Debashish Bagg (2010298)
Saket Rathi (2010196)
Evolution of Grid computing
Resource based grid
Three layer architecture
Companies involved in grid computing
“A computational grid is a hardware and software
infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent,
pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end
-Kesselman & Foster
The term “the Grid” was coined in the mid 1990’s for
advanced science and engineering
The term grid computing was used as a metaphor for making
computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid in
Ian Foster's and Kesselman's work.
Grid technologies support the sharing and coordinated use of
diverse resources in dynamic Virtual Organizations—that is,
the creation, from geographically and organizationally
distributed components, of virtual computing systems that are
sufficiently integrated to deliver desired Quality of Service
Ian Foster gave the following checklist that was widely
1. Coordinates resources that are not subject to centralized
2. Uses standard, open, general-purpose protocols and
3. Delivers nontrivial qualities of service
Year of Project Project
1960 US Department of Defense (DOD’s) project on ARPANET
First Generation Grid
1976-77 FAFNER (Factoring via Network-Enabled Recursion)
1995 I-WAY (Information Wide Area Year)
Issues with the first generation:
1. Homogeneity: Need for homogeneous resource across
2. Scalability: As the grid grew performance degraded
3. Adaptability: Adapting to resource failure and performance
The main design features required at the data
and computational fabric of the Grid are:
1. Administrative Hierarchy
2. Communication Services
3. Information Services
4. Naming Services
5. Distributed File Systems and Caching
6. Security and Authorisation .
7. System Status and Fault Tolerance
8. Resource Management and Scheduling
9. User and Administrative GUI
Year of Project Project
Second Generation Grid
1996 Globus (U.S. multi-institutional research )
Legion (University of Virginia )
2001 Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
Jini (used Java Remote method invocation RMI )
Common Component Architecture Forum
Grid Resource Brokers
Portable batch systems (PBS)
Sun Grid Engine (SGE)
Load Sharing Facility (LSF)
The Globus Resource Allocation Manager
Creates, monitors, and manages services.
Maps requests to local schedulers and computers.
The Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI)
Provides authentication services.
• Executes batch jobs on a variety of UNIX platforms
• Portable Batch System (PBS)
• a batch queuing and workload management system
• operates on a variety of UNIX platforms
• GUI for job submission
• Sun Grid Engine (SGE)
• software developed by Genias known as Codine/GRM.
• Load Sharing Facility (LSF)
• commercial system from Platform Computing Corp.
• evolved from the Utopia system developed at the University
of Toronto [Zhou93]
Storage service providers (SSPs)
Application service providers (ASPs)
Resource sharing is conditional
constraints on when, where, and what can be
Sharing in a client server/ peer-peer basis.
Development of Generation 2nd:
2. reuse existing components and information resources
Needs for Generation 3rd:
1. Homogeneity was dealt with scripting languages.
2. Dealing with failure and automatic recovery
3. Optimize resource
Thus it was meant to be an automated grid with
minimal human interventions.
Standardization in Generation 3rd:
1. SOA Protocol (XML Protocol)
2. Web service Description Language (WSDL)
3. Universal Description Discovery and
4. Web service Flow Language (WSFL)
localized to a specific group of people
generally, same hardware and software
designed for high throughput and high performance over a dedicated network
service to numerous groups within a single company or campus
resource heterogeneity increases
company-wide local area network
service to multiple companies, partners, and customers within a particular
domain based private network
established over the public-Internet
SEEK-BEAM Workshop Dec
high-performance computing clusters
performance-based distributed storage
replication for fault-tolerance
support for video-conferencing, visualization and data sharing
maintained and managed by a commercial service provider
compute resources acquired on a per-need basis
application resources that are purchased on a per-use or per-minute basis
SEEK-BEAM Workshop Dec
Exploit Underutilized resources
CPU Scavenging, Hotspot leveling
Virtualize resources across an enterprise
Data Grids, Compute Grids
Enable collaboration for virtual organizations
1. Avaki 16. Mind Electric 30. Ubero
2. Axceleon 17. Mojo Nation 31. United Devices
3. CapCal 18. NICE, Italy 32. Veritas
4. Centrata 19. Noemix, Inc 33. Xcomp
5. DataSynapse 20. Oracle
6. Distributed Science 21. Parabon
7. Elepar 22. Platform Computing
8. Entropia.com 23. Popular Power
9. Grid Frastructure 24. Powerllel
10. GridSystems 25. ProcessTree
11. Groove Networks 26. Sharman Networks
12. IBM Kazza
13. Intel 27. Sun Gridware
14. Jivalti 28. Sysnet Solutions
15. Mithral 29. Tsunami Research
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2. I.Foster, C.Kesselman and S.Tuecke, “The Anatomy of Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations”, International
Journal of High Performance Computing Application, vol 15, pp. 200-222, Sage Publishers, London, UK, 2001.
3. Foster I (2002) “What is the Grid? A three point checklist.” http://www-
4. I.Foster, C.Kesselman, J. M. Nick and S.Tuecke, “The physiology of the Grid: An Open grid services architecture for
distributed systems integration", Open Grid Service Infrastructure, W.G. Global Grid Forum, June 2002.
5. C. Goble and D. De Roure, "The Semantic Web and Grid Computing," in Real World Semantic Web Applications, vol.
92, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, V. Kashyap and L. Shklar, Eds.: IOS Press, 2002.
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2004, ISBN 1751-5971.
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Society of India Communications, July 2005, pp. 9-19.
8. Elizabeth Sherly, “Grid data architecture for a distributed data management system”, Computer Society of India
Communications, July 2005, pp. 20-23.
9. Wolfgang Gentzsch, “Grid computing in Industry”, Computer Society of India Communications, July 2005, pp. 30-34.
10. M. Surridge, S. Taylor, D. Roure and E. Zaluska, “Experience with GRIA- Industrial application on a Web service
grid”, Proc. Of First International Conf. on Science and Grid Computing, 2005.
1. D. Roure, M. A. Baker, N. R. Jennings and N. R. Shadbolt, “Grid Computing: making the global infrastructure a
reality”,“Chapter3: The Evolution of the Grid ”, Wiley series of communications networking and distributed systems,
2. C.S.R. Prabhu, “Grid and Cluster Computing ”, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, ISBN-978-81-203-3428, India,
3. P. Plaszczak and R. Wellner, “Grid Computing – The savvy manager’s guide”, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, ISBN-81-
312-0292, India, 2006.