Groups and Organizations
• Social Groups
• Group Characteristics and Dynamics
• Formal Organizations in Global Perspective
• Alternative Forms of Organization
• Organizations in the Future
A collection of two or more people who:
• Interact frequently.
• Share a sense of belonging.
• Have a feeling of interdependence.
Aggregates and Categories
• Aggregates happen to be in the same place
at the same time:
– Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a
• Categories share a similar characteristic:
– Students, elderly, Native Americans
Cooley’s Primary and
Primary Emotion-based interaction over
group extended period.
Secondary Impersonal, goal-oriented relationships
group for a limited time.
Sumner’s Ingroups and
Group to which a person belongs and
feels a sense of identity.
Group to which a person doesn’t belong
and feels a sense of hostility towards.
• Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes,
regardless of whether they are a member.
• We may act more like members of a group
we want to join than members of groups to
which we already belong.
– In this case, reference groups are a source
of anticipatory socialization.
Dyad Group composed of two members.
Triad Group composed of three members.
Highly structured secondary group
formed for the purpose of achieving
Sociological theories about social
• Functionalists; view about social groups
• According to functionalists theory, people
form groups to meet instrumental and
• Conflict theorists; suggest that groups
involves a series of power relationships
whereby the needs of individual members
may not be equally served.
Sociological theories about
• Symbolic interactionist theory; focus on
how the size of the group influences the kind
of behaviors tat take place among members.
Possible Interactions Based on
Group Leadership Functions
• Instrumental leadership is most appropriate
when the group’s purpose is to complete a
task or reach a particular goal.
• Expressive leadership is most appropriate
when the group is dealing with emotional
issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high
morale are needed.
Group Leadership Styles
• Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for
fostering intergroup hostility.
• Democratic leaders - praised for supportive
behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a
• Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active
• Asch’s research
assistants tried to
influence participants to
pick Line 1 or 3 as the
match for the line in the
• Many went along rather
than risk the opposition
of the “group.”
Milgram’s Obedience Experiment:
Types of Formal Organizations
Amitai Etzioni’s classification of
social groups TQ
Organizations we join voluntarily to
Normative pursue a common interest or gain
Associations people are forced to join.
(Example: boot camps and prisons)
Organizations we join voluntarily when
Utilitarian they can provide us with a material
Max Weber view on Bureaucracy
Definition of bureaucracy; an organizational
model characterized by a hierarchy of
authority, a clear division of labor, explicit
rules and procedures, and impersonal
Bureaucratic model of organization; is the
most universal organizational form in
government, business, education, politics and
• Definition of rationality; is the process by
which traditional methods of social
organizations, characterized by informality,
are gradually replaced be efficient
administrated formal roles and procedures.
• Ideal type; is an abstract model that describe
the recurring characteristics of some
phenomenon (such as bureaucracy)
Characteristics and Effects of
Alternative Forms of
“Humanizing” the bureaucracy:
1. Greater sharing of power and responsibility.
2. Encouragement of participants to share their
ideas and try new approaches.
3. Efforts to reduce the number of people in
dead-end jobs and to help people meet
Informal Side of a Bureaucracy
• Those aspects of participants’ day-to-day
activities and interactions that ignore, bypass,
or do not correspond with the official rules
and procedures of the bureaucracy.