Management of seminatural grasslands and future of the CAP by 3WzFb4


									Management of seminatural grasslands and
          future of the CAP

             Aleksei Lotman
      Pastoralism supports biodiversity:
    seminatural grasslands in Annex 1 of
            EU habitats directive
   6210 Seminatural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous
    substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) (*important orchid sites)
   6270 *Fennoscandian lowland species-rich dry to mesic grasslands
   6280*Nordic alvars and precambrian calcareous flatrocks
   6410 Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils
   6430 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities
   6450 Northern boreal alluvial meadows
   6510 Lowland hay meadows
   6530 *Fennoscandian wooded meadows
   9070 Fennoscandian wooded pastures
   Intensification (fertilisation, drainage and other
   Abandonement/overgrowth
   Building development
   Water pollution
   Long-range air pollution
   Climate change
             Grazing and mowing
   A century ago: grazing was widespread with
    shepherds or small children looking after the
    animals, most of the pastures had no fence,
    demand for hay was very big resulting in large
    hay-meadows, including wooded meadows;
    overgrazing sometimes present
   Now: pastures fenced and in most intensive farms
    animals are kept inside whole year; high
    proportion of silage; low proportion of
    seminatural grasslands; 'false wilderness'
    Species affected by grassland loss
   Waders: Baltic Dunlin, Avocet, Ruff, Great
    Snipe, Black-tailed Godwit, Curlew, Lapwing...
   Corncrake
   Geese
   Raptors
   Amphibians (e.g. Natterjack Toad)
   Orchids
   Moths
                  How comes?..
   Fires, floods and herbivores created open habitats
   Humans by managing the above-listed factors and
    combining them with hay-making and tree-
    cutting created the old 'cultural' landscapes
   Overgrown cultural landscape is not 'natural'
   There never was a 'golden age', but while
    planning for the future we have to learn from the
        Why are meadows important?

   Biodiversity – plants, insects, birds
   Cultural heritage – they reflect our history
   Sustainable agriculture – pasturalism and hay-
    harvesting on semi-natural meadows are among
    ecologically most viable ways to use nature
                          What to do?
   Designate sites
   Management agreements/support schemes
   Improve technologies
   Install good fences
   Introduce hardy beef cattle
   Combine meadow management with conservation of
    traditional breeds
   Pay attention to cultural heritage features
   Integrate these concerns into sectoral policies, especially
     Example from Matsalu, Estonia
   Management plan for Matsalu wetland 1993
   Tractors and mowers; fences and animals – EU
    Phare, WWF, Ramsar SGF, EU Life, SIDA,
    EECONET and other international sources
   National support with nature conservation
    funding since 1996 for Matsalu, nationwide since
   Support under the new RDP
         Management requirements
                     Estonian example

   Late mowing (in July)
   No mowing in circles from outside
   Grazing with appropriate intesity, so that
    significant part of the pasture is short grass
   No supplementary feeding
   No fertilisation, no pesticides
   Bush cutting and tree felling as appropriate
                   Lessons to CAP
   Agricultural policy must ensure possiblities for extensive
    farming to be viable: relative importance of second
    pillar, and especially its second axis must increase; more
    integration of measures under second pillar, and making
    also first pillar more supportive towards sustainable rural
   Nature conservation can act as catalyst for integration of
    biodiversity and rural development but securing overall
    functioning of the nature-friendly extensive pastoralism
    must be responsibility of the agricultural sector
Thank you for listening

To top