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ERIK ERIKSON Erikson’s Theory Freudian Roots – strongly committed to psychoanalytic thinking Developmental Model Despite strong ties to traditional Freudian thinking, Erikson de-emphasized the sexual aspect of psychological development, attaching Considered, instead, “epigenetic” stages of development Stages are rooted in both biological and social milestones As age progresses, biological rootedness is subsumed under social development Identity Crisis Point in life whereby one feels some sense of anxiety or instability with respect to personal identity realized that there appeared to be goals that Erikson are more highly specific to particular to phases of life. i.e.adolescents are more concerned about social cohesion and “fitting in” than those in middle age, who are more concerned with social contribution. These phases were not especially tied to one’s biology or internal states, but were connected to external objects PSYCHO“SOCIAL” STAGES Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Oral-Sensory (0-1yr) Oral (0-18mo) Anal-Muscular (1-3yrs) Anal (18mo-3yrs) Genital-Locomotor (3-5yrs) Phallic (4-6 yrs) Latency (6-11yrs) Latency (7-9/10 yrs) Adolescence (12-18yrs) Genital (Puberty +) Young Adulthood (18-35yrs) Adulthood (35-55yrs) Older Adulthood (55 +) Stage Crisis & Basic Strengths Crisis – The circumstance experienced when one encounters a developmental need at a particular period of time. Basic strength – the quality of character that one develops when adequately resolving the developmental crisis Erikson’s Model of Development Older Integrity v. Adulthood Despair WISDOM Middle Generativity v. HOPE WILL Adulthood Stagnation PURPOSE CARE COMPETENCE FIDELITY CARE Young Intimacy v. HOPE HOPE WILL WILL Adulthood Isolation PURPOSE PURPOSE LOVE COMPETENCE COMPETENCE FIDELITY FIDELITY Adolescence Identity v. HOPE HOPE HOPE WILL WILL WILL Confusion PURPOSE PURPOSE PURPOSE FIDELITY COMPETENCE COMPETENCE COMPETENCE School Age Industry v. HOPE HOPE HOPE HOPE WILL WILL WILL WILL Inferiority PURPOSE PURPOSE PURPOSE PURPOSE COMPETENCE Play Age Initiative v. HOPE HOPE HOPE HOPE HOPE WILL WILL WILL WILL Guilt WILL PURPOSE Early Autonomy v. HOPE HOPE HOPE HOPE HOPE HOPE Childhood Shame WILL Infancy Trust v. mistrust HOPE Basic Weaknesses and Development Basic Weakness parallel maladaptive trait that must accompany the The adaptive trait in order to develop in a healthy manner. Themaladaptive trait, in healthy individuals, will be far exceeded by the adaptive trait and be a functional coping mechanism when appropriate STAGE 1: ORAL-SENSORY Primary experiences most fundamental the rest of life. Earliest attachments begin the foundation for future orientation to the world Still rooted in oral incorporative stance toward life COPING: Trust v. Mistrust Child’s capability to trust others and experience the world as a trustworthy place is virtually exclusively dependent upon the parent’s care and nurturance MALDEVELOPMENT: Sensory maladjustment/Withdrawal STRENGTH: HOPE STAGE 2: ANAL-MUSCULAR Early experiences of orienting to the world and beginning to assert one’s self. This is most saliently experienced in the process of potty training Developing a sense of control and mastery in the world is highly tied to bodily orientation and control. COPING: Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt MALDEVELOPMENT: Shameless willfulness/Compulsion STRENGTH: WILL STAGE 3: Locomotor-Genital This period of a child’s life is defined by a developing sense of self and engagement with the outside world. Language capabilities (verbal and written) develop. Increasing sense of “I” toward endeavors and personal interests Developing a sense of permissible behaviors COPING: Initiative v. Guilt MALDEVELOPMENT: Ruthlessness/Inhibition STRENGTH: PURPOSE STAGE 4: Latency Developing involvement in the outside, social world. This is the early school age period where the child begins developing various competencies. Initial development of self-initiated peer relationships Developing cognitive abilities COPING: Industriousness v. Inferiority MALDEVELOPMENT: Narrow virtuosity/Inertia STRENGTH: COMPETENCE STAGE 5: Adolescence Peer connections and social relationships become the predominant orienting force in the person’s life. IDENTITY CRISIS and developing the EGO IDENTITY-the failure of one to develop a meaningful sense of self resulting in confusion and un-differentiation COPING: Identity Cohesion v. Role Confusion MALDEVELOPMENT: Fanaticism/Repudiation STRENGTH: FIDELITY INTERLUDE: Adolescent Development IDEOLOGICAL COMMITMENTS NO YES Vague and undetermined Strong ego identity, stable, YES ideological commitments, MORATORIUM IDENTITY realistic goals, able to cope with ambivalence with authority ACHIEVEMENT IDENTITY CRISIS (rebelling v. dependence), changing environmental demands indecisive v. creative May actively reject commitments, Commitments often determined by may be aimless drifters; distant IDENTITY parents; rigid and authoritarian relationships with parents often, FORCLOSURE NO DIFFUSION possibly impulsive and self- and difficulty coping with change destructive Alienated Achievement – Cerebral, philosophical, cynical. Critical of social institutions and ideologically distant STAGE 6: Young Adulthood Once stable peer groups have been established and one’s identity has reasonably solidified, the individual is considering launching and striking out on one’s own. This is a period of strong individuation and personal development. Emphasis on career and consideration of beginning one’s own family Development of intimate partnerships with the prospect of long-term commitment. COPING: Intimacy v. Isolation MALDEVELOPMENT: Promiscuity/Exclusivity (Obsession) STRENGTH: LOVE STAGE 7: Middle Adulthood Participation in giving to the next generation This is possible in the many different social situations and endeavors that one is a part of Failure to find ways to meaningfully contribute often lead to something like a mid-life crisis, a turning toward self- absorption rather than generosity and contribution COPING: Generativity v. Stagnation MALDEVELOPMENT: Overextension/Rejectivity STRENGTH: CARE STAGE 8: Older Adulthood Evaluating the whole of our own lives and reflecting on our experiences and contributions Ideally, the experience is one of satisfaction and peace with one’s activities and endeavors This stage becomes distressing when frustration, anxiety, disappointment and regret dominate our experiences of memory and legacy COPING: Ego Integrity v. Despair MALDEVELOPMENT: Presumption/Disdain STRENGTH: WISDOM Case Study Louise is a 48 year old African-American woman who has been married for 20 years and has 4 children. Recently, she has been experiencing a high degree of anxiety and worry, seemingly out of nowhere that has been distressing her. She mentioned it to her pastor who suggested she see a therapist. In the first session with Louise, the therapist discovered that she has been feeling a lack of purpose and meaning in her life. She has always defined herself as a wife and a mother, however, recent discovery of her husband’s affair early in their marriage has left their relationship sterile and distant. Furthermore, two of her children are grown and out of the house, one in college and one working, while the remaining two are still in school but needing (and desiring) far less support and attention. Louise finds that she is often down during the day in an empty house and that the evening is usually frustrating as her kids and husband have other activities and interests that their attention is devoted to. She has recently realized that all of her devotion to her family has resulted in losing contact with her friends. Louise indicates that she is beginning to feel useless and without an important role in the family and in the world and doesn’t know quite what to do.
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