Regulatory Practices of the South African National Nuclear by bl0QMP


									                   Regulatory Practices of the
             South African National Nuclear Regulator

                  IAEA WORKSHOP ON
                     Bonn, Germany

Presented by: Boikanyo L. Ntuane, Pr.Sci.Nat.
Principal Specialist: Nuclear Security & Radiation Protection

                         4-6 JULY 2011

• General background information on NNR
   • Mandate, objects, organisational structure

• Areas regulated by the NNR

• Brief overview of NNR regulatory practices

• Cooperation- national and international

• Conclusion
                     MANDATE OF NNR

• The National Nuclear Regulator Act ( Act No 47 of 1999) (NNRA)
  established the National Nuclear Regulator (NNR).

• The NNRA came into force on 24 February 2000.

• The promulgation of the NNRA, which deals exclusively with the
  regulation of the nuclear industry, provides for the separation of
  the promotional and Regulatory functions in the nuclear industry in
  South Africa.

• The promotional aspects of nuclear activities in South Africa are
  legislated by the Nuclear Energy Act (Act No 46 of 1999)
               MANDATE Cont …

• The establishment, objects and functions of the
  NNR are clearly encapsulated in Chapter 2 of the
  NNR Act.

• The mandate and authority of the NNR are
  conferred through section 5 and 7 of the NNRA.
                   OBJECTS OF NNR
                Section 5 of the NNR Act

• Provide for the protection to persons property and the
  environment against nuclear damage.

• Exercise regulatory control over nuclear installations, vessels
  propelled by nuclear power or having radioactive material on
  board and actions through the granting of nuclear

• Provide assurance of compliance of conditions of nuclear
  authorisations through compliance inspections.

• Fulfil national obligations in respect of international

• Ensure that provisions for an emergency plan are in place.
               (within section 2 of the NNR Act)

Nuclear Power Reactors

Eskom Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) twin 900MWe
generating power station located on the West Coast +/- 40 Kms
North of Cape Town
         •Operational Since 1984
                 (within section 2 of the NNR Act)

Nuclear Power Reactors

•   Prospective new nuclear power reactor technologies

          •Eskom informed the NNR that they are exploring the feasibility
          of constructing new nuclear light water reactor power plants

          •A Licensing Liaison Committee (N1 LLC) has been established
          between Eskom and NNR to facilitate early scoping discussions for
          future licensing frameworks

•   South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA)
          •Pelindaba Site –Located West of Pretoria
           •Research reactor, other industrial applications
           •Various Stores and Waste Management Facilities
             •Thabana Pipe Store
             •Effluent treatment facility
         •Vaalputs National Waste Repository- Located in the
         Northern Cape

• Mining and Minerals Processing

   •Currently 140 authorisations issued (NORM,
   Mineral processing, Processing of contaminated
   scrap, fertiliser production)

• Vessels
   •Either propelled by nuclear power
   •Carrying on board radioactive material
                 Areas not regulated by NNR
             (exclusions Section 2(2) of the Act)

• Exposure to cosmic radiation or potassium-40 in the body.

• Any radioactive material or action not amenable to regulatory

• Group IV hazardous substances as defined in the Hazardous
  Substances Act.

• Group III hazardous substances in term of the Hazardous
  Substances Act
                Brief overview of the NNR
                    regulatory practices

• Safety standards

• Application for a nuclear authorisation

  – Public participation

• Safety assessment

• Authorisation and conditions of

• Compliance assurance

•   Safety standards and regulatory practices adopted by NNR are in line
    with international nuclear safety standards of the International
    Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on
    Radiation Protection (ICRP) as well as other international norms and
    standards such as INSAG,USNRC 10 CFR 50 , ASME Standards ,
    IEEE standards etc

• Principle radiation protection and nuclear safety

     – Based on risk criteria and Radiation dose limits for

         • Workers and
         • Members of the Public..

• Nuclear safety requirements, amongst other, encapsulate
  the following:

   –   Defense in depth principle
   –   The ALARA principle
   –   International Norms and Standards
   –   Good engineering Practice
   –   Safety culture
   –   Accident management
   –   Quality management
                    Application for a nuclear

• In terms of section 20 of the NNR Act the following nuclear
  authorisations must be applied for prior to engaging in any
  nuclear activities to which the NNR Act applies (section 2)

   – Nuclear Installation Licence

   – Nuclear Vessel Licence

   – Certificate of Registration

   – Certificate of Exemption
                       Application for a nuclear

• In terms of section 21 and 22 of the NNR Act a formal
  application is made for a nuclear authorisation in the prescribed
  format to the CEO of the NNR.

• The NNR Act makes provisions for the public to make
  representations related to the application to the NNR Board

   – Mandatory for nuclear installation and vessel licences
   – Discretionary for certificate of registration or exemption
                     SAFETY ASSESSMENT

The applicant for a nuclear authorisation must submit a safety case to
the NNR, which include a comprehensive safety assessment of the
facility/action which must demonstrate compliance to the NNR safety

For complex projects e.g. Nuclear Power Plants a multi stage
licensing process e.g siting, design, construction/manufacture,
fuel on site, commissioning/testing adopted

   Each stage supported by a safety case
                     SAFETY ASSESSMENT

During the entire process the NNR consider all relevant aspects of the
application and may direct the applicant to furnish such information as the
NNR may require in reaching a decision on the granting or refusal of a
Nuclear Authorization and the conditions subject to which such
Authorization is to be granted

Based on the outcome of the safety assessment and review of the
documented safety case presented to the NNR a nuclear authorisation is
granted with specific conditions, or refused..

An important point to remember is that the concerns that may be raised
by the public ( as indicated in a previous slide) are taken into consideration
as an integral part of the NNR regulatory review of the application to
enable the Board decision to approve the granting (or refusal) of the
authorisation by the Chief Executive Officer.
                Nuclear authorisation

• Legal document

• Conditions may be imposed by the CEO

   – Ensure that the facility/action is operated within the
     boundaries of the safety case

   – Protection of persons, property and environment

   – Limitations on operations pertaining to safety management
     processes and systems
                    CONDITIONS OF

• Although nuclear authorisations may be different from
  nuclear installations and vessels licences to certificates
  of registration or exemption typical conditions of
  authorisations include:

     •A valid facility description
     •Modification control procedure
     •Maintain a valid and updated safety assessment.
     •Establishment and compliance with operating
     technical specifications
                CONDITIONS OF

•Maintenance and inspection program
•Operational radiation protection program
•Waste management program
•Transport of radioactive material
•Nuclear security/Physical security
•Emergency plan where applicable
•Routine reporting
•Occurrence reporting
•Quality Management program

The nuclear authorisation holder implements a monitoring and
inspection programme at the nuclear facility/action, which is
regularly assessed by the NNR, to ensure compliance with the
conditions of the nuclear installation licence

Implementation of an independent compliance inspection
programme by NNR-typically cover all conditions of
authorisation by means of:
  Occurrences investigation
  Emergency exercises (for nuclear installations)

National Cooperation as required by Section 6 of the
          NNR Act- Cooperative Agreements

• Legislative imperative
   – Where there is overlap in mandate with other relevant
     organs of state
       • DOH
       • DEAT
       • DME (MHSI, Min dev, Electricity & Nuclear)
       • DOL
       • DWAF
       • DOT (SAMSA, CAA, RSR, …)
• Other national cooperation
                    COOPERATION Cont ..

                International Cooperation

• IAEA Safety Standards Committees

• IAEA Conventions e.g Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint
  Convention on Radioactive Waste managemnent and Spent Fuel

• IAEA –AFRA initiative

• Regulator to Regulator
       • Bilaterals agreements
           – Sharing of technical information
           – Capacity building
       • Current: USNRC, France, Slovenia, Australia, Belgium, UK
       • Under review: Argentina
       • Initiated: China, Korea
                   COOPERATION Cont ..

               International Cooperation

• Multinational Design Evaluation Programme –MDEP (initiated by the
  USNRC) for new nuclear power reactor designs

• NERS regulatory forum – under the IAEA secretariat
   – Regulators with small nuclear programs

• Technical Support Organisations (TSO)
   – For technical and safety reviews

•The Safety Standards and Regulatory Practices adopted by the
NNR are well established, proven and internationally recognised

•The NNR is facing some challenges in terms of internal capacity
which is being aggravated by a tremendous increase in the
national and international demand on nuclear skills while supply
has remained stagnant both locally and internationally, making
such skills very expensive to attract and retain.

•Within the context of a potential resurgence in demand for
nuclear power, as well as an increase in uranium mining - the
challenge to effectively regulate the nuclear industry will
intensify significantly in the medium to long-term. This will
involve taking concrete steps to effectively address the internal
capacity constraints currently facing the NNR as well as
developing and integrating business processes to achieve optimal
effectiveness and efficiency.

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