Chapter 5 Groups and organizations (PowerPoint)

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					    Chapter 5

Groups and Organizations
Chapter Outline

•   Social Groups
•   Group Characteristics and Dynamics
•   Formal Organizations in Global Perspective
•   Alternative Forms of Organization
•   Organizations in the Future
Social Groups

A collection of two or more people who:
• Interact frequently.
• Share a sense of belonging.
• Have a feeling of interdependence.
Aggregates and Categories

• Aggregates happen to be in the same place
  at the same time:
   – Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a
     traffic light
• Categories share a similar characteristic:
   – Students, elderly, Native Americans
Cooley’s Primary and
Secondary Groups

 Primary     Emotion-based interaction over
  group      extended period.

 Secondary   Impersonal, goal-oriented relationships
   group     for a limited time.
Sumner’s Ingroups and
            Group to which a person belongs and
            feels a sense of identity.

            Group to which a person doesn’t belong
            and feels a sense of hostility towards.
Reference Group

• Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes,
  regardless of whether they are a member.
• We may act more like members of a group
  we want to join than members of groups to
  which we already belong.
   – In this case, reference groups are a source
     of anticipatory socialization.
Group Size

   Dyad        Group composed of two members.

   Triad       Group composed of three members.

               Highly structured secondary group
               formed for the purpose of achieving
               specific goals
    Sociological theories about social
• Functionalists; view about social groups
• According to functionalists theory, people
  form groups to meet instrumental and
  expressive needs.
• Conflict theorists; suggest that groups
  involves a series of power relationships
  whereby the needs of individual members
  may not be equally served.
Sociological theories about
•   Symbolic interactionist theory; focus on
    how the size of the group influences the kind
    of behaviors tat take place among members.
Possible Interactions Based on
Group Size
Group Leadership Functions

• Instrumental leadership is most appropriate
  when the group’s purpose is to complete a
  task or reach a particular goal.
• Expressive leadership is most appropriate
  when the group is dealing with emotional
  issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high
  morale are needed.
Group Leadership Styles

• Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for
  fostering intergroup hostility.
• Democratic leaders - praised for supportive
  behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a
• Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active
Asch’s Research

              •   Asch’s research
                  assistants tried to
                  influence participants to
                  pick Line 1 or 3 as the
                  match for the line in the
                  lower card.
              •   Many went along rather
                  than risk the opposition
                  of the “group.”
Milgram’s Obedience Experiment:
Types of Formal Organizations
Amitai Etzioni’s classification of
social groups TQ
               Organizations we join voluntarily to
 Normative     pursue a common interest or gain

               Associations people are forced to join.
               (Example: boot camps and prisons)

               Organizations we join voluntarily when
 Utilitarian   they can provide us with a material
Max Weber view on Bureaucracy

Definition of bureaucracy; an organizational
 model characterized by a hierarchy of
 authority, a clear division of labor, explicit
 rules and procedures, and impersonal
 matters .
Bureaucratic model of organization; is the
 most universal organizational form in
 government, business, education, politics and
Max Weber

• Definition of rationality; is the process by
  which traditional methods of social
  organizations, characterized by informality,
  are gradually replaced be efficient
  administrated formal roles and procedures.
• Ideal type; is an abstract model that describe
  the recurring characteristics of some
  phenomenon (such as bureaucracy)
Characteristics and Effects of
Alternative Forms of
“Humanizing” the bureaucracy:
1. Greater sharing of power and responsibility.
2. Encouragement of participants to share their
   ideas and try new approaches.
3. Efforts to reduce the number of people in
   dead-end jobs and to help people meet
   family responsibilities.
Informal Side of a Bureaucracy

•   Those aspects of participants’ day-to-day
    activities and interactions that ignore, bypass,
    or do not correspond with the official rules
    and procedures of the bureaucracy.

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