Grid Computing12 by DebashishBagg1


									Debashish Bagg (2010298)
Saket Rathi (2010196)
   Introduction
   Evolution of Grid computing
     1st Generation
     2nd Generation
     3rd Generation
   Grid Topologies
   Resource based grid
   Three layer architecture
   Benefits
   Companies involved in grid computing
   References
“A     computational grid is a hardware and software
    infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent,
    pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end
    computational capabilities.”
                                  -Kesselman & Foster[1]

   The term “the Grid” was coined in the mid 1990’s for
    advanced science and engineering
   The term grid computing was used as a metaphor for making
    computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid in
    Ian Foster's and Kesselman's work[1].
Grid technologies[4] support the sharing and coordinated use of
  diverse resources in dynamic Virtual Organizations—that is,
  the creation, from geographically and organizationally
  distributed components, of virtual computing systems that are
  sufficiently integrated to deliver desired Quality of Service

Ian Foster gave the following checklist[3] that was widely
1. Coordinates resources that are not subject to centralized
2. Uses standard, open, general-purpose protocols and
    interfaces .
3. Delivers nontrivial qualities of service
Year of Project     Project
1960                US Department of Defense (DOD’s) project on ARPANET
First Generation Grid
1976-77             FAFNER (Factoring via Network-Enabled Recursion)
1995                I-WAY (Information Wide Area Year)
Issues with the first generation:
1. Homogeneity: Need for homogeneous resource across
   administrative domain
2. Scalability: As the grid grew performance degraded
3. Adaptability: Adapting to resource failure and performance
The main design features required at the data
 and computational fabric of the Grid are:
1.   Administrative Hierarchy
2.   Communication Services
3.   Information Services
4.   Naming Services
5.   Distributed File Systems and Caching
6.   Security and Authorisation .
7.   System Status and Fault Tolerance
8.   Resource Management and Scheduling
9.   User and Administrative GUI
Year of Project    Project
Second Generation Grid
1996               Globus (U.S. multi-institutional research )
                   Legion (University of Virginia )
2001               Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
                   Jini (used Java Remote method invocation RMI )
                   Common Component Architecture Forum
                   Grid Resource Brokers
                                             Portable batch systems (PBS)
                                             Sun Grid Engine (SGE)
                                             Load Sharing Facility (LSF)
   The Globus Resource Allocation Manager
     Creates, monitors, and manages services.
     Maps requests to local schedulers and computers.
   The Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI)
     Provides authentication services.

•   Condor
    • Executes batch jobs on a variety of UNIX platforms
•   Portable Batch System (PBS)
    • a batch queuing and workload management system
    • operates on a variety of UNIX platforms
    • GUI for job submission
•   Sun Grid Engine (SGE)
    • software developed by Genias known as Codine/GRM.
•   Load Sharing Facility (LSF)
    • commercial system from Platform Computing Corp.
    • evolved from the Utopia system developed at the University
      of Toronto [Zhou93]
   Storage service providers (SSPs)
   Application service providers (ASPs)
   Resource sharing is conditional
   constraints on when, where, and what can be
   Sharing in a client server/ peer-peer basis.
Development of Generation 2nd:
1.    interoperability
2.   reuse existing components and information resources
Needs for Generation 3rd:
1.   Homogeneity was dealt with scripting languages.
2.   Dealing with failure and automatic recovery
3.   Optimize resource
Thus it was meant to be an automated grid with
  minimal human interventions.
Standardization in Generation 3rd:
1. SOA Protocol (XML Protocol)
2. Web service Description Language (WSDL)
3. Universal Description Discovery and
4. Web service Flow Language (WSFL)
   Departmental Grids
     localized to a specific group of people
     generally, same hardware and software
     designed for high throughput and high performance over a dedicated network
   Enterprise Grids
     service to numerous groups within a single company or campus
     resource heterogeneity increases
     company-wide local area network
   Extraprise Grids
     service to multiple companies, partners, and customers within a particular
     domain based private network
   Global Grids
     established over the public-Internet

SEEK-BEAM Workshop Dec
2004                     23
   Compute Grids
     desktop nodes
     server nodes
     high-performance computing clusters
   Data Grids
     performance-based distributed storage
     replication for fault-tolerance
   Collaboration Grids
     support for video-conferencing, visualization and data sharing
   Utility Grids
     maintained and managed by a commercial service provider
     compute resources acquired on a per-need basis
     application resources that are purchased on a per-use or per-minute basis

SEEK-BEAM Workshop Dec
2004                     24
   Exploit Underutilized resources
     CPU Scavenging, Hotspot leveling

   Resource Balancing

   Virtualize resources across an enterprise
     Data Grids, Compute Grids

   Enable collaboration for virtual organizations

1. Avaki                 16. Mind Electric        30. Ubero
2. Axceleon              17. Mojo Nation          31. United Devices
3. CapCal                18. NICE, Italy          32. Veritas
4. Centrata              19. Noemix, Inc          33. Xcomp
5. DataSynapse           20. Oracle
6. Distributed Science   21. Parabon
7. Elepar                22. Platform Computing
8.          23. Popular Power
9. Grid Frastructure     24. Powerllel
10. GridSystems          25. ProcessTree
11. Groove Networks      26. Sharman Networks
12. IBM                      Kazza
13. Intel                27. Sun Gridware
14. Jivalti              28. Sysnet Solutions
15. Mithral              29. Tsunami Research
1.    I.Foster, C.Kesselman, “The Grid: Blue print for a new computing infrastructure”, Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.
2.    I.Foster, C.Kesselman and S.Tuecke, “The Anatomy of Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations”, International
      Journal of High Performance Computing Application, vol 15, pp. 200-222, Sage Publishers, London, UK, 2001.
3.    Foster     I    (2002)       “What     is    the    Grid?     A      three    point     checklist.”    http://www- .
4.    I.Foster, C.Kesselman, J. M. Nick and S.Tuecke, “The physiology of the Grid: An Open grid services architecture for
      distributed systems integration", Open Grid Service Infrastructure, W.G. Global Grid Forum, June 2002.
5.    C. Goble and D. De Roure, "The Semantic Web and Grid Computing," in Real World Semantic Web Applications, vol.
      92, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, V. Kashyap and L. Shklar, Eds.: IOS Press, 2002.
6.    A. Malcolm, D. David, “Web service grids: an evolutionary approach”, UK e- science Technical Report Series, July
      2004, ISBN 1751-5971.
7.    Rajkumar Buyya and Srikumar Venugopal, “A gentle introduction to grid computing and technologies”, Computer
      Society of India Communications, July 2005, pp. 9-19.
8.    Elizabeth Sherly, “Grid data architecture for a distributed data management system”, Computer Society of India
      Communications, July 2005, pp. 20-23.
9.    Wolfgang Gentzsch, “Grid computing in Industry”, Computer Society of India Communications, July 2005, pp. 30-34.
10.   M. Surridge, S. Taylor, D. Roure and E. Zaluska, “Experience with GRIA- Industrial application on a Web service
      grid”, Proc. Of First International Conf. on Science and Grid Computing, 2005.
1.   D. Roure, M. A. Baker, N. R. Jennings and N. R. Shadbolt, “Grid Computing: making the global infrastructure a
     reality”,“Chapter3: The Evolution of the Grid ”, Wiley series of communications networking and distributed systems,
2.   C.S.R. Prabhu, “Grid and Cluster Computing ”, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, ISBN-978-81-203-3428, India,
3.   P. Plaszczak and R. Wellner, “Grid Computing – The savvy manager’s guide”, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, ISBN-81-
     312-0292, India, 2006.

To top