Biochemistry

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					BIOCHEMISTRY
         Elements and Atoms
• Matter anything that has mass & takes up
  space.
• Atoms basic building blocks of matter.
• Elements basic substances that can’t be broken
  into other substances.
• Molecules formed when 2 or more atoms bond.
   • smallest unit of a cpd.
   • Has the chemical & physical props. of the
     cpd.
• Compounds are made of atoms of different
  elements chemically combined.
                    Atoms
• Nucleus-center of an atom; includes protons and
  neutrons
• Cloud- surrounds nucleus; only electrons
• 3 subatomic particles:
     Protons: positive charge
     Neutrons: neutral/no charge
     Electrons: negative charge
• 1st level holds 2 electrons
• 2nd level holds 8 electrons
• 3rd level holds 18 electrons
             Periodic Table

    12             Atomic Number: Protons

    Mg             Atomic Symbol

Magnesium          Name of Element
  24.305           Atomic Mass Number: Protons
                         (Nucleus)        +
                                       Neutrons
  QUESTION: What part of the atom gives the atom its mass??
       Inorganic Substances
     Not      Containing Carbon
•  Acids: substances that forms hydrogen (H)
  hydrogen ions in water. pH of 0-7.
• Bases: substance that forms hydroxide
  ions (OH) in water. pH scale of 7-14.
• Salts: Inorganic substances that often
  contain Chlorine (but not always)
HCl H SO        NaOH              NaCl
        2   4             KOH            MgCl2

           Exceptions: CO2 and H2O
   Inorganic Substances

So what is water??
           HOH
     A little bit   A little bit
      Acidic         Basic       = Neutral
 Cells work on a
  chemical level

Four main types of
molecules a cell uses
      regularly:
 • Carbohydrates
     • Lipids
    • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
Organic Substances/components
  Bio-molecule            Made of:
  Carbohydrates           Simple sugars
  Proteins                Amino acids
  Lipids                  Glycerol & at lease
                          1 fatty acid
  Nucleic Acids             Nucleotides (base,
Organic Substances – containsugar, phosphate)
                             Carbon and Hydrogen
Organic substances are made of units called
monomers or polymers.


Monomer- molecule that can bond to
form long chains.
Here is a monomer:

Polymer- a long chain of monomers
Here is a polymer:
             Carbohydrates
Characteristics of Carbohydrates
Monomer     Simple Sugar molecules

Function    Stores energy and some structures
Examples    Starch, glucose, fructose
Fact        Usually large molecules
Food        Bread, candy, pasta, vegetables
sources

                                   Video clips come from United
                                   Streaming: Energy and the
                                   Chemistry of Life (39:48)
                       Lipid
Characteristics of Lipids
Monomer      Fatty acids

Function     Stores energy, forms membranes,
             some hormones
Examples     Body fat, cell membranes, testosterone
Fact         Lipids do not dissolve in water but do
             dissolve in oils
Food         Candy, red meats, fried foods, dairy
sources      products
                    Proteins
Characteristics of Proteins
Monomer      amino acids
Function     Makes enzymes (metabolism), forms
             structures, some hormones
Examples     Lactase, Insulin, hair, cartilage, muscle
             tissue
Fact         All proteins are made of the same 20
             amino acids
Food         Meats, nuts, tofu
sources
          Enzymes

1. Enzymes-
a) proteins used by a cell to
speed up and regulate metabolic
reactions
b) biological catalysts; are
unchanged by the reaction.
              Enzymes
   2. Enzymes
a) proteins with a 3-D shape.
b) shape determines the substrate for the
enzyme
c) Substrates- substances that enzymes act
upon.
    Lipase acts on lipids.
    Maltase acts on maltose.
    Protease acts on proteins.
    Lactase works on Lactose .
                      Enzymes
3. How it works
a) substrate temporarily binds to enzyme active
  site.
b) enzyme may change shape to help substrate
  bind on.




      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s4jEZ9Os6QM&feature=related
          Enzymes
4. Coenzymes - non-protein part of
some enzymes.
a) If missing, the enzyme won’t
function.
b) Vitamins may function as
coenzymes.
            Enzymes
5. The rate of enzyme activity
depends 5 things
 o 3-D shape
 o Activation Energy
 o temperature
 o pH
 o concentration
                    Activation Energy




http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/enzymes/enzymes.html
          Temperature

6. Optimal temperature- temperature
at which enzyme works most
effectively.
a) If temperature goes above or
below optimal temperature, rate of
enzyme action will decrease.
                      Temperature




1. What is the optimal temperature for enzyme A? ________
2. What is the optimal temperature for enzyme B? ________
3. Knowing that room temperature is approximately 22 degrees Celsius,
   which enzyme would work best in your body? __________
                 pH
7. pH also affects
   rate of enzyme
   activity.
a) pH scale- a
   measure of
   hydronium ions in
   a solution.
b) Enzyme functions
   best at optimum
   pH
          OH
        NaOH
Bases
        KOH




         HCl
         H
Acids   H2SO4
                                  pH
                                         Intestinal Protease
                      Gastric Protease




1. The stomach has what optimal pH for that enzyme?
2. What is the optimal pH for the enzyme found in your intestine?
3. What organic substance are both of these enzymes digesting?
             Concentration
  8. Concentration of the enzyme
  affects rate of enzyme action
a) Greater concentration= faster
   the rate of reaction; however,
b) optimal concentration of
   enzyme gives the fastest rate
   of reaction
Concentration
NUCLEIC ACIDS
                Nucleic Acids
Characteristics of Nucleic Acids
Monomer      Nucleotides
Function     Stores genetic information, directs cell
             activity, makes proteins
Examples     DNA and RNA
Fact         DNA is a double helix and RNA is a
             single helix
Food         Most foods made from living materials
sources
                 Review
    Place the item in the correct box.
Carbohydrates   Proteins   Lipids   Nucleic Acids

				
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posted:2/10/2012
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