; ERIK ERIKSON ERIK ERIKSON Erikson’s Theory  Freudian
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ERIK ERIKSON ERIK ERIKSON Erikson’s Theory  Freudian

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Erikson’s Theory
   Freudian Roots – strongly committed to
    psychoanalytic thinking
   Developmental Model
     Despite  strong ties to traditional Freudian thinking,
      Erikson de-emphasized the sexual aspect of
      psychological development, attaching
     Considered, instead, “epigenetic” stages of
       Stages  are rooted in both biological and social milestones
       As age progresses, biological rootedness is subsumed under
        social development
Identity Crisis
   Point in life whereby one feels some sense of
    anxiety or instability with respect to personal
            realized that there appeared to be goals that
     Erikson
      are more highly specific to particular to phases of life.
       i.e.adolescents are more concerned about social cohesion
        and “fitting in” than those in middle age, who are more
        concerned with social contribution.
       These phases were not especially tied to one’s biology or
        internal states, but were connected to external objects
   Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages                  Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
                   Oral-Sensory (0-1yr)            Oral (0-18mo)

                  Anal-Muscular (1-3yrs)           Anal (18mo-3yrs)

          Genital-Locomotor (3-5yrs)               Phallic (4-6 yrs)

                       Latency (6-11yrs)           Latency (7-9/10 yrs)

              Adolescence (12-18yrs)               Genital (Puberty +)

         Young Adulthood (18-35yrs)

                   Adulthood (35-55yrs)

              Older Adulthood (55 +)
Stage Crisis & Basic Strengths
    Crisis – The circumstance experienced when one
     encounters a developmental need at a particular
     period of time.

    Basic strength – the quality of character that one
     develops when adequately resolving the
     developmental crisis
          Erikson’s Model of Development
Older                                                                                                              Integrity v.
Adulthood                                                                                                          Despair
Middle                                                                                           Generativity v.   HOPE
Adulthood                                                                                        Stagnation        PURPOSE
                                                                                                 CARE              COMPETENCE

Young                                                                              Intimacy v.   HOPE              HOPE
                                                                                                 WILL              WILL
Adulthood                                                                          Isolation     PURPOSE           PURPOSE
                                                                                   LOVE          COMPETENCE        COMPETENCE
                                                                                                 FIDELITY          FIDELITY

Adolescence                                                          Identity v.   HOPE          HOPE              HOPE
                                                                                   WILL          WILL              WILL
                                                                     Confusion     PURPOSE       PURPOSE           PURPOSE
                                                                     FIDELITY      COMPETENCE    COMPETENCE        COMPETENCE

School Age                                             Industry v.   HOPE          HOPE          HOPE              HOPE
                                                                     WILL          WILL          WILL              WILL
                                                       Inferiority   PURPOSE       PURPOSE       PURPOSE           PURPOSE

Play Age                               Initiative v.   HOPE          HOPE          HOPE          HOPE              HOPE
                                                                     WILL          WILL          WILL              WILL
                                       Guilt           WILL
Early                    Autonomy v.   HOPE            HOPE          HOPE          HOPE          HOPE              HOPE

Childhood                Shame
Infancy       Trust v.
Basic Weaknesses and Development
    Basic Weakness
         parallel maladaptive trait that must accompany the
      The
      adaptive trait in order to develop in a healthy manner.

      Themaladaptive trait, in healthy individuals, will be far
      exceeded by the adaptive trait and be a functional
      coping mechanism when appropriate
   Primary experiences most fundamental the rest of life.
   Earliest attachments begin the foundation for future orientation to
    the world
   Still rooted in oral incorporative stance toward life

   COPING: Trust v. Mistrust
       Child’s capability to trust others and experience the world as a
        trustworthy place is virtually exclusively dependent upon the parent’s
        care and nurturance

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Sensory maladjustment/Withdrawal

   Early experiences of orienting to the world and beginning to
    assert one’s self.
   This is most saliently experienced in the process of potty
   Developing a sense of control and mastery in the world is
    highly tied to bodily orientation and control.

   COPING: Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Shameless willfulness/Compulsion

STAGE 3: Locomotor-Genital
   This period of a child’s life is defined by a developing sense
    of self and engagement with the outside world.
   Language capabilities (verbal and written) develop.
   Increasing sense of “I” toward endeavors and personal
   Developing a sense of permissible behaviors

   COPING: Initiative v. Guilt

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Ruthlessness/Inhibition

STAGE 4: Latency
   Developing involvement in the outside, social world. This
    is the early school age period where the child begins
    developing various competencies.
   Initial development of self-initiated peer relationships
   Developing cognitive abilities

   COPING: Industriousness v. Inferiority

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Narrow virtuosity/Inertia

STAGE 5: Adolescence
   Peer connections and social relationships become the
    predominant orienting force in the person’s life.
   IDENTITY CRISIS and developing the EGO IDENTITY-the
    failure of one to develop a meaningful sense of self
    resulting in confusion and un-differentiation

   COPING: Identity Cohesion v. Role Confusion

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Fanaticism/Repudiation

             INTERLUDE: Adolescent Development
                                           IDEOLOGICAL COMMITMENTS
                                   NO                                         YES

                        Vague and undetermined
                                                                Strong ego identity, stable,

                         ideological commitments,
                       MORATORIUM                                  IDENTITY
                                                              realistic goals, able to cope with
                       ambivalence with authority

                        (rebelling v. dependence),           changing environmental demands
                           indecisive v. creative
                     May actively reject commitments,
                                                             Commitments often determined by
                       may be aimless drifters; distant
                           IDENTITY                            parents; rigid and authoritarian
                      relationships with parents often,

                        possibly impulsive and self-          and difficulty coping with change


             Alienated Achievement – Cerebral, philosophical, cynical. Critical of social institutions
             and ideologically distant
STAGE 6: Young Adulthood
   Once stable peer groups have been established and one’s identity
    has reasonably solidified, the individual is considering launching and
    striking out on one’s own.
   This is a period of strong individuation and personal development.
   Emphasis on career and consideration of beginning one’s own family
   Development of intimate partnerships with the prospect of long-term

   COPING: Intimacy v. Isolation

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Promiscuity/Exclusivity (Obsession)

STAGE 7: Middle Adulthood
   Participation in giving to the next generation
   This is possible in the many different social situations and
    endeavors that one is a part of
   Failure to find ways to meaningfully contribute often lead to
    something like a mid-life crisis, a turning toward self-
    absorption rather than generosity and contribution

   COPING: Generativity v. Stagnation

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Overextension/Rejectivity

STAGE 8: Older Adulthood
   Evaluating the whole of our own lives and reflecting on our
    experiences and contributions
   Ideally, the experience is one of satisfaction and peace with one’s
    activities and endeavors
   This stage becomes distressing when frustration, anxiety,
    disappointment and regret dominate our experiences of memory
    and legacy

   COPING: Ego Integrity v. Despair

   MALDEVELOPMENT: Presumption/Disdain

    Case Study
   Louise is a 48 year old African-American woman who has been married for 20
    years and has 4 children. Recently, she has been experiencing a high degree of
    anxiety and worry, seemingly out of nowhere that has been distressing her. She
    mentioned it to her pastor who suggested she see a therapist.
   In the first session with Louise, the therapist discovered that she has been feeling
    a lack of purpose and meaning in her life. She has always defined herself as a
    wife and a mother, however, recent discovery of her husband’s affair early in
    their marriage has left their relationship sterile and distant. Furthermore, two of
    her children are grown and out of the house, one in college and one working,
    while the remaining two are still in school but needing (and desiring) far less
    support and attention.
   Louise finds that she is often down during the day in an empty house and that the
    evening is usually frustrating as her kids and husband have other activities and
    interests that their attention is devoted to. She has recently realized that all of
    her devotion to her family has resulted in losing contact with her friends.
   Louise indicates that she is beginning to feel useless and without an important
    role in the family and in the world and doesn’t know quite what to do.

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