Chapter 19 - Drifting towards disunion by huanghengdong

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									The Road to
 Secession
  1854-1860
    Incendiary Literature




• Harriet Beecher Stowe lit a
  wildfire of dissension with the
  publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
• The book helped start the war and
  helped win it.
• Hinton Helper (1857) wrote
  The Impending Crisis of the
  South, in which he attempted to
  prove that the non-slaveholding
  southerners suffered the most
  from slavery.
     Bleeding Kansas



• Southerners believed the
  agreement had been reached
  that Kansas would be slave and
  Nebraska would be free.
• Northern
  abolitionists and
  free-soilers
  fought this
  assumption by
  sending
  pioneers
  westward.
• The New England Emigrant
  Aid Company sent 2000
  settlers many armed with
  “Beechers Bibles” - the new
  Sharps rifle.
• 1855 - Pro-
  Slavery “border
  ruffians” crossed
  west from
  Missouri into
  Kansas on
  election day to
  elect the new
  government at
  Shawnee Mission.
• Free-soilers elected their own
  government at Topeka.
• 1856 - proslavery raiders invaded
  the free soil town of Lawrence and
  burned part of the town.
• May 1856 --
  John Brown and
  his followers
  hacked five pro-
  slavers to death
  with swords at
  Pottawatomie
  Creek.
• 1857 - Pro-Slavery forces
 create the Lecompton
 Constitution.
• Election forced voters to
  choose between the
  constitution with slavery or
  without slavery - slaves in
  state would be protected no
  matter what.
                 • Free-soilers
                   boycotted the
                   election -
                   constitution passes
                   with slavery.
                 • President
                   Buchanan backs
                   the Lecompton
James Buchanan     constitution -
                   Douglas is against
                   it.
• Entire constitution is
  submitted to a vote - free-
  soilers defeat it.
• Kansas doesn’t gain statehood
  until 1861.
• Buchanan and Douglas forces
  divide the Democratic Party.
     1856 - Bully Brooks
• Senator Charles
  Sumner makes a
  speech in the
  Senate
  denouncing
  southern slavery
  and insulting
  Senator Butler of
  South Carolina.
• Congressman Preston Brooks
  of S.C. attacks and beats
  Sumner on the floor of the
  Senate - whips him with a cane.
• This incident underscored
  the inflamed passions arising
  from the issue of slavery and
  free-soil.
Election of 1856.
       • Democrats
         nominate James
         Buchanan over
         Douglas and
         Pierce - too
         much political
         baggage from
         the Kansas-
         Nebraska Act.
• Republicans
  nominate John
  C. Fremont,
  “The
  Pathfinder” -
  over “Higher
  Law” Seward.
• Republicans were for free-
  soil; the Democrats for
  popular sovereignty.
• The American Party (Know-
  nothings) nominated ex-
  President Fillmore. The few
  remaining Whigs also
  endorsed Fillmore.
• Southerners threatened that
  a Republican victory would
  be a declaration of war.
• Buchanan won the electoral
  vote without gaining a majority
  of the popular vote.
• The Republican loss was a
  gain for the north - secession
  in 1856 would have been
  easier for the south.
  The Dred Scott Decision
• Dred Scott, a
 black slave,
 having lived in
 the north for
 five years, sues
 for his freedom.
• Chief Justice
  Roger B.
  Taney rules
  that Scott was
  a black slave
  and not a
  citizen and
  hence had no
  standing to
  bring suit.
• The pro-southern majority
  went further and ruled that
  slaves, as property, could be
  taken into any territory and
  held there.
• The fifth amendment denies
  Congress the power to
  deprive citizens of their
  property without due
  process.
• The Missouri Compromise,
  repealed by the Kansas-
  Nebraska Act, was now ruled
  unconstitutional.
• Northern free-soilers called
  the ruling a mere “opinion”
  and refused to abide by it.
• Southerners considered the
  likelihood of maintaining the
  bonds of union with states
  that would not abide by
  rulings of the supreme court.
     The Panic of 1857
• Causes
• Inflation caused by gold.
• Over stimulated grain
  markets caused by the
  Crimean War
• Over speculation in land and
  railroads.
• Effects
• Northwestern grain growers
  hit the hardest.
• High cotton prices kept the
  south safe from recession.
           King Cotton
• The power of
  the southern
  economy
  reinforced
  southern
  ideas that
  cotton was
  “king”.
• Increased demands for
  cheap land and higher tariffs
            Homestead Act
•  Northerners
  increased demands
  for homestead laws
  giving away
  government land as
  160 acre farms.
• Easterners opposed
  in fear that free land
  would drain off the
  labor force.
• South opposed it because
  160 acres was too small for
  slave farms.
• Buchanan would veto a
  homestead bill in 1860.
The Illinois Rail Splitter
           • Illinois Senate
             election of 1858
             pit Republican
             Abraham
             Lincoln against
             Democrat
             Stephen
             Douglas.
  "A house divided against itself
   cannot stand." I believe this
   government cannot endure
 permanently half slave and half
free. I do not expect the Union to
be dissolved -- I do not expect the
 house to fall -- but I do expect it
  will cease to be divided. It will
 become all one thing, or all the
               other.”
• Lincoln was born in
  a log cabin, self
  educated, married
  Mary Todd,
  became a trial
  lawyer, served one
  term in Congress
  (1847-49; “spotty”
  Lincoln.)
Lincoln – Douglas
     Debates
• Lincoln
  challenged
  Douglas to a
  series of debates
  at various location
  from August to
  October 1858.
• At Freeport,
  Lincoln
  challenged
  Douglas to a
  dilemma “if the
  people of a
  territory voted
  against slavery
  who would prevail
  --the courts or the
  people?”
• With what
  became called
  the “Freeport
  Doctrine,”
  Douglas
  answered that
  court or no court,
  the people would
  ultimately decide
  the fate of
  slavery in the
  territories.
• Douglas
  defeated
  Lincoln - but
  because of the
  way Senators
  were elected -
  Lincoln actually
  carried more
  popular vote.
• Douglas’s
  victory in
  defiance of
  the Dred Scott
  decision
  further split
  him from
  southern
  Democrats.
    John Brown and Harper’s
            Ferry
• After the
 Pottawatomie
 Massacre in
 Kansas - Brown
 began developing
 a plan to invade
 the south and start
 a slave uprising
 and establish a
 black free state.
• October 1859 -
  Brown and 20
  followers seized
  the federal
  arsenal at
  Harper’s Ferry
  in Western
  Virginia.
John Brown Holds Hostage at Bay with Rifle
• Colonel Robert
  E. Lee and the
  U.S. Marines
  captured Brown
  and four
  survivors -
  Brown is tried
  for treason and
  hanged.
• His death
  note
  warned that
  slavery
  would be
  purged only
  by “much
  bloodshed.”
• The south saw in Brown their
  worse fears - that the north
  was dominated by “Brown-
  loving” Republicans seeking
  to steal their property.
 The Fateful Election of 1860
• Democrats meet
 in Charleston, SC
 - southern anti-
 Douglas
 delegates walk
 out and Douglas
 fails to get 2/3rds
 vote needed for
 nomination.
• Democrats
  meet again in
  Baltimore -
  southerners
  again walk but
  Douglas gets
  nomination.
• Democratic
  platform is for
  popular
  sovereignty
  and
  enforcement
  of the Fugitive
  Slave laws.
• Southern
  Democrats meet
  and nominate John
  C. Breckinridge of
  Kentucky - platform
  favored extension
  of slavery and the
  annexation of
  Cuba.
• Former Whigs and
  “know nothings”
  meet to form the
  Constitutional Union
  Party - nominate
  John Bell of
  Tennessee - “the
  Union, the
  Constitution, and the
  enforcement of
  Laws”
• Republicans
  meet in Chicago
  - William Seward
  had too much
  baggage -
  Lincoln gets the
  nomination on
  the third ballot.
Republican platform included
• non-extension of slavery,
• protective tariff,
• no abridgment of immigrants
  rights,
• northern transcontinental
  railroad,
• internal improvements,
• free homesteads.
• Southern
  secessionists
  warned that
  the south
  would secede
  if Lincoln were
  elected.
• Lincoln won
  the electoral
  vote by a bare
  plurality of the
  popular vote.
• South Carolina secessionists
  rejoiced at Lincoln’s victory -
  they now had their excuse.
• Southern voting did not show
  a strong sentiment toward
  disunion - south still had the
  votes to protect slavery from
  a constitutional amendment.
         Secession



• Four days after the election South
  Carolina votes to hold a special
  convention to debate secession.
• On December 18,
  James Crittenden of
  Kentucky puts forth a
  series of compromises
• one is to amend the
  constitution to extend
  the Missouri
  Compromise line to the
  Pacific
• President-elect Lincoln
  flatly refuses the
  compromise.
• December
  20, 1860 -
  South
  Carolina
  votes to
  secede from
  the union.
• Members of the
  Buchanan cabinet
  begin to quit in
  protest over his
  inaction.
• Buchanan held that
  the southern states
  had no right to
  secede but that he
  had no right to make
  them stay by force.
• Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor is
  held by Major Robert Anderson - S.C.
  formally calls for the removal of all
  federal forces from their territory.
• Lincoln is
  unable and
  unwilling to do
  anything in
  this lame-duck
  period.
• January 1861 - Mississippi, Florida,
  Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana -
  meet in Montgomery, Alabama to
  form a provisional government for the
  Confederate States of America.

								
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