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Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations Chapter Outline • Social Groups • Group Characteristics and Dynamics • Formal Organizations in Global Perspective • Alternative Forms of Organization • Organizations in the Future Social Groups A collection of two or more people who: • Interact frequently. • Share a sense of belonging. • Have a feeling of interdependence. Aggregates and Categories • Aggregates happen to be in the same place at the same time: – Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a traffic light • Categories share a similar characteristic: – Students, elderly, Native Americans Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups Primary Emotion-based interaction over group extended period. Secondary Impersonal, goal-oriented relationships group for a limited time. Sumner’s Ingroups and Outgroups Group to which a person belongs and Ingroup feels a sense of identity. Group to which a person doesn’t belong Outgroup and feels a sense of hostility towards. Reference Group • Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes, regardless of whether they are a member. • We may act more like members of a group we want to join than members of groups to which we already belong. – In this case, reference groups are a source of anticipatory socialization. Group Size Dyad Group composed of two members. Triad Group composed of three members. Highly structured secondary group Formal formed for the purpose of achieving organization specific goals Sociological theories about social groups • Functionalists; view about social groups • According to functionalists theory, people form groups to meet instrumental and expressive needs. • Conflict theorists; suggest that groups involves a series of power relationships whereby the needs of individual members may not be equally served. Sociological theories about groups • Symbolic interactionist theory; focus on how the size of the group influences the kind of behaviors tat take place among members. Possible Interactions Based on Group Size Group Leadership Functions • Instrumental leadership is most appropriate when the group’s purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal. • Expressive leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed. Group Leadership Styles • Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility. • Democratic leaders - praised for supportive behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a crisis. • Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active leadership. Asch’s Research • Asch’s research assistants tried to influence participants to pick Line 1 or 3 as the match for the line in the lower card. • Many went along rather than risk the opposition of the “group.” Milgram’s Obedience Experiment: Results Types of Formal Organizations Amitai Etzioni’s classification of social groups TQ Organizations we join voluntarily to Normative pursue a common interest or gain prestige. Associations people are forced to join. Coercive (Example: boot camps and prisons) Organizations we join voluntarily when Utilitarian they can provide us with a material reward. Max Weber view on Bureaucracy Definition of bureaucracy; an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonal matters . Bureaucratic model of organization; is the most universal organizational form in government, business, education, politics and religion. Max Weber • Definition of rationality; is the process by which traditional methods of social organizations, characterized by informality, are gradually replaced be efficient administrated formal roles and procedures. • Ideal type; is an abstract model that describe the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy) Characteristics and Effects of Bureaucracy Alternative Forms of Organization “Humanizing” the bureaucracy: 1. Greater sharing of power and responsibility. 2. Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches. 3. Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead-end jobs and to help people meet family responsibilities. Informal Side of a Bureaucracy • Those aspects of participants’ day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy.
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