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					CELL REPRODUCTION
PROKARYOTES – BACTERIA

EUKARYOTES – PLANTS, ANIMALS



                               1
      PROKARYOTES
 BACTERIA

 LACK NUCLEI

 HAVE 1 CIRCULAR CHROMOSOME

 REPRODUCE BY BINARY FISSION

                                2
       BINARY FISSION

DNA AND CELL COMPONENTS
 REPLICATED

CELL DIVIDES INTO TWO DAUGHTER
 CELLS


                                  3
BINARY FISSION




                 4
    EUKARYOTIC CELLS

HAVE NUCLEUS [AND OTHER
 MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES]

REPRODUCE ASEXUALLY BY MITOSIS



                              5
LIFE CYCLE OF A CELL
            Cells go through 4 phases:

            G1 – 1stGrowth Phase

            S - DNA Replication Phase

            G2 -2nd Growth Phase

            M - Mitosis & Cytokinesis




                                        6
         CELL CYCLE

STAGES OF GROWTH AND DIVISION
PHASES:
   G1
   S
   G2
   M
   CYTOKINESIS
                                 7
          G1

FIRST GROWTH PHASE

CELLS INCREASE IN SIZE

PREPARE TO COPY DNA


                          8
           S
DNA SYNTHESIS

CHROMOSOMES DUPLICATED




                          9
              G2
BETWEEN DNA REPLICATION AND
 MITOSIS

CONTINUED GROWTH

NECESSARY PROTEINS PRODUCED

                               10
            M
GROWTH & PROTEIN PRODUCTION
 CEASE

CALLED MITOSIS [NUCLEAR
 DIVISION]


                           11
     INTERPHASE
       [G1, S, G2]
BEFORE MITOSIS

“NORMAL” ACTIVITIES

REGULAR METABOLISM

CHROMOSOMES NOT VISIBLE

                           12
INTERPHASE




             13
     MITOSIS
PROPHASE

METAPHASE

ANAPHASE

TELOPHASE

               14
         PROPHASE
 DNA COILS – CHROMOSOMES
  VISIBLE

 NUCLEAR MEMBRANE & NUCLEOLUS
  DISAPPEAR

 CENTROSOMES BECOME EVIDENT AT
  POLES

 SPINDLE BEGINS TO FORM

                                  15
PROPHASE




           16
CHROMOSOME
[EUKARYOTIC]




               17
HUMAN KARYOTYPE




                  18
         METAPHASE

CELL PREPARES TO SEPARATE
 DUPLICATE CHROMOSOMES

SPINDLE FIBERS ATTACH TO EACH
 CHROMOSOME

CHROMOSOMES ALIGN AT EQUATOR

                                 19
METAPHASE




            20
        ANAPHASE

CHROMOSOMES SEPARATE

KINETICORE PULLS
 CHROMOSOMES TO OPPOSITE
 POLES ALONG SPINDLE FIBERS.



                               21
          ANAPHASE
 EARLY        LATE




                       22
         TELOPHASE
 REVERSES PROPHASE

 CHROMOSOMES UNCOIL

 NUCLEAR MEMBRANE & NUCLEOLUS
  REAPPEAR

 CELL PLATE FORMS [PLANTS]

 CLEAVAGE FURROW FORMS [ANIMALS]
                                    23
TELOPHASE




            24
    CYTOKINESIS

AFTER CHROMOSOMES
 SEPARATE


YIELDS TWO IDENTICAL
 DAUGHTER CELLS



                        25
CYTOKINESIS




              26

				
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