Sales Techniques - Sales Training

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chapter   1:   Introduction to Selling
chapter   2:   Relationship Selling
chapter   3:   Ethical and Legal Considerations
chapter   4:   Consumer Behavior and
               The Communication Agenda
chapter   5:   Finding your Selling Style
chapter   6:   Preparation for Success in Selling
chapter   7:   Prospecting
chapter   8:   The Preapproach and
               Telephone Techniques
chapter 9:     Approaching the Prospect
chapter 10:    Asking Questions and Listening
               The S P I N
chapter 11:    Preparing for an Effective Presentation
chapter 12:    Handling Objections
chapter 13:    CLOSE
chapter 14:    Building Relationships
               with Total Customer Service
chapter 15:    Personal Organisation and
               Self Management
chapter 16:    Sales Management
               CHAPTER 1
               TO SELLING
      Qualities of High Sales Performers
                            o   Sell to people
                            o   Know when to close
                            o   Exchange Information
                            o   Regularly establish trust
                            o   Engage in certain behaviors
                            o   Provide value added to the customer
                            o   Be perceived as a genuine advocates of
                                prospects’ needs

  o      Human relation skills are basic selling skills.
  o      Skills are learned and practiced from birth.
  o      Everyone has a base upon which to build their selling abilities.
  o      Introverts and extroverts are successful in selling

           The Value of Salespeople
 Selling keeps products, services and ideas flowing.
                      Growing corporate competiveness
 Sales people are o Latest sales strategies are essential
solutions providers o Understand your customers problems
                     identify customer needs

Businesses rely on o Help determine prices of the products their
                     company sells.
 salespeople for
                   o Inform customers of new products.
many functions     o Follow up on the customer once the sale is made.
                      Compensation places more salespeople above
                      $100,000 annually than people in any other
Critical importance o Time and Cost of Sales Training
  of salespeople    o Importance of Sales Training
 is recognized by o According to published data, the average cost per
                      call for a professional salesperson in many
                      industrial organizations exceeds $300

    More salespeople earn above $100,000 annually
         than people in any other profession

         Importance of Sales Training
o       Salespople are cross trained on other tasks
o       Cost of replacing a trained seller can be up to $500,000
o       Learning never stops
o       Salespeople are most comfortable selling what they understand.
o       Successful companies
       see sales training as the basis for gaining a competitive advantage.
       provide ongoing training
    o   Sales training builds confidence in the sales force and enables them
        to make superior presentations.
  False Negative Perceptions about selling abound
Personal              o    Personal Integrity
                      o    Personality Structure
Attributes            o    Personal Relationships


    Women in Selling

                    About 26% of all sales jobs and 10% of all
                    sales managers

                    Women dominate some industries (Apparel,
                    Business services, office equipment)

                    Still lagging in many industries

                    There is no evidence relating performance
                    to gender

                    There are style differences.
                   PERSONAL SELLING
       Definition of Personal Selling
                Seeking out people who have
Seeking         a particular need.
                            Assisting them to recognize
                            the existence of needs they
Assisting                   have that could be met
                            through your offering.
                            Demonstrating how your
Demonstrating               offering fills that need.
                            Persuading qualified
Persuading                  prospects that your product
                            will fill their needs.

             Salespeople are made not born
    o   They are made with
           concentrated attention
           repeated practice
           goal oriented direction
    o   Become a Master Salesperson
    o   Become a student of your profession
    o   Learn throughout your career

o   Variety and Independence
o   No set routine
o   Each sales situation has a unique character
o   The variety of prospects and their needs.
o   Variety of activities in one day and from day to day
o   Security
o   Entrepreneurship
o   Professional salespeople are never unemployed.
o   Salespeople have an especially good opportunity to
    exercise a direct effect on their income and security
    by their own efforts.
          Hierarchy of Personal Needs

                  o   Advancement in Direct Selling
                  o   Entrepeneurship
Opportunity for   o   Promotion to Sales Management
Advancement       o   Involvement in Sales Training
                  o   Moving Into Top Management
                  o   Security

                  o   The knowledge that you are meeting your own
                      highest personal needs for self-actualization.
Personal          o   Knowing that you have been of service to
Satisfaction is       someone else while, at the same time, you have
derived from          met your own goals.
                  o   Being able to control your own work time and
                      activities on a daily basis.
              Variable income
                Long hours

             Handling rejection

                All sales jobs have some similarities
 o   The need to understand the prospect’s problems
 o   The need for self discipline to relentlessly execute a sales plan
 o   The need for appropriate technical and/or product knowledge.
 o   The ability to translate products into benefits that resolve problems

                             o Taking orders and field service.
                             o Largely involves delivering orders and replenishing
                             o Expected to persuade customers to provide additional
                               shelf space or more favorable placement of stock.
       Trade Selling         o Opportunity to increase sales comes most often
                               through assisting the customer to move a larger
                               volume of inventory.
                             o Often actually set up product displays in retail stores.

                             o Educate those who ultimately decide what product will
                               be used by the consumer.
                             o Often does not see immediate results from their efforts
Missionary Selling             in the way of products sold.
                             o Still accountable for sales.

                             o Salespeople must also be competent in some technical
                               specialty related to the products sold.
                             o Usually called in by another salesperson who has
                               already contacted the prospect and stimulated some
 Technical Selling           o Often conducted by a sales team.
                             o Still need real sales skills because their role is more
                               than just explaining the technical aspects of the
         New Business Selling
                                           o   Established clients
                 Account representative    o   Many calls

                                           o   Concentrates on promotions
                                           o   Product introductions
                 Detail salesperson
                                           o   May not take orders directly

 Selling for a   Sales Engineer
                                           o   Technical skills

Manufacturer     Industrial Products
                                               Tangible products
                                               Industrial customers
                 Salesperson - Non         o   Technical knowledge not
                 Technical                     needed

                                           o   Intangible products
                 Service salesperson       o   Sells on benefits only

                  Largest group - Real estate - Retail clerks
   Selling at     Insurance agents - Telephone salespeople
                  Direct (door to door) - Party sales
       Retail     Multi level sales

The Order Taker and the Order Getter
                  o "Responds" or "Reacts" to the expressed desires of
       Order        customers is
                  o Uses suggestion selling to get buyers to purchase
       Taker        additional products.

                  o are creative, persistent, and build strong relationships
                  o creative selling deals with intangibles and intangibles
                  o offers the possibility of the highest personal income of
      Order         any type of selling.
                  o requires a high level of personal skill, dedication and
      Getter        effort.
                  o time is still spent in maintaining relationships with
                    former or present clients.

    Successful Salespeople
                 Nothing can stop the man with the right mental
                 attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth
                 can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.”
                 - Thomas Jefferson
o   Enthusiasm
                               o Willing   to do what it takes to attain
o   Sincerity                   goals.
o   Empathy                            to find satisfaction in
                               o Ability
                                contributing to achievement of the
o   Goal Direction              goals set by their company.
o   Resourcefulness            o Enjoy   serving the needs of others.
o   Administrative Ability     o Able to stay focused on daily
o   Perseverance
                               o Other   characteristics
o   Pleasant Personality
                               1. Strong positive self image
o   Initiative
                               2. High ethical standards
o   Ability to Ask Questions
                               3. Sensitivity to the needs of others.
                               4. Able to win the trust of others
    Change is often desirable, frequently
C   necessary, and always inevitable
    Remember…only you can give
    yourself permission to approve of
R   you. Unlock your mind from negative
    nvision yourself a success. What you
E   think about you become.
    Attitude does determine your altitude.
A   It's what’s inside that makes you
    The right angle to solve a problem is
T   the try-angle.
    Eliminate failure as an option, and
E   progress naturally emerges

    The best is yet to come. yesterdays impossibilities are today’s
T   possibilities.
    Have your dreams. they are the stuff great people are made of. reach for
H   the stars but keep your feet on the ground.
    Extraordinary desire and persistance drives ordinary people to achieve
E   great things. achievers are not extraordinary people.

S   Seven days without laughter makes one weak.

A   A smile is the shortest between two people.
    Listen twice as much as you talk. You were given two ears and one
L   tongue.
    Encourgaging feedback is a process for learning about your impact on
E   those around you.
    Success is the progressive realization of worthwhile, predetermined,
S   personal goals.

E   Excuses are for losers. Winners have ways. May we all find the way.
    Determine never to give up. It’s when things seem the worst that you
D   must not quit.
G   Goals are dreams with a due date.
    Expect the best of yourself. Be somebody special. The best never
E   consider success optional.
       CHAPTER 2
                “Your professionalism is
                defined not by the business
                you are in, but by the way
                you are in business”

                - Tony Alessandra

     The trend in professional selling today is toward
          Consultative, Problem-Solving selling
                             The ultimate goal of the consultative
Customer Satisfaction        seller throughout the selling process.
                             Managing the account relationship
          Relationship       Ensuring that your clients receive the
          Management         proper service before, during and after
                             the sale
                             Present only what the prospect needs
                             to know and then ask for the order.

                             Take time to use an icebreaker, if
                             appropriate, to warm up the prospect
Successful sellers who       before discussing product information.
    foster relationship
                             Keep their attention focused on the
                 selling     objectives for the sales call.

                             Are careful to establish a firm
                             foundation for a productive relationship
                             with the prospect.

        The value of         InfoQuest CRM undertook a detailed
                                    study of 20,000 of its customer surveys
             customers              from around the world

                                    a totally satisfied customer contributes
                                    2.6 times as much revenue as a
                                    somewhat satisfied customer

                                    a totally satisfied customer contributes
                                    14 times as much revenue as a
                                    somewhat dissatisfied customer

                                    a totally dissatisfied customer actually
                                    decreases revenue at a rate equal to 1.8
                                    times what a totally satisfied customer
                                    contributes to a business

How To Build or Break a Relationship
Relationship Builders                        Relationship

 Treat customers like life-long         Simply wait for the problem to
 partners                               develop
 Become a solutions provider            Focus only on making the sale
 Deliver more service than you          Over-promise and under-deliver
                                        Wait for your customers to call you
 Schedule regular service calls
                                        Lie or make exaggerated claims
 Develop open and honest
 communication                          Use the “us versus them”
 Use the ‘we can’ approach
                                        Blame somebody else;
 Take responsibility for mistakes
 made                                   Knock a competitor
 Be an ally for the customers’          Focus on your own personal gain

                        o   The Approach
 The Face to face       o   Identyfying Needs
                        o   Making the Presentation
   steps of the         o   Overcoming Resistance
Relationship Model      o   Gaining Commitment

                        o   40% spent on gaining rapport and
Time                        trust

                        o   Think the way your customer thinks
                        o   Higher than ever
Customer expectations
                            Gives us tools to aid in the process

                            Can also cause a loss of personal
Technology                  contact

                            Has taken over low end
The Sales Cycle Framework
  for Consultative Selling

Phase 1: Pretransactional Steps
                                Qualified prospects

         Prospecting                        Authority

                                Prospecting discussed in depth in Ch 7



                   Phase 2:
              Transactional Steps
      Approach     The Success of the process depends on this
                   Active questioning and creative listening skills
 Need Discovery    are needed
                   Features vs Benefits
                   A feature is a fact that is true about a product or
                   service, tangible or intangible.
                   A fact becomes a benefit when it fulfills a need to
     Preparation   the customer.
            and    Benefits of the product or service are the
         Making    application of features to the needs of the
The presentation   prospect
                   A seller should be thoroughly familiar with the
                   features of the product or service
                   Knowledge makes it possible to describe the

       Handling    It is up to the seller to qualified the buyer.
     Objections    Resistance comes because an atmosphere of
    [Resistance    mutual trust and cooperation was never fully
can be avoided]    developed.
                      Adjust your personality to the behavioral style of
                      the prospect well enough to establish rapport.
                      There may be problems beyond your control.
                      The closing stage is often the longest and most
                      tedious stage for the traditional seller.
                      When a qualified prospect says," No," today’s
                      consultative seller tries to discover
        Closing       whether the prospect really needs the product or
                      Whether the prospect understands how the
                      product can help solve a problem.

  Phase 3: Posttransactional Steps
Relationships keep
satisfied customers
coming back

Customer satisfaction is
an asset to you and your

The relationship begins
after the buyer says

Cognitive Dissonance
(buyer's remorse) must
be reduced

   Continuous Quality Improvement
          Total Quality Management Principles
            that apply to relationship selling
Listen and learn from customers and employees
Continuously improve the partnetshop
Teamwork through mutual trust and respect
Do it right the first time
Get your whole company involved
         Service Quality Interaction

Re-Engineering requires culture changes in a
sales organization
                                Total Quality Management
Traditional Management Model
       Focus on product             Focus on service
    Company knows best            Customer knows best
         Transactions                 Relationships
   Individual performance          Team Performance
  Fire-fighting management      Continuous improvement
      Blame/punishment               Support/reward
   Short-term (year or less)        Long-term (years)
      Intolerant of errors           Allows mistakes
    Autocratic leadership       Participative Relationship
          Bureaucratic               Entrepreneurial
     Top-down decisions           Consensus decisions
        Inward focused         Outward (customer) focused
          TEAM SELLING

The Growth of     It has grown to take advantage of
                  diverse skills and personalities needed
Team Selling      to sell complex products

                  The steps are the same but rules are

                  Usually at least one seller and some
                  technical specialists

                  The buyer may have a team also

The Benefits of   Customer gets involved with more than
 Team Selling     one person

                  More accurate need definition

                  Very useful if product is technical

                  Different individuals bring more selling
                  Requires special planning

                  Must have a leader
The Roles of      Must agree on objectives
Each Member       Must be better rehearsed

                  Salesperson and Attorney
     That Work    Good guy/Bad guy scenario

                  Makes salesperson more careful

                  Stresses the importance of the meeting

                  Opener and Closer

                  Just as in baseball (starting pitcher and
                  the closer)

                  Some salespeople are good at opening
                  the sales relationship while others are
                  masters at closing the sale

                  Both are very important-- a symbiotic
                   CHAPTER 3
            IN SELLING
                   Glengarry Glen Ross
               What were the principal ethical
               predicaments which Sheldon Levine
               (Jack Lemmon) and his cohorts faced?

               How could Shelley's extenuating
               circumstances justify his actions?
      What types of external pressures
   influenced the salespeople's unethical
             selling practices?
How did the sales manager (Kevin Spacey) and top
management (Mitch & Murray) foster the unethical

How the nameless motivational speaker (Alec Baldwin)
address the issues of ethics?

How does Dave Moss (Ed Harris), rationalize breaking
the law?

How does George Aaronow(Alan Arkin) violate rules of

 What was unethical about Ricky Roma's (Al Pacino)
 methods in prospecting and closing James Link
 (Jonathan Pryce)?

 Why was Ricky Roma's handling of Mr.Link 's
 cancellation unethical?
    The Power of Ethical Management
       by Dr. Ken Blanchard & Dr. Norman
                  Vincent Peale
The basic message of their book is simple:

           You don’t have to cheat to win!
           “Nice guys may appear to finish last, but usually they are running
           in a different race.”
           Cheating, lying, and short-changing the customer on service
           may bring a satisfactory profit today,
           but it is a sure way to court failure for the future.

     Is the language of ethics different
       from other uses of language?
         Guidelines for Ethical Behavior
                          The golden rule
      Universal Nature
                          Everyone plays by the
                          same rules
                          Trust facilitates
          Truth Telling

                          Don't blame others for
     Responsibility for   your problems
        One's Actions
                          The "victim" mentality
 Do honest salespeople finish last?
        Ethical Questions
 What method do we use to determine moral standards?
 Why be moral at all?
 Are there moral standards which are common to all humanity?
 Is free will a necessary condition for moral praise or blame?

           The Origin of Ethics
Legal Standards are
Ethical standards come
from society

       Bases for Ethical Systems
                   Standards-based ethics
                   uses specific rules
                   Results-Based Ethics
                   defines right and wrong in terms of end results
                   Started by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

                   Tried to reform some of the unfair laws in England

                   Developed a theory that the morally correct rule
                   was the one that provided
                         “the greatest good to the greatest
                         number of people. The greatest good for
                         the greatest number”

     Ethical       results from learning that everything is relative.
Ambivalence        Are there any moral absolutes?
        Company Code of Ethics
 Government action and fear of retribution have induced more
                companies to adopt a code
                    Expense accounts
Typical             Gift giving
                    Unethical demands by a buyer
issues              Promises about performance or delivery
covered             selling unnecessary products

  Role Modeling by Executives and
         Sales Managers
  Examples Set by Colleagues and
   The Bottom          o Profit?
                       o Survival?
                           peer pressure
                           group develops a set of shared perspectives
                           that may be unrealistic but are strongly
                           supported by the members of the group.
        for the sake of winning

                           your conscience
        to Self
                           Inaccuracies in Expense Accounts
      Responsibility       Honesty in Using Time and Resources
    to your Company        Accuracy in Filling Out Order Forms
                           Representing the Company
     to Competitors
                           Overselling and Misrepresenting
                           Products or Services
     to Customers          Keeping Confidences
                           Gifts & Entertainment

     Some cultures have different

U.S. citizens are expected to follow U.S.
                ETHICS AND JOB TENURE
     You may be held legally accountable for inaction
     Recent rulings encourage whistle blowing
     Sometimes the best policy may be to keep quiet until
      solid evidence can be accumulated against a

       A word of caution… inaction can even be grounds for
        legal action.

    How Does the Company Treats the
   Some incentives encourage fudging
   Management may not be accessible to help with dilemmas
   Do control mechanisms exist for
   Customer complaints
   Salesperson dissatisfaction
   Expense accounts
   Are sales goals impossible
   Be sure managers fairly manage the distribution of sales territories

    Nearly 16000 complaints per year
    Look for a harassment policy including

            -   Company Leadership
            -   Immediate complaint investigation
            -   Privacy rights protected
            -   Thorough follow up
            -   Sensitivity training
            -   Review training for comprehension
            -   Periodic refresher courses
Unethical activity costs

Check Points in Ethical

    Is it legal?

    Is it fair to all

    Would I want someone
    else to act this way to

    How would I explain my
    actions to someone

    How will it make me feel
    about myself?

                               Remember…There is
                               no pillow as soft as a
                                clear conscience.
    It is easy to violate many of the laws
                 Quality below standard specified
                 Violation of delivery date
                 Pricing concessions
                 Incomplete or incorrect instructions
                 Price fixing
   Some          Delivering a different brand than that sold
                 Misrepresentation of product usage
   Legal         Slandering competitor
   Traps         Kickbacks to buyer
                 Charges after the sale
                 Misuse of proprietary data
                 Signing agreements without the proper

Categories       Deceptive actions
 of Laws         Preserve competition

         The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
     Federal Trade   Unfair methods of competition and commerce
       Act of 1914   Unfair or deceptive acts or practices

                     Defines price discrimination
                     Gives FTC the right to limit quantity discounts
    The Robinson
                     Prohibits unfair promotional allowances
Patman Act of 1936   Brokerage allowances only go to brokers
         Guidelines for Selling
  Written or verbal offers to sell may be binding
  Financing must be explained clearly and completely
  Salesperson must know legal responsibilities of both parties

           Warranties and guarantees
  Express warranties are made by salesperson or in writing
  Implied warranties
  State law
  Unless a disclaimer is made

                        COOLING-OFF LAW

  How to keep out of Legal Trouble
"Puffery" vs. statements of fact.
Educate the customer thoroughly before making the sale
Know technical specs, etc. for the product you sell.
Know your company's literature. Challenge it if is false
Know the terms of sale policies. You can bind the company
Know federal and state laws regarding your product and its warranties
Don't guess at your product's capabilities
              CHAPTER 4
    Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
 268 words
196 One Syllable Words
 52 Two Syllable Words
 20 More Than Two Syllable Words
     Small words work! - Buzz Words Don’t work

              Consumer Behavior
              The set of actions that make up
              an individual's consideration,
              purchase and use of products and
Consumer      services.
 behavior     Includes the purchase as well as
              consumption of the products and
              What is motivating the customer
   You, the   to buy. This enables you to
seller must   convert features into benefits for
              that particular individual
 be able to
 determine    In which step of the purchase
              decision process is the buyer.
             Problem Recognition
                                    May occur when the consumer
                                    receives information from
                                    advertising or from
                                    conversation with friends that
                                    causes awareness of a need.

                                    In consultative selling
                                    sometimes hinges on the
                                    seller's ability to uncover a

                                    May occur when the consumer
                                    reevaluates the current
                                    situation and perceives an area
                                    of void or dissatisfaction.

                                    No matter what kind of need
                                    exists some prospects do not
                                    consciously recognize it until
                                    the seller brings it out into the

Search for Alternatives - Limited By
  Time and cost - Experience and urgency.
  Value of purchase - risk involved in the purchase

        Evaluation of Alternatives
Evoked Set is the list of alternatives
Salient attributes are used to evaluate products.
Determinate attributes are motives used to make a decision.
  Several alternatives may seem equally acceptable;
  Can be made easier by a professional seller
  Involves a set of related decisions.
  Decision criteria
  Tangible features of the product.
  Financial considerations such as price, discounts, credit policies, etc.
  Intangible factors: reputation, past performance of the seller, possible
  delivery dates, etc.


                               post-purchase anxiety
Cognitive Dissonance           Depends upon the importance of the
aka "Buyers Remorse"           decision and the attractiveness of rejected
                               by selling products that meet needs,

                               by reinforcing the buyer's belief that the
                               right decision was made

Minimize                       by demonstrating the capabilities and quality
                               of the product,

                               By post purchase follow-up to be sure that
                               deliveries are prompt, quantities are correct,
                               and the product is functioning as expected.
Business to Business Buying
                  Decision Maker       May be a buying center
          Some    Buying Criteria      More complex
   Fundamental                         rational
    Differences          Buying
                  Fewer in number,
             of   Purchases involve larger dollar volume
Organizational    Less freedom of decision
 Categories of    Industrial
Organizational    Wholesale & Retail
       Buyers     Government
                  set by companies provide guidelines concerning
                  performance, service, quality etc.
      policies    Product or service must meet these criteria
                  Several people involved directly or indirectly in the
                  decision making process.
Multiple Buying
                  Many times dollar limits are set and exceeding these
      Influence   limits requires the approval of higher level

   The Buying     Influences.
       Center     Gatekeepers.
                  Decision Makers.

                  More of the decisions are based on rational buying
                  motives rather than emotional motives.
                  Research and analysis concerning the product and
       Motives    the company selling it is often conducted prior to
Ultimate Consumer               Ultimate Organizational
  Buying Motives                    Buying Motives
Increase wealth
Alleviate fear
Secure social approval
Satisfy bodily needs
                                Uniformity of output
Experience happiness or
Gaining an advantage
Dominating others
Improving health

     Psychological Influences
  The Role of Perception Illusions

 Mood of the
                Buyer is not always consciously aware of attitudes.
                Attitudes are habitual patterns of response to previous
    Attitudes   Preconceived attitudes do not always make the selling
                process difficult.
                A negative attitude must be overcome before a sale can
                be made.
                    Attitudes are the mind’s paintbrush. They can color or
                    affect any situation.
                    self-image impacts the problem recognition phase of
                    consumer behavior
                    Many of our permanent beliefs about our self-image are
                    developed in our childhood.
                    Our concept of self-image can change through our lives.
                    Advertisements that are consistent with our self-image
                    are more persuasive.
                    Self-image and public-image are not always the same.
                    Much behavior can be explained if the self-image is

              Sociocultural Influences
  Culture is an influence that is completely learned and handed down way of
  Cross-Culture Business Considerations
  Physical Environment
  Social Class
        Might impact the information search phase of consumer behavior
        Marketing and advertising campaigns must differ in their attempts to
        reach the various social classes.
  Reference Groups

to be sure that the prospect understands the message, accepts it, and
makes a commitment to take action.
             the Message Encoding and decoding of
 Encoding    messages are often achieved through the use of

        The Message Itself
Evaluating the Prospect's Decoding
   Barriers to   Interruptions
                 Technical Erudition
    Effective    Poor Listening Habits
Communication    Make Use of Feedback - your message has
                 been transmitted successfully when the
                 prospect's understanding of the message is
                 the same as yours.
                                            Clarity or Articulation
   Use of the Voice                         Silence
                                            Rate of Speech


  Visual communication the expresses majority of a person's
                  feelings and emotions

Body language includes facial expressions, shifts in posture and stance,
as well as the movement of body limbs.
     Understand the Body Language of Gestures
     Body Signals
       Hand Movements
       Your mannerisms should be calm and unhurried.
  Facial expressions convey a larger percentage of the nonverbal message
  than body movement does.
  If you can read a prospect's body language and control your own body
  signals then you are more likely to be understood.
  Warning signals that the prospect is either not understanding or not
  accepting the message.
       Rubbing the nose.
       Leaning back in the chair with hands behind the head.
       Resting the head in the hands with elbows on the desk.
       Finger under collar or rubbing back of neck.
  The Non Verbal Dictionary
  Analyzing the walk
  Biomotion Lab

           concerned with the physical
           distance individuals prefer to
 Proxemics maintain between themselves
                    and others.
                                    1. Successful sellers
                                       tend to move closer to
                                       aclient when closing a

                                    2. It is best to carefully
                                       test for a prospect's comfort zone.

                                    3. Comfort zones tend to change with sex,
                                       status, or age.

4. Four to twelve feet from the client could be a good distance in which to
   begin a sales interview.

5. In a selling situation, the intimate zone should be entered only by
  invitation or during a handshake.
Cultural Proxemics

                 o   Americans use a firm, solid grip;
                 o   Middle Easterners and Asians prefer a gentle grip
                     a firm grip to them suggests unnecessary

                 o   Americans are taught to look directly
                 o   Japanese and Koreans are taught to avoid direct
                     eye contact, direct eye contact to them is
                     considered a weakness, and may indicate sexual

                 o   For Americans, forming a circle with thumb and
                     forefinger to signal O.K.
                 o   Means "zero" or worthless in France
                 o   Means money in Japan
                 o   Means calling someone a very bad name in

                 o   For Americans, up and down means yes, side to
NODDING YES OR       side means no
NO               o   in Bulgaria, the nods are reversed in meaning.

                 o   An American gesture is found to be offensive to
                     nearly every other country around the globe

Relating to the Opposite
                          Body language does not mean exactly the
                          same between a man and a woman as it
                          means between two men or two women

                          Websites Genderspeak


                          Genderspeak: Men, Women, and the Gentle
                          Art of Verbal Self Defense

                          A woman's smile may be interpreted as an
                          attempt to substitute personal charm for
                          competence. If she doesn't smile, she may
                          be considered cold and impersonal.

                          Both men and women may unconsciously
                          join in a game of talking business but using
                          body language that says, "Let's flirt."

                             Women                        Men
                 o   Tend to surrender more
                     quickly                    o   Tend to surrender less
  Personal Space
               o     May feel vaguely               quickly
                     uncomfortable about
                     having done so.
                     interrupt men less often
     Interruptions                                  interrupt both sexes
                     they do other women.
      Networking     Tend to use more               Tend to use less
         Patience    More                           Less
    Use of Humor     Less                           More
  questioning and
                   Tend to be better                Tend to be worse
                   CHAPTER 5
Failure to understand styles can cause
lost sales, frustration
              o   Understanding styles
  Success         leads to better
      and         communication
Behavioral    o   Style analysis was
    Styles        started by Jung and
                  modified by others.

      Four basic styles based on four
      functions of human personality
          Function                        Characteristic
                               Quick reactions to here and now
       Driver [Sensor]         sensory input
Expressive [Intuitive]         Imagination and thought
                               Emotional and personal reactions to
    Amiable [Feeling]          experiences
                               Logically organizing and analyzing
  Analytical [Thinking]        data
  Are You A Director,      o   Try the Kiersey Temperament Sorter
  Thinker, Relater, or     o   Here is the Watchword Technique
                        Basic Concepts
Primary style             the favorite
Back up style             used sometimes (stress)
Clues to style            manner of speech use of time, etc
We respond to a style
                          Don’t overuse your style
similar to our own.
                          o   We use one or two styles in selling
Behavioral Styles in      o   Know your own style well
                          o   Style predicts surface behavior.
Selling                   o   It is not an in-depth personality analysis.

      Dimensions of Behavior
                                       The degree to which a person attempts
                                       to control situations or the thoughts
                 [dominance]           and actions of others.
                                       The readiness with which a person
Responsiveness [Sociability]           outwardly displays emotions or
                                       feelings and develops relationships.
                                       Individual's ability to adjust personal
                     Versatility       pace and priorities to help interaction
                                       with a person of another style.
                                       Use the grid which plots assertiveness
                                       vs. responsiveness.
 Recognizing Social Styles
                                       Each quartile in the grid represents
                                       levels of intensity

    Identifying the Four Behavioral Styles
                                                             High assertiveness
              Low assertiveness
              Low responsiveness                  Drivers
Analytical                                                   responsiveness.
                Reserved technical
                                                              Control freaks.
                                              o   Decisive in action and decision
 o Cautious in decisions and action
 o Likes organization and structure
                                              o   Likes control; dislikes inaction
 o Dislikes involvement
                                              o   Prefers maximum freedom to
 o Asks specific questions
                                                  manage self and others
 o Prefers objective, task-oriented,
                                              o   Cool, independent, and
   intellectual work
                                                  competitive with others
 o Wants to be right, so collects
                                              o   Low tolerance for feelings,
   much data
                                                  attitudes, and advice of others
 o Works slowly, precisely, and
                                              o   Works quickly and impressively
 o Seeks security and self-
                                              o   Seeks esteem and self-
 o Has good problem-solving skills
                                              o   Has good administrative skills
                                                               o High
                o   Low assertiveness            Expressives   o High responsive.
                o   High responsiveness.                       o Social specialists
                o   Support specialists
                                                  o Spontaneous actions and
    o Slow in making decisions or taking
                                                  o Likes involvement
                                                  o Exaggerates and generalizes
    o Likes close, personal relationships
                                                  o Tends to dream and get others
    o Dislikes interpersonal conflict
                                                    caught up in those dreams
    o Supports and actively listens to others
                                                  o Jumps from one activity to
    o Weak in goal setting and self-direction
    o Seeks security and identification with a
                                                  o Works quickly and excitedly
                                                    with others
    o Has good counseling and listening           o Seeks esteem and group
                                                  o Has good persuasive skills

            Versatility as a communication tool
o     Conflict can happen if we use our own styles
o     One person must adapt
Behavior Flexibility or          The willingness to control personal
Versatility                      behavior and adapt.
                                 Human beings are instinctively impelled to
                                 return to others the feelings and emotions they
                                 give to us.
The Law of                       o When we move toward their style then they
Psychological                       are compelled to move toward our style.
Reciprocity                      o Called mirroring and matching
                                 o You can impact the thoughts, actions and
                                    feelings of others by modeling what you want
                                    to have happen
                                 o   How fast are decisions made?
Identifying                      o   How competitive?
Pace and Priority                o   How much feeling is displayed?
Style Clues                      o   Office decorations
in the Prospect’s                o   Furniture
Environment                      o   Pictures, diplomas etc
                   The Interaction of Styles
  Style flexing is the ability to adjust your style to meet that of your prospect
              Styles                                     of      Area of Agreement
                                          Low         Prioritie
Analytical v         Amiable                                            Pace
                                     Assertiveness       s
                                          High        Prioritie
  Driver    v      Expressive                                           Pace
                                     Assertiveness       s
                                        Low Res-
Analytical v          Driver                            Pace          Priorities
                                       High Res-
 Amiable v         Expressive                           Pace          Priorities
Analytical v       Expressive                           Both
 Amiable v            Driver                            Both

                           Style Summary
                         Driver     Expressive       Amiable        Analytical
    Backup Style Autocratic           Attacker     Acquieser         Avoider
                                                                 Accuracy "Being
 Personal Values Results             Applause       Security
     For Growth
                  Listen               Check         Initiate         Decide
       Needs to
    Needs climate Allows to          Inspires to    Provides
                   build own                                         Suggests
              that structure        reach goals      Details

 Takes time to be       Efficient   Stimulating    Agreeable         Accurate
                     Conclusions Dreams and Relationships Principles and
    Support their and actions     Intuition and feelings     thinking
 Present benefits
                     What               Who           Why              How
         that tell
   For decisions Options and Testimonials Guarantees              Evidence and
                                  and         and
       give them probabilities incentives assurances                 service

Their specialty is Controlling Socializing Supporting               Technical
Perceptual fields are       o   Use these as another way to observe and
the ways in which               understand people.
                            o   Separate from style analysis
people perceive the         o   The science of how the brain learns
   Modes of Perception Auditory                      Sound
   Most of us favor one Visual                       Sight
                  mode Kinesthetic                   Touch
    Tapping into the Prospect's System of Perception
    Certain clues tell us which representational mode a person favors.
    NLP can help you develop the ability to identify a prospect's traits

           Interpreting Eye Cues

                                       Visualizing or
                     up    &    left   picturing the
   Visual -ing                         past.
        n Look                         Constructing a
                     up    & right visual image
        c Look                           Remembering
               down & right              past feelings
Perceptio -ing
           Look Side-                  Hearing sounds
                      &         left   from the past.
           -ing ways
 Auditory Look Side-        Constructing a
perceptio -ing ways & right future
                down &          left   Talking to self

     Left handed people may reverse
                 Interpreting Predicate Words:
                      Listen for word cues
                      I am watching developments in that particular stock;
               Visual before I buy, I want to see the progress it makes this
                      quarter and get a picture of what to expect in the future.
            Auditory There is so much noise in here I can't hear myself think
                        The atmosphere was heavy and damp; there was an
         Kinesthetic oppressive stillness, thick with apprehension.
              Match word cues with eye cues for accuracy.

            Using Perceptual Field Information
o            Adapt your mode of selling to their mode of learning.
o            Adapt demonstrations as well as your verbiage.

    Perceptual Field          What to bring                  What to do
                         diagrams, pamphlets,      Show the buyer how the
                 Visual graphs, videos             product works
                         tapes, videos with        Be well prepared to explain
              Auditory sound                       verbally
                         samples, the actual       Let the buyer hold the product,
           Kinesthetic product                     let them try it out
                                     Learn NLP

     Ethics of employing Style analysis or NLP.
     o   Are they are simply used as tools to obtain information that will aid in
         serving the client?
     o   Are they are used to satisfy personal greed?
                        CHAPTER 6
                      PREPARATION FOR
                     SUCCESS IN SELLING

                                       o    Demands commitment and dedication
  o   Is never an accident.
                                            from organizational leadership.
  o   Is contagious.
  o   Is important because it is       o    Is inspirational
                                       o    Is an organization's life line.

                     PREPARING TO SELL
                                   o       Orients us to the business world
                                   o       Acquaints us with managerial and
                                           organizational styles
 Academic preparation              o       Acquaints us with various types of
                                           problems or opportunities that face

                                   o       Product knowledge
                                   o       Motivation and goal setting
Involves three areas
                                   o       Knowledge of the sales process

                    PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE
                      Know everything.

                                            o   External characteristics
                    The Product             o   How to use
                                            o   All available options
                           Itself           o   Adaptability

                                            o   Life expectancy
                                            o   Tolerance to wear and stress
                                            o   Maintenance and supplies needed.
                                 o   How is it made
                Manufacturing    o   Quality control

                                 o   Distribution strategy.
                  Distribution   o   Pricing policies
                                 o   Media support
                    Channels     o   Target markets

                      Service    o   Service policies
                                 o   Service personnel
                                 o   Know when to use it.
                                 o   Can be a hindrance if you talk too much
                Application of   o   Don't assume that it is solely the
           Product Knowledge         company's responsibility to educate

                                 o   History
            Information About    o   Product evolution
                 the Company     o   Present customers

Benefits of Gaining Product Knowledge
 o   Gives you pride self confidence in the product
 o   Gives you self assurance
 o   Allows you to diagnose the customer's problems
 o   Enables better customer service
 o   Gives you an air of competence
 o   Can sell to experts and to beginners

Knowledge of the Competition Differential Comp
                   Product Superiority                           Service Superi
                                     -   Appearance                -   Delivery
                                     -   Design                    -   Inventory
       -    Versatility              -   Mobility                  -   Credit
       -    Efficiency               -   Packaging                 -   Training
       -    Storage                  -   Life Expectancy           -   Merchandis
       -    Handling Time            -   Adaptability              -   Installation
       -    Safety                                                 -   Maintenanc
                  Source Superiority                                  People Superi
                                                                -   Personal knowled
      -   Time Established                                      -   Knowledge and sk
      -   Competitive Standing                                      support people
      -   Community Image                                       -   Integrity and chara
      -   Location                                              -   Standing in the co
      -   Size                                                  -   Flexibility of call s
      -   Financial Soundness                                   -   Interpersonal skill
      -   Policies and practices                                -   Mutual friends
                                                                -   Cooperation

                Sales Force Automation
                 Computers in Selling
85% of the sales force will become automated in the nineties
The Virtual Office is carried on a computer
               The Impact of Technology Tools
                          o    Laptops
                          o    Pen based computers
                          o    Palmtops
Personal                  o    Contact Management Software
Productivity              o    Mapping programs and GPS
                          o    Calendar and scheduling
                          o    Geodemographic segmentation
                          o    Smart Card Reader
                          o    E mail
                          o    Internet and videoconferencing
Communication             o    Telecommuting
                          o    Electronic data interchange for order
Transactional                 processing
Processing                o    Corporate contact management
                          o    Online databases for ordering
                          o    Marketing strategy built around benefits
                              important to customers.
                          o    Emphasis on service
                          o    Focusing on the few attributes that really set
Product Positioning           you apart means you can’t be all things to all
                          o    Keep an eye on how your competitors are
                              positioning themselves.
                          o    Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind
             o   A computer system that coordinates the
                 marketing elements and provides feedback for
                 Using computer databases to coordinate all
                 marketing function
             o   Combining demographic characteristics with
                 geographic variables to develop clusters of
                 similar individuals.
Marketing    o   Modules within a firm use common
                 information to deliver communications tailored
                 to the market needs
             o   Account management software facilitates
                 relationship selling because it allows
                 salespeople to match corporate capabilities
                 against the needs of the customer.
             o   a collection of related records or transactions.
             o   storing customer and prospect information on
Databases        a computer.
o   The impetus to begin a task
o   The incentive to expend time
o   The willingness to persist until
    the job is done.
o   Motivation can come from
    without or within the individual


           Advantages                            Disadvantages
                                        o    It is external. Take away the
                                            source and the fear disappears.
                                        o    It is temporary. It can
o   It protects us from self
                                            eventually be tuned out.
    destruction or harm
o   It protects society                 o    It is negative if we act to avoid
o   It is sometimes the quickest way        punishment rather than by
    to get a reaction.                      choice.
o   Easiest form of motivation          o    Motivation based on
o   Gets results because the person
                                        o    Always results in inner anger
    will do what you ask for fear of
    loss                                    and resentment
                                        o    Usually results in “when the
                                            cat is away, the mice will play.”

o   Use if person in power can not create a climate for other types of
    beneficial motivation.
o   Sometimes the threat of loss or punishment for motivation must be
    used, but should only be used when all other methods have failed.

Incentive Motivation: money, perks, prizes
           Advantages                            Disadvantages
                                        o    It is external. Comes from the
                                            boss not the self.
                                        o    It is temporary
                                        o    If the reward is not desirable
o   If the reward is desirable then         then nothing happens
    sellers will go for it.             o    Incentives evolve into rights
o   It is positive.                         instead of privileges

                  CAUSAL MOTIVATION
o   Occurs when an environment is created that causes people to:
              WANT to work
              Be the best they can be.
o   Causal motivation is working toward a “cause.”
o   People will work their hardest for something or someone they believe in.
o   There must first be a cause in which your team can believe
o   The environment must be created that will cause the team to want to
    work toward the vision or goal.
o   Answer the question “What’s in it for me?”
o   People want a return on their investment of time, talent, money, etc.
o   To expect people to work for you cause and your shareholders’ cause,
    without concern for their dreams and goals, is blindness to the way we
o   People do things for their reasons, not yours.

    Attitude Motivation: Self Motivation
           Advantages                            Disadvantages
o   Internal and Permanent
o   Based on strong self image.
o   Is the result of choices.
o   Conformity is a decision.
o   No decision is a decision.
   Personal goals is the
single most important tool
 Various Perspectives

 o   Motivation - Psychological Self-Help
 o   Goal SettingTips
 o   Goal Setting Handbook
 o   Goal Setting - Powerful Written Goals In 7
     Easy Steps!
 o   Goal Setting Articles
 o   Time Mananagement
 o   Free Tips for 1999 from the G.A.L.S.
 o   Goal Setting Workshop
 o   Goalmap - Set personal goals to improve
     and balance your life
 o   Where are you going? - 10/15/98
 o   Setting Your Goals
 o   Techniques and Strategies for Managers
     and Supervisors from The Economics
     Press, Inc.
 o   Goal Setting - Strategies for a Balanced
 o   Goal Exercises - developing personal visio

Sincere Desire – Writing Down & Planning
differentiate between a wish and a goal.
                                       The Million Dollar
                                       Personal Success
    Crystallized    o     Know exactly what you want
                    o     Goals must be written and dated
                    o     You know exactly what to do next
 A Written Plan     o     Gives you the time frame
                    o     Draws out your potential
       of Action
                    o     Helps maintain a positive attitude
 with Deadlines     o     Helps eliminate distractions

                    o     Enables undertaking challenging goals.
      Supreme       o     Converts problems into stepping stones
                    o     Builds your credibility
    Confidence      o     Is your greatest source of security.

                    o     Allows you to ignore thoughtless comments
        Dogged      o     Allows you to ignore disapproval
                    o     Keeps you calling on difficult customers.
  Determination     o     Gives you creative freedom.

                Download MP3s from the Author of
                "The Million Dollar Success Plan"

                    o   Is the progressive realization
                        of worthwhile predetermined
   Success          o   Is progressive throughout life
                    o   Is different for different people

                    o   Financial and Career
The Wheel           o   Social and Cultural
   Of Life          o
                        Physical and Health
                        Mental and Education
        Trying to   o   Family and Home
achieve balance     o   Spiritual and Ethical
  in the areas of
                CHAPTER 7
                               THE CONCEPT OF
                   o   A salesperson without prospects is out of
                   o   A salesperson without prospects can no more
                       close a sale than a surgeon without a patient
                       can operate.
                   o   Presenting a professional appearance, giving
                       an impressive presentation and closing like a
                       master are not enough to prevent failure if too
                       little attention is given to prospecting.
                   o   You must have someone to whom to tell your
                       story: one who wants to buy and can buy.
                   o   If your closing ratio is lower than you like, the
                       major problem may be that you don't have
                       enough good prospects -- not that you are a
                       poor closer.
                   o   Prospects are everywhere - find the best

 “I’d rather be a master prospector than be a wizard of
speech and have no one to tell my story to.”

-Paul J. Meyer

Moving from a "lead" to a qualified prospect
         Lead Just a name
               Researched for need,
               money authority
               Evaluated prospect
               along with personal
Qualify with the MADDEN Test
M    oney               o   Research credit before

A    pproachable        o   Can you get an appointment
                        o   You may have to create or
D    esire                  discover

D    ecision-Maker      o   Often missed by salespeople
                        o   May be committed already
E    ligible            o   our company may turn down

N    eed                o   Always a win-win

                            o   Referral from a person the prospect respects
                                Has the ability to make a buying decision
Class “A”
                            o   Has the ability to pay for the product or service
                                You have all the personal information you need
Prospects                   o
                                to make a good presentation

Why we lose old customers (Attrition)
 o   Customer's company goes broke
 o   Competitor takes your customer
 o   Customer moves or dies
 o   Merger or downsizing
 o   Customer-salesperson relationship deteriorates

               Special Article by David Frey
 o   Have referral make the initial contact    Why people don't give referrals
 o   Learn how to ask for a referral
 o   Get letter of introduction                   o   Can't think of anyone
 o   Have referral call the prospect              o   Object to giving referrals
 o   Referrals tend to be horizontal
                    Centers of Influence
o   Believes in what you are selling
o   Is influential with a number of people
o   Is willing to give you names
o   The names given to you are at least
    partially qualified prospects, more
    than just leads.

                     Group Prospecting
o   Give a brief presentation to       o   Trade shows
    a group                            o   Speaking engagements
o   Follow up with interested          o   Seminars

                    Planned Cold Calling
o  At least one out of seven
   will be receptive.
o Treat cold calls as a
o Don't neglect others by too
   much of this.
o Preplan Cold Calls
o Develop effective,
   memorable door openers
o Limit Waiting
a. Fifteen minutes
b. Keep busy while waiting
o Remain Enthusiastic

                    Direct Mail or Fax
                                   o   Mailing is only as good as the list
o   Prospects do read well
    targeted direct mail           o   Membership rosters
o   Watch quality of               o   City directories
    purchased lists                o   Yellow pages
o   Create your own                o   White pages
    newsletter                     o   Religious groups
                                   o   Past customers
                   Joining Civic Groups
                                   o   Are members the type of people that you
Carefully select groups            o   Do you believe in the group's mission

                     o   Assume leadership responsibilities
                     o   Become highly visible
                     o   Set contact goals for each club meeting
                     o   Keep files on each contact made
                     o   Use "re-meet " goals to help you develop closer
                     o   Reach out to new members
                     o   Use active listening
                     o   Look for sales opportunities

 Networking - active cooperation i.e. "tips"
o        There are formal groups that you can join
o        Sharing information makes good sense

               Using Directories
       can be gold mines if used correctly
o   Sales and Marketing
    Management - buying power
o   Moody's Industrial Manual
o   Poor's Register of Directors
    and Execs
o   The Dun and Bradstreet
    Reference book
o   The Thomas register of
    American Manufacturers
o   Contacts Influential
                      Prospects are        o   Always be looking
                      everywhere           o   Read the news
                                           o   Trade journals

      Company Initiated
                o   Telephone
                o   Human calls
                o   Computer generated calls
                   Fewer leads
                   Lower cost

                o   Direct mail
                o   Newspaper
                o   Other media

 Past           o   Go over list of inactive accounts
                o   Selecting the right show
                o   On the spot vs. lead generation
                o   Display planning
                o   Staffing the booth
Trade Shows     o   Pre show training
                o   Getting high visibility
                o   Managing information collected at show
                o   Planning follow up

                o   For Prospecting
                o   Streamline the sales process
Web Sites
                o   Joint marketing with other firms
       The 12 Faces of Call Reluctance
               Why do we hate to use the phone?

               o   Are you one of these classic types
               o   Identified by George Dudley and Shannon
               o   Listed in order from most common to least

        Yielder     o   Fears intruding on others or being pushy.
                    o   Overanalyzes
                    o   Underacts.
   Emotionally      o   Fears loss of family approval
unemancipated       o   Resists mixing business and family.
                    o   Fears loss of friends
                    o   Resists prospecting among personal friends.
                    o   Obsessed with image
                    o   Fears being humiliated.
  Role rejecter     o   Ashamed to be in sales.
  Socially self-
                    o   Intimidated by upmarket customers.
   Doomsayer            Worries, won’t take risks.
                    o   Fears using the telephone for prospecting or
   Telephobic           selling.
   Stage fright     o   Fears group presentations.
       Referral     o   Fears disturbing existing business or client
     aversions          relationships.
                    o   Rebuffs attempts to be coached.
                 Conquering Call Reluctance
                  From behavioral scientist
                 and call reluctance expert
                                   George Dudley.
                   Acknowledgment is a major step toward recovery, but
                   it’s not an easy move.
                 o Denial is the most frequent companion of call
                 o The problem is sometimes hard to identify.
  Admit that you o Salespeople “typically know something is wrong, but
       have call they may not know what it is,”
                    Many who do know they are experiencing sales call
                    reluctance don’t feel secure admitting it, because
                    many sales organizations tend to feature cultlike,
                    unrealistic emphasis on maintaining a positive
 Determine your o Clearly and specifically identifying your fears or
                    negative thoughts.
  call reluctance o Tackle them head-on, one at a time.
             type o Curbing call reluctance is like breaking a bad habit.
                         o   Token reward             Thought Zapping
                             systems may be    o Place a rubber band around your
          Adopt              useful              wrist. When a negative thought
     appropriate                                 intrudes, you snap the rubber
                         o   Relaxation          band sharply
countermeasures              techniques may    o Immediately conjure up a positive
                             help                mental image of yourself

                             Taming call reluctance is work
                             It may take continuous effort.
                             “Don’t confuse a change in your outlook with a
                             change in the number of contacts you initiate with
       o    Follow up        prospective buyers.”
              o Keep         Call reluctance may actually be a sign of commitment
             plugging        to selling.
   o       Make calls.       “Salespeople who are not motivated or goal-focused
                             can never be considered call reluctant,” says Dudley.
                             Salespeople with authentic call reluctance care very
                             much about meeting prospecting goals.
                             “You simply cannot be reluctant to get something
                             you don’t want in the first place.”
        Initial Recording of Leads
 Record all basic information (computer or index cards)

       Classification of Prospects
A simple method for manual systems

Class A: You have enough information to make a presentation
Class B: You need more
Class C: A "lead" you don't know much more than the name

Sophisticated, classifications can be done with a computer

                Scheduling Contacts
 Contact prospects using a prioritized list
 Keep a tickler file.

 Personal Databases

Corporate Databanks

        Improving          o   Salespeople now have access to the most
                               current information

            o   Prospecting keeps you in
            o   Ten methods have been given.
            o   Referrals and center of influence
                are the best
              Chapter 8
    The Preapproach &
   Telephone Techniques
The Importance Of Preapproach Planning
                     o   See enough
     The path to     o   See the right
       success       o   See them at the
                         right time

The four phases of the sales process that turns a
          lead into a qualified prospect
    The planning and preparation done prior to the actual contact with the
o Allows you to be less mechanical and more thoughtful
o Allows you to anticipate problems and plan ways to handle

                                                   o   Analyze prospecting
     STEPS IN                                      o   Plan specifically for
                                                       each sales call.
         THE                                       o   Go over your
PREAPPROACH                                        o   Study product and
                                                       sales literature.

                                 o   There is some overlap between
                                     prospecting, preapproach and approach
                                 o   The amount of preapproach will vary
   EXTENT OF                         with
                                        industry
        THE                             client
PREAPPROACH                      
                                         number of accounts
                                        etc.

                Preparation &
     a checklist of
    sales essentials
      (exhibit 8.1)
                                     o   What business is the prospect's
     Questions about the                 company in?
     prospect's company              o   What are its products and markets?
                         o   Who are its primary customers?
                         o   How big is this prospect's company?
                         o   Where does it rank in its industry?

                         o   Who is the actual decision maker?
                         o   Who handles the purchase process?
                         o   Who else influences the purchase
                         o   What are the backgrounds and personal
  Questions about the        interests of each person in the buying
prospect's company's         process
        buying center    o   Is the company's staff well informed?
                         o   Can we help this company's staff
                             develop more expertise?
                         o   Does any in my company know anyone
                             in this company?

                         o   How often does this company buy my
                             type of product or service?
                         o   Who is this company's competitor?
                         o   Does my company do business with
                             that competitor?
                         o   What plans does the company have that
                             could affect future need for my
               Other         product?
           Questions     o   How well is this company satisfied with
                             its present supplier?
                         o   Does this company's potential volume
                             of business suggest a personal call, a
                             telephone call or a letter?
                         o   Do we (or can we) use their product or

                         o   Can I get a referral to another
            If I don't   o   Can I get a second appointment?
       make the sale     o   Will they seriously evaluate my

  Gain a Personalized Sales Interview
  with the information gathered above.
                         o   Your past experience
       Predict Likely    o   Your company's training
          Objections     o   The preapproach information gathered
                         o    Set sales call objectives
       Prepare for the   o    Rehearse
         Presentation    o    Practice demonstrations

                         o    Mental toughening - visualize the
            Visualize         meeting over and over with a
          Successful          successful outcome.
              Selling    o    Practice out loud. Role play.

    Learn How to Best    o    Style analysis
Approach the Prospect
    Sources of Preapproach Information
                         1.   Direct questions: prospect
              Six        2.   Other company salespeople
                         3.   Current customers
           Proven        4.   Local newspaper
          Sources        5.   Personal visit / cold call

                         o    Mergers
                         o    Personnel changes
     Some things         o
                              Changing product lines
                              Advertising plans
       to look for       o    TV and magazine ads
                         o    Sales training

                              Ten Buyer Questions
                         o    What are you selling?
                         o    Why do I need it?
                         o    Who is your company?
                              How much will it cost?
       Be ready to       o
                         o    Who else I using it and are they
           answer             satisfied?
                         o    What kind of person are you?
                         o    Is your price truly competitive?
                         o    How does your solution compare to
                              other alternatives?
                         o    Why do I need it now?
                         o    What is your record for support and

                         o    Ask more questions during the
FURTHER QUALIFYING            approach
     THE PROSPECT        o    Most prospects answer freely
 Building Your Personal Self-Confidence
  Having a plan and knowing the
  customer bolsters your self confidence
                       o   Dress appropriately
                       o   Be polite
Enhance your           o
                           Don't knock the competition
                           Be prompt
  perceived            o
                           Keep promises
                           Plan ahead don't leave anything to chance
    value              o
                           Write a note of thanks
                           Look for ways to do extra things

 Setting Up the Sales Interview
                   o   Will the prospect be too busy?
      Timing       o   What is the "best" time to see the prospect?

Gaining Entry      o   Letter - the weakest
  Making the       o
                       Cold call - good but time consuming
                       Telephone - high rejection rate
         First     o   Telephone - mail - follow up call
                 Some Techniques

                   o   Ask former or retired employees to give you
                       names and the lay of the land
                       Ask the building administrator for names.
      Get the      o
                   o   Ask for a sales rep in the prospect's
   Prospect's          company then
                                 Solicit the salesperson's help to
       Name                 get to the right person.
                                 "I'm sorry, I got the wrong
                            extension. I was trying to reach the
                            person who's in charge of.."

 Gatekeepers       o   Show them sincere respect.
            o   Friendly not fake.
            o   Be honest about your intentions
            o   Get personal information about the
            o   Sell to the gatekeeper
            o   Question gatekeepers.
            o   They often know what the company needs
            o   Be thoughtful - small gifts and cards can go
                a long way
            o   Keep your sense of humor
            o   Be patient and persistent

            o   Press "0" on your phone. Usually gets a
            o   Leave a message: "I will be in your
                neighborhood at 11 a.m. on Wednesday,
                April 10, and would like to meet with you for
Voicemail       10 minutes to explain XYZ and how it can
                help you. Please let me know if this is
                inconvenient, otherwise I'll look forward to
                seeing you this Wednesday."
 Telephone Techniques
                          o    Use of sophisticated telecommunications and
                               information systems
                          o    Combined with personal selling and servicing
     Telemarketing        o    Helps companies keep in close contact with
                               present and potential customers
                                  Increases sales
                                  Enhances business productivity

 o   Do mental            o    Relax and close your eyes.
                          o    See yourself and the prospect.
     exercises in         o    Think about what you will say and anticipate the
     advance of a               prospect's responses.
     telephone            o    Create a mental hologram and live it over and
     approach                   over in your mind.
                          o    Practice out loud - your mind believes the
 o   Use powers                 sound of your own voice.
     of                   o    If you do not like the result, redesign the
     visualization.             scenario and play it over again until it is
                                comfortable and produces the desired
                          o    Your mind cannot separate a real experience
                                from an imaged one.
                          o    You gain the same benefit from this type of
                                practice as from an actual sales interview.

                          o    Qualify prospects
                          o    Budgets your time
                          o    Enhances your image
Good techniques           o    Preconditions prospect for
                               the call

                      o       Eliminate verbal pauses
                      o       Scripts can be helpful
First Impressions     o       Voice tones
      Annoying Voice Characteristics
            Whining and complaining        44.0%
            High pitch or loud tone        28.0%
            Mumbling                       11.1%
            Too fast or too weak            8.5%
            Monotone                        3.5%
            Strong Accent                   2.4%

  The Appointment is a Mini Sale
Sell the appointment not the product
                       oWhy am I calling?
                      o What is my proposal?
                 Ask o What would make this person want to grant
             Yourself my request?
                      o What is the best action plan that I can offer?

Key Strategy points    o Schedule a specific time for calls
                       o Always follow up a successful call with
        to consider      another call
                       o Arrange to avoid interruptions
                       o Develop a written script
                       o Verify that you have actually contacted the
                       o Just tell as much as needed to get an
                       o Keep control but don't be pushy
                       o Excitement and enthusiasm
                       o Don't argue!
                       o Use the fatal alternative
                       o Sell your name. Ask the prospect to write it
                       o Be courteous. - Please & Thank You
                       o Watch language and speech patterns

                       o Full Information - review notes and history
  Plugging Contact     o Auto Dialing - Fast and Accurate
  Management into      o Caller ID - Go right to the contact's record
                       o Road Warrior Sidekick - your virtual
    the Telephone.       assistant
  The Six-Step
Telephone Track

         Introduce Yourself     o   A judgement will be made
  Step I      and Your              within 15 words
              Company           o   Keep it warm and friendly

                                o   A call is an interruption
             Take the Curse     o   Get permission to continue
  Step II                       o   Soften the impact with "just
               Off the Call
                                    a minute," etc.

                                o   A brief hard hitting lead in
            State the Purpose   o   Mention referrals if you have
 Step III
                of the Call         them

                 An             o   Usually a customer benefit
 Step IV Interest-Capturing     o   You can also use a
             Statement              provocative question

                                o   Don't give too much
               Request an           information over the phone
  Step V                        o   Give a choice of times (fatal

                                o   Agree with the objection
                                o   Switch back to your idea of
               Overcome             reason for the appointment
 Step VI
               Resistance       o   Ask for the appointment
                          Chapter 9
                  THE PROSPECT
    o    To make a favorable or positive impression on the prospect.
    o    To gain the prospect's undivided attention.
    o    To develop positive interest in your proposition.
    o    To lead smoothly into the fact-finding or need discovery phase of the

                       FIRST IMPRESSIONS
    o  Four minutes is the average time that the prospects takes to decide
       about you
    o  Not all buyers act upon their first impressions
    o  Weaknesses of first impressions
    1. Tend to be based on emotions
    2. All behavior traits do not show up in first impressions
    3. Behavior may be deliberately controlled by either party during initial
    4. Antecedent states may influence either party's current behavior

     There's No Second Chance To Make a Good First Impression

    Visual Factors
                                          Professional Habits
o   Some details about you are a      o   Be Prompt
    distraction : Car, Grooming, …    o   Have a clear agenda
o   Watch your body language          o   State the purpose of your call right
o   Watch what you wear                   away
o   Don't advertise political,        o   Be prepared with pre approach
    religious or group affiliations       information
    that may evoke a response

Building Rapport                                    Actions
o       Pronounce the name correctlyo          Shake Hands
o       Use compliments carefully o            Keep eye contact
o       Respect personal space      o          Warm greeting
                                    o          Don't smoke, chew gum, etc
o       Look for common ground


                SURFACE LANGUAGE
                               o       grooming
                   Includes    o       clothing
                All Aspects    o       accessories
             of Appearance     o       posture

                         Affects first impressions

    o    even though they may actually provide limited or shallow
                       insight into the true person.
                               o       Dress Conservatively
                               o       Dress Attractively
             Dress the Part    o       Choose Accessories
              We all wear a    o       Dress Appropriately
                  uniform.     o       Give Attention to

                               o       Get the prospect to take
                                       you seriously
    Projecting an Image        o       Work with your physical

        Some Style Tips            o    Clothing should be professional and
                                  o   Neutral colors like blue, taupe and gray
                                  o   Wear suits to meetings. Jackets give the
                                      appearance of power.
                                  o   Blue is the most powerful color
                                  o   Keep your shoes shined
                                  o   Match socks to clothing
                                  o   Keep accessories simple
                                  o   Take dress cues from the highest person in
                                      the company
                                  o   Dress appropriately for your business

        Basic Dress Guidelines for Men and Women
                     Men                                       Women
o Suits are still appropriate.                    o One staple is a sheath dress that
o More casual looks include wool pants
                                                    can be worn alone or with a
  or quality cotton slacks.                         blazer.
                                                  o More casual looks include
o A dress shirt and tie, a nice sweater, or
                                                    sweater sets and tailored pants
  a blazer

                              o       The Rule of Ten- the first 10 words should
                 Choice of            include a form of thanks
                  Greeting    o       Watch out for cliches

                              o       Failure to prepare in advance could lead to
    o          plan ahead             stammering or faltering speech, either of which
                                      creates a negative impression.
        o       kept quite
                              o       You must be ready to alter the prepared
                   simple.            approach if the situation demands it

            The Handshake

    J.T. Auer’s Nine Categories of handshake
             Name             Characteristics                      Tips
                                                       o   Pessimistic
               Flabby      Limp, Soft Paw              o   need reassurance
                                            o   Usually men
                                            o   want to show strength
                                                and power
                  Squeeze like a
 The Squeeze      vice                      o   Possible inferiority
                                            o   Meet needs with flattery

                  Arm and elbow             o   Favored by politicians
      “Next To    are bent and                  and others who are
                  right hand stays              hesitant to take risks
        Body”                               o   Use caution
                  close to the side
                      Hand is thrusted      o   They seem insecure
     Impelling        forward and pumped    o   Use more insistence
                      Hand is thrust        o   Don’t want involvement
 Nongripping          forward. Fingers do   o   Approach slowly
                      not move.
                                            o   Indifferent and self
                                            o   Show that you are
         Robot        Quick and automatic
                                                indispensable to their

                                            o   Lots of will power
                                            o   Tend to be inflexible
 Jackhammer           Handpumping
                                            o   Be determined with them

                                            o   Opportunists
                      Hold your hand and    o   Emphasize how fortunate
        Prison        won’t give it back.       you are to meet

       Normal         Open and honest           Trust your instincts

                      Driver     firm may turn hand over yours
                     Amiable     may not make eye contact
                  o The handshake is one of the first
                    nonverbal signals you receive.
                  o Be sure to make use of it to learn how to
personality style
                    deal with a particular prospect.

    Rules for     o Stand (men and women)
                  o Maintain eye contact
  An effective    o Step or lean forward
    handshake         o Greet the other person, and repeat his or her name
                      o Have a pleasant, animated face
                      o Watch for people that do not like to be touched
                      o Firm, consistent, pressure
                      o For moist hands – carry a special handkerchief
                      o Hands should meet equidistant

                      o As you approach someone, when you are about
    So how              three feet away, extend your right arm out at a
   can you              slight angle across chest, with your thumb pointing
 make your            o Lock hands, thumb joint to thumb joint.

 handshake            o Firmly clasp the other person’s hand – without any
                        bone crushing or macho posturing.
      more            o Pump the other person’s hand two to three times,
memorable?              and let go.

                      1)   When you are introduced to someone and
                           when you say good-bye
        Four          2)   When a client, customer or any visitor from
opportunities              the outside enters your office
                      3)   When you run into someone you haven’t seen
    to shake               in a long time
       hands          4)   When you enter a meeting and are introduced
                           to participants

                              o   International protocol dictates
                                 Shake hands with everyone in a room
                                 Omissions are noticed, and are considered
                                  a rejection.
                                o Women should initiate handshakes, and
                                  shake hands with other women and men.
   Not extending her hand to a European male will cause an American
    businesswoman to lose credibility.
o   Western and Eastern Europeans reshake hands whenever they’re apart
    for even a short period of time (for example, lunch).
o   French and Japanese business people shake hands with one firm
o   In Japan, the handshake may be combined with a slight bow, which
    should be returned.
o   In Arab countries, handshakes are a bit limp and last longer than typical
    American handshakes.
o   Latin Americans also tend to use a lighter, lingering handshake.
o   In all cases
   don’t pull your hand away too soon
   such a gesture will be interpreted as a rejection.
        Other Suggestions For Greetings
   Use of the Prospect’s Name, “The sweetest and
      most important sound in any language.”
                           o Based on Relative ages
         First Name?       o Prevailing custom
                  or       o Type of product or industry
                           o Your conclusions about behavioral style
       Formal Name?

     Remembering the Buyer’s Name
                  Relationship tension is not uncommon in the beginning
                  The purpose of small talk.
 Small Talk?      Gain an advantageous, positive beginning that will
          or      break the ice and ease the tension.
 Get Down to      “Warm up” a cold environment
  Business?       Provides additional information about the prospect.
                  Small talk can be negative if it conflicts with the
                  prospect’s behavioral style.
      Suit the
                  You must first estimate the personality style.
    Approach      Computer Use in the Approach
to the Person
     Attention    Appeal to the senses
     Capturing    Introduce of a benefit
                  How did you get your start in the widget business?
                  What do you enjoy most about your profession?
                  What separates you and your company from the
         Ten      What advice would you give someone just starting in
                  the widget business?
   Questions      What one thing would you do with your business if you
                  knew you could not fail?
                  What significant changes have you seen take place in
                  your profession through the years?
                  What do you see as the coming trends in the widget
                  What was the strangest or funniest incident you’ve
                  experienced in your business?
                  What ways have you found to be the most effective for
                  promoting your business?
                  What one sentence would you like people to use in
                  describing the way you do business?

            Objectives of a “statement” or
             “demonstration” approach
o   To capture the attention of the prospect.
o   To stimulate the prospect’s interest.
o   To provide a transition into the sales presentation.

       Objectives in opening with questions
o   To uncover the needs or problems important to the
o   To determine if the prospect wishes to fulfill these needs
    or solve these problems.
o   To have the prospect tell you about these needs or
    problems, and the intention to do something about them.

                        o Addresses the prospect by name
    Self Introduction   o States your name and company
            Approach    o Presents your business card.

           Consumer     o Gives the prospect a reason for listening
                        o Suggests a risk for failure to listen.
    Benefit Approach
                        o You should know something about the prospect
           Curiosity    o Ask questions whose answers will respond
           Approach       favorably to your product/service.
                    o Quickly establishes two-way communication.
                    o Enables you to investigate the prospect’s needs
Question Approach     and apply the benefits of your product or service
                      to those expressed needs.

      Compliment    o   Signals your sincere interest in the prospect.
                    o   Helps the salesperson establish leverage by
         Referral       borrowing the influence of someone the
        Approach        prospect trusts and –respects.

                    o   presents a shocking statement of what could
           Shock        possibly happen if the prospect does not buy
        Approach        your product.

                    o actually hand the product, or the physical
                      representation of it, to a prospect to produce a
                      positive reaction.
                    o stirs interest
                    o permits a demonstration
                    o makes a multiple sense appeal
                    o Creates a feeling of commitment to listen and to
        Approach      participate actively in the presentation.
                    o If bringing the actual product is not feasible, you
                      must use other devices (model, sample, picture,
                      …) : This serves to help the prospect focus and
                      hold attention on your product

                    o   doing something unusual to capture the
    Showmanship         prospect’s attention (example, dropping a “new,
                        unbreakable china” platter to demonstrate
       Approach         durability).

        Curiosity   o   make the prospect curious about your product.
         Opinion    o   ask the prospect for his opinion on your

         Premium    o   giving the prospect a sample of your product or
                        a small gift.
Using Questions Results in Sales Success
                      Ask Questions to
 o          Obtain information from prospect.
 o          Develop two-way communication.
 o          Increase prospect participation.

                    Requires a short answer – usually “yes” or “no”.
     Nondirective                                 who – what - where -
                    Open end questions
        Question                                  when - how - why.
                    Allows the salesperson to
                    better clarify what the     Are you saying that ….......?”
                    prospect means.
                       o Redirect prospect to
                         points of agreement.   We agree that having a
         Redirect      o Often used as a
                                                supplier that can reduce your
         Question        backup opening
                                                costs is vital. Don’t we?

                       Three Rules for Using Questions
 o    Use only those questions to which you can anticipate the answer
      (those that won’t put you between a rock and a hard place).
 o    Wait for an answer to your question. - Just listen.

     o   Quickly Hand or Show the Prospect the Product. – Ask A Question.

Be Prepared To Make Changes in Your Approach and Overall Presentation

                           After the interview
 o    The prospect should remember you in subjective terms.
 o    Your goal in managing your overall appearance is to get the prospect
      to take you seriously.
 o    If you project an attitude and look of authority and power, you are more
      likely to gain an audience with the prospect.
 o    When you achieve that hearing, you are more likely to close the sale if
      you project confidence, success and experience.
                          Chapter 10
        Asking Questions and Listening – The SPIN

         The Purpose of Asking Questions
           The Salesperson as a diagnostician
o       Provides a roadmap for you to follow
o       Allows prospects to discover for themselves their
o       Determine prospect’s buying criteria
o       Salesperson as a diagnostician

    Need discovery is more important than any other step in the sales cycle

         Plan your questions in sequence to gain information in a logical
         Research findings suggest that successful sales interactions:
         Contain more requests for information than opinions
         Contain fewer statements of disagreement
         Closing is directly linked to questions

    Specific Planning for Asking Questions
    o    Four key objectives of questions
              To discover the prospect’s “hot button”
              To establish purchase criteria
              To agree on a time frame for completion of negotiations
              To gain agreement on the problem before beginning the actual
               presentation of benefits
    o    Gear questions to the benefits of your product

        Asking questions in rapid-fire machine-gun fashion…
    o    Causes prospects to withdraw or to become angry
    o    Do not keep the prospect pinned down with a ceaseless
         chatter of oral machine-gun fire
    o    Avoid attempting to force or manipulate answers you
         want to hear
Phrase Each Question so That it
                                   o   Questions are easily misunderstood
Has Only One Clearly Focused
Purpose                            o   Phrase each question to maximize the
                                       amount of information you receive

Avoid Technical Language that
Might Confuse the Prospect         o   Terms Unique to Your Industry,
                                       Company, or Product That

                                   o   Amiables and analyticals take longer
                                       to respond. Be patient.
Ask Questions That Help to
Reveal the Behavioral Style of     o   Drivers are task oriented. Show them
the Prospect                           that they can win
                                   o   Expressives show personal
                                       orientation. Testimonials and

                         The Spin
  o   Neal Rackham – A British research psychologist developed the “SPIN”
      selling system.
  o   A precisely defined sequence of four question types
  o   Enables the conversation to logically move from
           exploring the customers’ needs to
           designing solutions
           To uncover Implied Needs and
           develop them into Explicit Needs that
           You, the salesperson, can resolve.
  o   The SPIN incorporates all of the concepts in this chapter
  o   SPIN is a registered trademark of Huthwaite, Inc., and has been
      developed into a learning/seminar program by Hodgden Consulting
    Some Links at the Huthwaite Site
Why Hospital Sales can be elusive        What makes a high performer?
Understanding how customers buy          A New SPIN on Sales
Improve Your Negotiation Skills - Just   Are your presentations sales
take the tablet                          winners or sales killers?
                                         Are your people negotiating or
Think global. Act local.
                                         concession making?
                                         Huthwaite International Shares
Exploring the no-grow situation.
                                         Sales Skills Expertise
Telenor Mobil stay ahead with            A positive change in habits helps
Huthwaite                                the habitat experts at Legacy.
SKF Europe look to solution selling with Xerox Norway takes SPIN® full
Huthwaite                                circle
                                         A radical company restructure
Creating a customer- focused sales
                                         required big changes in behaviour
                                         at ...
Tata Telecom achieve leadership          Sun Microsystems - a total
position                                 solutions approach
                                         Hill-Rom develops its own internal
Coaching for success at Nutricia
                                         SPIN training capability
                                         Why coaching is not happening
Executive Network reaps a ten-fold
                                         (and how it can) Overview -
return on their training
Maximising marketing messages            Skills and strategies for sales
Overview - SPIN marketing                performance improvement
MADKAM Overview - Major account
                                         Creating major sales Overview -
development and Key account
                                         SPIN selling
Complex relational selling Overview -    The make or break skills Overview -
Account strategy for major sales         Effective sales proposals and ...
Insight into the changing role of the    Developing customer needs, the key
procurement professional                 to increasing sales revenue and ...
  Situation                               o   Data-gathering questions.

S Questions                               o   Uncover facts and
                                              background information

                          "Would you describe your current
Examples:                 account documentation system?"

o   When overused, these questions bore the customer.
o   clarify the customer's current situation
o   Be sure each question is necessary
o   Can be overused (often are by inexperienced salespeople)
o   Don't ask a question to get information that you should have obtained
     before the call.

                      o   What is your position?
                      o   How long have you been here?
    Individual        o   What do you see as your objectives in this area?

                      o   What sort of business do you run?
                      o   Is it growing or shrinking?
    Company           o   What is your annual sales volume?
                      o   How many people do you employ?

                      o   What equipment do you use at present?
                      o   How long have you had it?
    Business          o   Is it purchased or leased?
                      o   How many people use it?
  Problem                               o   Here you help

P Questions                                 prospects define
                                            their needs explicitly

            "So you're having trouble
   Example: retrieving account-sensitive
             data on a timely basis?"
Problem Questions
Every problem implies a need!
Are designed to identify a customer's problem
Are more often asked by experienced salespersons.
Inexperienced reps are tempted to see the customer's problems as a
distraction or threat.
The more experienced you become, the more you want to uncover
The more you realize that customer difficulties present you with an
opportunity to be of service.
Other examples
Is this operation difficult to perform?
Are you worried about the quality you get from the old machine?
How satisfied are you with your present equipment?
What are the disadvantages of the way that you're handling this now?
Isn't it difficult to process peak loads with your present system?
How is the reliability on this system
  Implication                             Get the prospect
I Questions                               to discuss the problem and
                                          how it might be improved

                       "What kind of closing opportunities do you think
      Example:          your people have missed because of the data-
                                     retrieval problem?"
                         o       effects
The customer's           o       consequences
problems have            o       implications

  o    Implication Questions
     Are strongly linked to success in larger-ticket sales
     Are more difficult to phrase than either Situation Questions or Problem
     A problem can generate many implications. You may have to ask several
      of these for each problem
     Are essential to moving sales forward
     Make the problem seem more acute to the buyer
     Help to make the customer (and the seller) aware of hidden
      complications or of potential difficulties that may arise if steps are not
      taken to remedy the immediate problem.
     By definition these questions make the customer uncomfortable? Be
      careful not to offend or upset

  o    Examples
     How will this problem affect your future profitablity?
     What effect does the reject rate have on customer satisfaction?
     What effect does that have on your output?
     You only have three people that can use them. Doesn't that create work
     It sounds like the difficulty of using these machines may be leading to an
      employee turnover problem. Is that right?
     What does this turnover mean in terms of training cost?
     Could that lead to increased cost?
     Could that lead to customer service problems?
     Will it slow down your growth?
     Need-Payoff                              Help to build up the value
    N Questions                               of your proposed solution
                                              in the customer’s mind

    Need-Payoff Questions
        Are linked to success in more complex sales.
        Can be especially useful when you're talking to top decision makers (or
         those who will influence them)
        Increase the likelihood that your solution will provide the payoff that
         answers the need.
        Focus the customer's attention on the solution rather than the problem
        Encourage the customer to outline the benefits that your solution will
         provide his or her company
        Pre-empts objections
        Enlists customer buy-in.


        Would it be useful to speed this operation by 10%?
        If we could improve the quality of this operation, would that help you?
        Is it important to solve this problem?
        Why would you find this solution so useful
        Is there any other way that this could help you out?
        So would you be interested in a way to control this cost?
        Would it help you if ................?
        Would you be happier if.................?
 Components of a             o    Tell the prospect what you intend to do
  good transition            o    Provide a logical agenda
   often called a            o    Tell the prospect what you are doing
  Aim toward the             o    Planning questions in a logical sequence
       bridge                o    Predict all possible answers
                             o    Prepare a smooth transition from each
     with your                    possible answer
   questions by

  o   If I could show you a way to get get quicker, more reliable retrieval and
      the gain in revenues would you like to see it?
  o   If I could tell you a way to get get quicker, more reliable retrieval and
      the gain in revenues would you like to hear about it?

      Specific Questioning Techniques
                                 o   Uncovering specific facts
                                 o   Reducing tension because they are easy
Closed End Questions                 to answer
Structured alternatives          o   Maintain control by directing flow of
Multiple choice                      conversation
                                 o   Bind prospect commitment to a specific

                                 o    Allow the prospect to move in any
                                 o    Cannot be answered with a yes or no
                                 o    Ordinarily begin with Who, What, Where,
Open End Questions
Identify a topic but                 When, Why or How
do not provide structured        o    Stimulates the prospect's thinking and
alternatives.                        increases dialogue
                                 o    Helps uncover the dominant buying
                                 o    Uncovers the personality of the buyer.
     Classification of Questioning
       Amplification Questions:
                     restate or rephrase the
                       prospect's remarks.
Double-        Tells the prospect
Check            o   That you have been listening
Question         o   That you understand their concerns
                 o   That what they say is important to you
                 o   That they are making themselves clear

                 o   Nod head
Non verbal       o   lean forward
                 o   raise eyebrows
Gestures         o   inject words or phrases to keep the prospect

                 o   Tells the prospect that you don't quite
Use of           o
                     Allows you to relax the pace
Silence          o   Lets you formulate your next question
                 o   Don't abuse or you'll make the prospect

Continuation     o   They simply encourage more communication
                     from the prospect
Questions        o   Use a few words or phrases to keep the
                     prospect talking
                      Advantages of Using
                     Amplification Questions
  o   Checks for mutual understanding
  o   Allows the salesperson to rephrase what the prospect appears to have
  o   Invites the prospect to expand or clarify any point of disagreement
  o   Narrows down generalizations and clears ambiguities

   Classification of Questioning Techniques
                         o    Repeat or rephrase part of the prospect's last
Internal Summary             response
(reflective) Questions   o    Gets prospect to see things from your
                         o    Can underscore an important point.

Getting Agreement        o   Formally state the problem
                         o   Confirm with the prospect
on the Problem

       Before the        o   Agree that a need or problem exists
      presentation       o   Agree to explore your proposal

                         o   Build prospect confidence
                         o   Keys your product's benefits focused on
                             specific prospect needs
      The goal of        o   Encourages active prospect participation
fact finding questions   o   Determines the prospect's hot button
                         o   Determines the prospect's dominant buying
                         o   Strengthens your relationship
o       Faulty listening results in
o       Effective listening includes

             Hearing                           Interpreting
o       Hear and receive the message     o   Process and assinn meaning to
o       Listen actively                      the message
       Think as you listen              o   Detect central meaning
       Maintain eye contact                  Interest
       Put aside other activities            Need
o       Receive message openly                Rejection
                                         o   Verify your interpretation
                                         o   Get Common understanding

           Assessing                          Responding
                                         o   Clarify your expectations
o       Review Emotions                  o   Review priorities
o       Evaluate content, not delivery   o   Review resources that apply
o       Be objective                     o   Decide on a response
o       Reserve judgement until          o   Negotiate if necessary
                                         o   Achieve understanding and
        message is complete
             Improving Listening Skills
                        o            We can speak at 125 - 150 words per minute
                        o            We can hear at 600 words per minute
Capitalize on           o            Use the spare time to
                                    Anticipate where your prospect is going
  Speed of                          Mentally summarize the message

 Thought            
                                     Formulate a response
                                     Read between the lines
                                    Use silence strategically

  Annoying              o            Disagreeing or interrupting
                        o            Invasion of personal space
  Listening             o            Doodling, wandering eyes
                        o            Overdoing acknowledgements
    Habits              o            Showing off personal knowledge
   to avoid             o            Having to top everything

  Listening             o            Be Patient
                        o            Take Notes
    Habits              o            Avoid Prejudgment

 to Develop             o            Reinforce strategically

 influencing prospects to buy a product or
      service not in their best interest.
 Make use of silence to give prospects opportunity
 to express their feelings.

 Avoid attempting to force or manipulate answers
 you want to hear.

 Straightforward questions make no attempt to
 manipulate the prospect to make a premature
 commitment to the salesperson's product.

 Integrity and sincerity are the hallmarks of the

 consultative style of selling   .
                     CHAPTER 11
                  PREPARING FOR AN
                  Call Objective
  Each interview should have a specific objective
                         o   How much information about the prospect is
The Call Objective       o   The type of product or service you are selling
  is dictated by         o   Other factors unique to your own business and
                             that of the prospect.

                         o   Establish rapport and gather information
          Initial call
                         o   meet decision makers
        Survey call      o   uncover buying motives

                         o   Presentation
                         o   Handle objections
      Proposal call
                         o   Trial close

                         o   Get the order
       Closing call
 Calling on Regular      o   Try to provide new money making ideas
                         o   Don't give the same presentation over and over
    Sales Call Planning
Type of company
Names of individuals
Buyer background and profile
Major competitors
Sales call objective
Best times
Needs analysis
                    o Fact finding questions

                    o Features and benefits to

Presentation        o Objections anticipated

strategies          o Objection handling

                    o Closing techniques

Sales tools to take
      Style of the Presentation
                Memorized Presentation
  Quick Productivity       Beneficial during initial learning periods
 Reliable Information      Ensures the right information gets to the prospect
Proved Effectiveness       Presentations are typically tested and refined
 Confidence Building       Knowing the presentation works for other
Designed by Experts
                               o    Ask and answer questions
    Buyer or seller            o    Explore options
 should still be able to       o    Seek creative solutions

  o    Practice it
  o    Polish the delivery until it becomes natural.
  o    Internalize to the point that it is a normal, personal message.
  o    Once memorized, it comes from your heart and mind.
  o    The memorized presentation is a guide to lead buyer and seller through
        the sales process.

               The Outline Presentation
                                                  Any written outline or plan
 o    Seller prepares an outline of the
      presentation in written form.          o   Reveals need for any additional
 o    Useful when the product or service         information,
      requires extensive research into       o   Makes it possible to check
      customer needs                             needs and goals against
 o    You must have developed several            suggested solutions,
      "units of conviction" worksheets       o   Makes sure that you have a clear
 o    The call is still structured               picture of the entire situation
                                                 before arriving for the interview.

      The Extemporaneous Presentation
                              o    Takes a tremendous amount of
Only recommended for the           a. Product knowledge
most experienced sellers           b. Selling skills and experience
         The Salesperson’s Curse
“You know your product better than you know how your
client’s business can use it.”

          The Purpose of the
                   o    To sell your product to your customer.
  Main Goal
                   o Features            o Product
   Provide         o Advantages          o Marketing plan
knowledge via      o Benefits of         o Business proposal.
                   o Allow buyer to develop positive personal attitudes
                     toward your product.
                   o Attitudes result in desire (or need).
 Other Goals
                   o Convert need into want and into the belief that your
                   product can fulfill a certain need.

 Convince the      o    your product is best
                   o    you are the best source from which to buy.
  buyer that
                   Fully Discuss Your Product

    Three              Features
   Essential           Advantages
                       Benefits
 Steps Within
     The               Present Your Marketing Plan.
                    Explain Your Business Proposition (value/cost
                  o Don't worry about making the perfect presentation.
                  o It's more important that you truly believe in your

                  o Sellers typically presents 6-8 features or benefits in a
  Facts About
                  o Prospect remembers only one
 Presentations    o 39% of the prospects remember that one thing
                        o   49% percent remember something that was not even

        Strive for
                              Allow buyer to develop positive personal attitudes
      Passion, Not
                              toward your product.
     Attitudes result
                              Convert need into want and into the belief that your
      in desire (or
                              product can fulfill a certain need.



                                                           Construct logical
                                                           reasoning based on:

                                                           o    Major premise.
Seven factors that help you to be a better                 o    Minor premise.
communicator:                                              o    Conclusion.
     1.   Using questions.
                                                           o   Make the
     2.   Being empathetic.
                                                               presentation fun.
     3.   Keeping the message simple.
                                                           o   Personalize your
     4.   Creating mutual trust.
     5.   Listening.
                                                           o   Build trust.
     6.   Having a positive attitude and enthusiasm.
                                                           o   Use body language.
     7.   Being believable.
                                                           o   Control the
                                                           o   Use the Paul Harvey
 Suggestions to Aid
  Suggestive     o   suggest the prospect should act now.
   Prestige      o   name the famous or respected people or
                      companies that use your product.
                 o   attempt to have the buyer sell himself by
Autosuggestion        imagining himself using the product.

    Direct       o   suggest that the prospect buy your
    Indirect     o   make it seem as if the purchase of your
                     product is the buyer's idea.
                 o   Gets the buyer to express why he or she
   Counter           needs the product
                 o   Will probably also compel him or her to
  suggestion         defend his purchase decision.

     Make Your Statements Visual
                 a comparison statement using the words
    Simile       "like" or "as"
                 implied comparison that uses a contrasting
  Metaphor       word or phrase to evoke a vivid image.
                 compares two different situations which
   Analogy       have something in common.
                 Past sales help predict the future.
                 The guarantee.
                 Company proof results.
     Proof       Facts and Statistics
  Statements     Demonstrations - show the product in use
                 Have your referral call the prospect
                 Bring letters
                 Samples - appeal to the senses if possible
                                Case Histories
                                Restate the benefit before proving it.
                                State the source and relevant facts or
         research               figures about the product.
                                Expand of the benefit.
                                Ask Questions.
                                Product use.
    Induce Participation
                                Encourage the prospect to ask questions
                                Increase retention.
                                Reinforce message.
       The Visual
                                Reduce misunderstanding.
                                Create a unique and lasting impression.
      Show and Tell
                                Show your buyer you are a professional.
                                VISUAL AIDS HELP TELL THE STORY

     Behavioral Style and
    Prospect Participation
                Presenting to each of the four social styles

        Driver                             Expressive
          Planning                                  Planning
o   Short term results                 o   Discover their goals and plans at the
o   Your product should show               preapproach
    immediate benefits                 o   Concentrate on your offering's
                                           exclusive aspects
                                       o   Stress their personal and company

         Presenting                                Presenting
o   Personal relationship is not   o       They are visionaries, dreamers
    important.                     o       Open with innovative suggestions
o   Don't spend too much time on           for them to grow
    the relationship               o       Learn and relate to their "game
o   Move quickly to a substantial         plan" Lots of questions
    benefit with a payback            o   Discuss ideas and concepts with
o   Be brief stress the bottom line       respect
o   Get them involved. Let them       o   Use some showmanship
    lead                              o   Don't get into arguments
o   Drivers test your mettle.         o   Ask if they want you to respond to
    Prepare for a debate.                 their "blue sky" comments.
o   Answer objections. Don't bluff    o   Testimonials are important
o   Present alternatives. Let the     o   Let them see how it fits into their
    prospect choose                       plan.
o   Use an action close.
          Analytical                                 Amiable
          Planning                                  Planning
o   Structured. They study            o   They want to know you.
    everything                        o   They need your enthusiasm
o   Know their business               o   Approach with lots of personal
    thoroughly                            information
o   Use facts                         o   Bring testimonials, case studies
o   Prepare several alternatives          and third party references
                                      o   Develop a personal relation ship
                                          with the prospect

       Presenting                                Presenting
o   Data oriented                     o   Convince of your sincerity.
o   Structured approach               o   They have a hard time saying yes.
o   Low key, logic based              o   Don't sound "canned."
o   Be sure that they understand      o   Make it look real informal but well
    your structure                        organized
o   Emphasize test proven             o   Empathize. Reflect their feelings
    benefits                          o   Spend time on the relationship
o   Visual aides, charts and              during the presentation
    graphs. "Leave behinds"           o   Be open and candid
o   Don’t exaggerate or act           o   Use an interesting, entertaining
    flamboyantly                          style
o   Point out positives and           o   Assume the sale and move to the
    negatives of your offering            next step.
o   Use a detailed summary as a
                 o   Catch the buyer's interest
                 o   Fortify your points
A well planned   o   Help the prospect understand
                 o   Keep you interested and enthusiastic
demonstration    o   Cut down on the number of objections
     will        o
                     Help you close
                     Get the prospect "involved"

                 o   Concentrate the Prospect’s Attention on You
  Planning a     o   Demonstrate Your Interest in the Prospect -
                     start off by handing them something
Demonstration    o   Demonstrate Benefits not features

                     Let the prospect do something simple.
   Getting       o
                 o   Let the prospect work an important feature.
 Participation   o   Let the prospect do what he would frequently
      in a       o   Ask the prospect questions throughout the
                 o   Is the demonstration needed and
                 o   Have I developed a specific demonstration
                 o   Have I properly planned and organized the
    Sales        o   Have I rehearsed to the point that the
                     demonstration flows smoothly and appears
Demonstration        to be natural?
  Checklist.     o   What is the probability the demonstration will
                     go as planned?
                 o   What is the probability the demonstration will
                 o   Does my demonstration present my product
                     in an ethical and professional manner?

     The         o   "You know your product better than you
                     know how your client's business can use it."
salesperson's    o   You must determine what kind of buying
                     decision to recommend to the prospect
             Units of Conviction
                     Concise, carefully prepared "mini presentations"
o       Building blocks in constructing the information you present.
o       Prepared ahead of time
o       Practiced until you are comfortable
o       Add them to your store of available options for later use.
o       Become a permanent part of your selling arsenal.
o       Learn how to personalize units of conviction
o       Recall them in the best order for helping the prospect see them clearly

        Each unit or mini presentation consists of
                      five elements
        Feature                                            Buying Motives To
        Benefit                                          Associate With A Benefit
                                                     o   Quality
        Buying motive associated with this
                                                     o   Convenience
                                                     o   Cost saving
        Evidence or proof statements                 o   Status
                                                     o   Security
        Nail down or trial close

                   Features                                      Benefits
                                             o           Benefits are the value to the
                                             o           Translating features into benefits
                                                         is one of your most important
        The components of your product or
                                             o           Transitional phrases connect
        They are the same no matter who                  features to benefits
        uses the product or service.                    Because ..
                                                        This lets you …
                                                        That means …
                                                        What this gives you …

         Feature benefit worksheet - exhibit 11.5
    o             You need to develop a general sheet
    o             A specific sheet for each customer
The Nail Down or Trial

                                             Nail Down or Trial close
o    A yes/no question that confirms that         should always
     the prospect agrees that the benefit           be made
     is applicable
                                            o   After making a feature - benefit
o    If the prospect says no then go back       sequence
     over this benefit                      o   After the presentation.
o    This gives you feedback and builds     o   After answering an objection.
     commitment                             o   Immediately before you move to
                                                close the sale

                   Forms of Nail Downs (Trial Closes)
    Aren't They?                         Hasn't he?      Haven't they?
                      Don't you agree?                     Wasn't it?
    Aren't you?                          Hasn't she?
                         Don't we?                        Won't they?
     Can't you?                             Isn't it?
                        Shouldn't it?                     Won't you?
    Couldn't it?                       Isn't that right?
                        Wouldn't it?
     Doesn't it?                          Didn't it?
                                                Put the nail down at the
       Standard Nail Down
                     "After seeing this feature you can really see the benefit.
                     Can't you?"
                                                Put the nail down at the
        Inverted Nail Down
          Example: "Can't you see the benefit of this feature?"
                                                Embed in the middle of
        Internal Nail Down
                                                   the sentence.
          Example: "After seeing this feature, can't you see the benefit?"
                                           When the customer says something
            Tag on Nail Down
                                           positive, reinforce with a nail down.
                   Customer: "I can see the benefit of that feature."
                   Seller: "Can't you?"
      Use of Sales Aids
                     The Organizer
   A series of visuals that go step by step through the sales process.
                              (eg A flip chart)
                              o          Built around benefits
   Company                    o
                                         Fosters 2 way communication
                                         Leads to the close
    prepared                  o          Gets the whole story out in less
   organizers                 o          Keeps the presentation on track

                              o        Personal letters of reference
 Supplements                  o        Business cards of clients
                              o        Pictures of clients using the
that you should                   product
      add                     o        Pictures of finished installations

                        Other Audiovisual Aids
                              o       Computers
   The most                   o       Videos
                              o       Slides
    popular                   o       Presentation software use is
Audiovisual Aids                 growing

                              o         Rehearse them!
                              o         Customize them to fit each
                                  individual customer.
                              o         Make them simple, clear, and
 Guidelines for                   straight forward.
                              o         Control the demonstration.
  Using Visual                o         Make the demonstration true to life.
                                        Encourage prospect participation.
Aids, Dramatics,              o
                              o         Incorporate trial closes (nail
Demonstrations.                   downs) after showing or demonstrating
                                  a major feature, advantage, or benefit in
                                  order to determine if it is believed or
                                  important to the prospect.
                Handling special situations
                o   Their office - Your office - Restaurant :
 The Setting
    for the     o   Less interruptions
                      Your prospect is obligated to listen
     Sales            Non threatening atmosphere
  Interview           Less stressful

                o   Wait until prospect's attention is completely back to you.
                o   Restate selling points that were of interest to the prospect.
Interruptions   o   Invite participation.
                o   Make sure interest has been regained, then proceed.

                o   Offer to leave the room if the prospect must take a call
Phone Calls     o   Turn off or silence your cell phone or pager.

                           TEAM SELLING
                    o   Customer gets involved with more than one person
    Benefits of     o   More accurate need definition
                    o   Very useful of product is technical
  Team Selling      o   Different individuals bring more selling skills

                    o   Requires special planning
      Risks of      o   Must have a leader
                    o   Must agree on objectives
  Team Selling      o   Must be better rehearsed

                                 o   Coordinates the effort
                                 o   Monitors presentation
                                 o   Shows leadership, maturity and
   The Roles of     o   Leader       responsibility
    Each Team                    o   Must know the product, company policies
       Member                        and markets

                    o   Tech advisor, Finance advisor, Etc …

 Combinations       o   Salesperson and barrister (attorney)
       that Work    o   Good guy. Bad guy
(There are a lot                  a.Makes salesperson more careful
more than what                    b. Impresses the importance off the meeting
is in the book.)    o   Opener and closer
    Negotiation in Selling The Planning Phase
o   Trying to reach an agreement                 o   Predict problems ahead of time
o   Use a win-win approach                       o   Talk to others that have worked
o   Negotiation takes place throughout               with the prospect
    each phase of the selling process.

     Approach and Need
                                                  Objections, and
      Discovery Phase
                                                 Commitment Phase
                                             o       Both parties are searching for a
o   Information gathered will uncover the            solution
    real needs of the prospect               o       The "nail down" or trail close
o   Agreement that a problem needs a                 helps you confirm that needs are
    solution sets the stage for negotiations         being met

                  PRINCIPLES OF
                      Negotiating Tactics
                                 o   even after need discovery.
                                 o   Many objections are a request for
        Probing Questions

     Restatement of what         o   Shows that you are listening
                                 o   Gives you time to think
    the prospect has said
                                 o   a "what if" question that assumes that the
              Trial Balloons         prospect has made the decision
Tactics that Might Be Used Against You
                     o   request for additional freebies after the
         Nibbling        agreement has been made

                     o   "Limited budget"
       Hot Potato    o   Test the validity of the budget

                     o   Talk it over with the "boss"
  Higher Authority   o   You did not qualify this prospect

Bad Guy, Good Guy
                     o   physically grimacing when price is
         Flinching       mentioned

                     o   prospect says something is not negotiable
      Red Herring        when in fact it is
                     o   Avoid through needs discovery and active
        or Decoy         listening

           Special Situations
                     o   Set it aside for now.
       Ultimatums    o   It might not be all that important.

                     o   Don't give away anything without getting
       Trade-Offs        something

                     o   Get help
                 CHAPTER 12

   Negotiation and the
 Relationship Sales Cycle
 o   Trying to reach an agreement based on mutual interest
 o   Use a win-win approach
 o   Negotiation takes place throughout each step or stage of the
     selling process

       Objection An objection is anything the prospect says or does
                 that is an obstacle to smooth closing.
                      o   Learn to Accept Objections as a Challenge
                          Which, When Handled Correctly, Will benefit you
  WELCOME o               and Your Prospect.
                          If You Fear Objections You Will Fumble Your
OBJECTIONS!               Response Often Causing You to Fail.
                      o   Prospects that buy have 58% more objections.
                  o    Dislike decision making
                  o    Prefer old habits
                  o    Reluctance to give up
                       something old for
                       something new
Psychological o        Unpleasant past
                       associations with you
     reasons           or your company
                  o    Resistance to
                  o    Perceived threat to self

                  o    All or part of the
                       presentation was
      Logical o        misunderstood
                       Prospect is not
     Reasons           convinced
                  o    Hidden reason (stall)

                  WHEN DO PROSPECTS
Question:           OBJECT?
                      Any Time During Your
Answer:               Sales Call - From
                      introduction to close.

  Stopper Objection - no solution can be found
            o This is widely used because it gets rid of the salesperson.
      No    o It is tricky because it also includes a hidden objection
              and/or a stall.
            o Encompasses several forms of economic excuses
            o It is simple for the buyer to say.

                                Say that it is risky to discuss the
      No    When buyer asks
                                product's price until it can be
                                compared to the product's benefits.
   Money      for the price
                                Quote the price and go right on selling.
            Once you convey the benefits, price becomes a secondary
            factor which usually can be dealt with successfully.
                                        o Used to determine if a prospect is or is
                                          not convinced the price is too high.
                                        o Price/value = cost
                     Price / Value                     comparison of what is
                       Formula.          Cost
                                                       received to money paid.
                                                       what the prospect sees the
                                                       product doing for them.
                                                o   You must determine if the
                                                    statement is truth or it is a
                 o Usually a stall                  smoke screen designed to get
      No         o Screen for decision              rid of you.
                   making authority                 One of the toughest stalls to
Authority          early
                                                    overcome arises when selling a
                                                    new consumer product.

Searcher Objection - A Valid Request for Information
o   "I am not interested"
o   "I don't have any money for this"
o   "We are satisfied with what we have now"
o   "I really like the competitor's product"

    Searcher Objection - A Valid Condition of Sale
o   Sometimes prospects may raise an objection that turns into a condition
    of the sale.
o   "I don't like the color, size, etc"
o   "I need it by a next week"

                            Invalid Objections
                     o   Prospect who asks trivial, unimportant questions
                     o   Prospect conceals feelings beneath a veil of silence.
  Hidden             o   The salesperson must ask questions and carefully
                         listen in order to smoke out the prospect's real
objection                objection.

    Stall            o
                         "I'll think it over..."`
                         "I'll be ready to buy on your next visit"
"Put Off"
          8 Objections from
1 lack of perceived value in the product or service
2 lack of perceived urgency in purchasing the offering
3 perception of an inferiority to a competitive offering
4 internal political issue between parties/ departments
5 lack of funds to purchase the offering
6 personal issue with the decision maker(s)
7 corporate initiative with an external party
8 "it's safer to do nothing" perception

 Classify the Objection
                                           Product objection
        Six Basic                          Objection to the salesperson
                                           Objection to the your company
       Categories                          Don't want to make a decision
                                           Service objection
      of Objections                        Price objection
                                           Major or minor objection.
         Other                             Practical or psychological
     Classifications                       Practical (overt).
                                           Psychological (hidden).
Some General Tips for Handling Objections
Keep the buyers attitude toward your product positive.
Let buyers know you are on their side
Help with objections.
If you get no response, give a multiple choice question to display an attitude
of genuine caring.
Your goal is to help your prospect realistically examine reasons for and
against buying now.
The main thing is not to be satisfied with a false objection or stall.
Bring out any or all of your main selling benefits now and keep on selling!
                              They need your product or service
The prospect                  Your product is the solution to my problem
                              You are the person from whom I should buy
  must agree                  Your company is the one to deal with
        that                  The time to buy is now
                              The price and terms are fair
 Strategies for Deciding when to Answer Objections
                   o incorporate objections & answers in the presentation
   Anticipate      o be certain that the objection will arise
 and Forestall     o Prevents a confrontation and communicates

   Objections        objectivity

                   o Gives you time to present more benefits
                   o Allows you to maintain control
     Postpone      o Gives you time to think about the response
                   o Acknowledge the objection
          the      o Employ empathy
      Answer       o Promise to get back to the question
                   o Write it down

                   o The prospect not listening.
                   o prospect feeling that you are hiding something.
       Answer      o The appearance that you also feel it's a problem.
  Immediately      o The appearance that you're not able to answer
Postponement         because you do not know the answer.
 of objections     o The appearance that you are not interested in the
                     prospects opinion.
 may result in:    o The appearance that you are not sympathetic

                   o Serious objection will be repeated
Do Not Answer      o Not answering suggests that the excuse is not truly
    an Excuse        relevant

                   o Selling should be win-win
                   o Don't try to show up the prospect
     Disagree      o Challenge ideas without offending

      Without      Remove blame by         "I have not made myself
        Being      prefacing answer.       clear......"
 Disagreeable      Make a concession       "You raise an excellent
                   before taking           point….."
Add all new objections to yr database & Share them with yr cohorts
  A Negotiating Strategy for Handling
          Buyers’ Concerns
                   (A Six-Step Process)
                       o Hear the Prospect Out
  Listen Carefully
                       o   Validate the Problem
                           Clarify and Classify
     Confirm Your      o
                       o   Use confirmation questions
   Understanding       o   Ask if there is anything else
                       o   Try to distinguish between genuine
  of the Objection         objections and excuses

                       o   That is a logical question
                       o   Restate or rephrase in your own words
Acknowledge their      o   Use words such as, “I understand how you
                           feel” , “I see where you are coming from”, …
    Point of View      o   Prepare the prospect for your answer

                       BASE YOUR DECISION ON:
     o      Select a
                       o   The prospect's behavioral style
            specific   o   Phase of the interview
                       o   The prospect's mood
          technique    o   The number of times that this objection came
                       o   The type of objection

         Answer the    o   Confirm with the buyer that you have
                           answered the objection
                       o   Continue the Presentation If You do Not
 Attempt to Close          Succeed
   Specific Techniques for
    Handling Objections
Answers Based on Concrete Evidence
                  o compare advantages and disadvantages
                  o When the prospect is mentally comparing
     Product        the present product or a competing product
  comparison:       with your product, you may make a
                    complete comparison of the two
                      Describe the experience of a customer
case history or   o
                      whose situation is similar to that of the
   testimonial        prospect
                  o One of the most convincing ways to
                    overcome buyer resistance and specific
Demonstration       objections.
                  o Sometimes a second demonstration is
                    needed to overcome buyer skepticism.
                  o Removes resistance by reassuring that the
                    purchase will not result in a loss.
 Guarantees or    o Guarantees must
                   be meaningful
      warranty     provide for recourse on the part of the
                  o The prospect wants to wait a while before
        cost of     making a final decision.
                  o Use pencil and paper to show that delaying
      delaying      the purchase is expensive

  Classic Objection Handling Techniques
                  o Answer it by referring to a third party and
           Feel     using that experience as your "proof or
           Felt   o If the source is reliable or reputable this can
                    be especially successful with the expert or
        Found       skeptical prospect.
    Let a Third   I understand how you feel
                  Your friend, Hugh Jass, felt the same way
 Party Answer.    Here is what he found.
 Compensation       o Admit the objection is valid
            or      o Describe some counterbalancing benefit

                    o Answer with a question
   Ask "Why?"       o Rephrase the objection

                    o Considered a high risk method of handling
                      buyer resistance. Use it with care.
                    o If the buyer resistance is not valid, there
                      may be no other option than to refute it by
         Direct       providing accurate information.
                    o Example: If the quality of the product is
         Denial       questioned, meet the statement head on
                      with whatever proof seems appropriate.
                    o Be firm in stating your beliefs and be
                      sincere, don't be offensive.

                    o Acknowledge that the prospect is at least
                      partially correct.
                    o It initially appears as agreement with the
                      customer's objection but moves into denial
        Indirect      of the fundamental issue.
                    o If done in a natural, conversational way the
          Denial      salesperson will not offend the prospect.
                    o Rephrase or have the prospect rephrase
                    o Blame yourself
                    o Give the facts that answer the objection

    Boomerang       o Prospect: "I don't
                      like the size"
        turn the    o Seller: "The size is
                      exactly the reason
objection into a      you should buy it!"
                    o A trial offer lets prospect try product
                      without obligation to buy.
                    o Popular with customers because they can
      Trial offer     get fully acquainted with a product without
                      making a major commitment.
Effective Strategies for Coping with Price
                                o   The prospect places insufficient value on
The meaning of a                o
                                    the product
                                    A competitive product is a better deal
 price objection                o   The prospect just wants to bargain

o   Learn to respond to this objection.
o   It is inevitable.
o   Buyers will object just to get a discount.
o   Knowledgeable buyers know that there is often a standard discount for
    which they qualify
o   Price objections are an opportunity to sell the value of the product or
o   The danger is to respond to the wrong price objection.
o   "Tell me more" or "Explain"
Six fundamental price perspectives:
                         o Discover the differences between the
                           competitor's proposal and your proposal.
         Price versus    o The price is lower because
         competition      the product or service is less robust.
                          A time related "special offer."

        Price versus     o Was it a budget, or an expectation
                         o Was it based on old or unreliable data?
    approved budget
                         oWas the prospect told about a less
                          expensive solution provided to a friend?
                          Explore the friend's solution.
        Price versus      The buyer can then accept the other
  buyer expectations       solution at a lower price
                          The buyer can then accept the higher
                           price for the original solution.

                         o Your price is being compared to a process
                         o Buying software may be compared to
        Price versus
                           manual methods.
a process alternative    o There are often new benefits that are
                           impossible with the manual method

                         o Maintenance or support costs can be
                           greater than the original cost.
                         o 20 years ago hardware and software was
         Price versus      more expensive than support.
                         o Today hadware and software costs are
  a percentage of the
                           low. Labor for support is high.
    product price (for   o Support may be more comprehensive than
 continuing services)      in the past.
                         o Understand and communicate these
                           changes to the prospect

                         o Denies the cost of labor of the participant
                         o - and of extended time to implement.
                         o Example: lawn care.
                          Everyone can cut grass cheaper than
         Price versus
                             hiring a service
      "do-it-yourself"    Few enjoy spending time on this chore.
                          "Do it yourself" places less value on your
                  VALUE ANALYSIS:
Determines the Best Product for the Money.
 o    Comparison of your product's features, advantages, and benefits to
      those of the product presently in use.
 o    Comparison of long range costs and savings.
 o    Evaluation of the buyer's present product - does it perform better than
      is required?
 o    Determine if the buyer would benefit more from a higher-priced, better
      performing product.

             Types of Value Analysis
                   o   Compare product costs to true value.
                   o   Establish the value of the product first so the buyer
     True Value        can intelligently compare the true worth of the
                       product to its true monetary cost.

                   o   Unit costs break price down
Reduce to the      o   Use the Lowest Common Denominator
   ridiculous      o   Know basic quantities

                   o   Return-on-investment refers to an additional sum of
      Return           money expected from an investment over and above
                       the original investment.
                   o   Emphasize the percentage return that can be earned
  investment           by purchasing your product.

 When Dealing with Price Resistance
                   o   Add value with a cluster of satisfactions.
                   o   Point out the relationship between price and quality.
                   o   Explain the difference between price and cost.
                   o   Employ the Presumption of Exclusivity
                      Stress your product's exclusive features
                      Identify extras that only come from you
                      Sell quality, exclusivity and differential features
                   o   Sell Down
                      All prospects have a buying range
                      Show the best first and then let the prospect reduce
                       price by removing features or lowering quality

                   o   Apologize for the price.
                   o   Make price the focal point of your sales presentation.
                   o   Become demanding, defensive or hostile
      Five Question Sequence
       Method of Overcoming
     "There must be some good reason why you're hesitating.
Q1   Do you mind if I ask what it is?"
                                                    Ask what it   Go To
     "In addition to that, is there any other       is and         Q2
Q2   reason for not going ahead?"                                 Go To
                                                  Go forward to
     "Just supposing, M. Buyer, you could...   YES
Q3   then you'd want to go ahead?"
                                                  discuss this
                                               NO Go To Q4
     "Then there must be some other reason.       Answer GO TO Q2
Q4   May I ask what it is?"                    No Answer GO TO Q5

Q5   "What would it take to convince you?"

       This series of questions keeps the
      conversation going and gets the real
     objections out in the open which helps
              increase your sales.
            Some Thoughts on
          Qualities of a Good Negotiator
o Patience                          o Willingness to continue
                                    o Risktaker
o Endurance
                                    o Tolerate ambiguity
o Stamina

                      Negotiating Skills
o Allow time for planning           o Don’t respond too quickly to
o Collect all available
  information                       o Call "time-outs" when appropriate
o Negotiate internally first        o Put yourself in customer’s shoes
o Be flexible                       o Don’t let egos interfere

o Don’t give concessions too        o Always follow through

                Buyer's Overt Concerns
o Do we really need this product
  or service?                       o Are there alternatives?
                                    o Do we have sufficient budget?
o What will the savings be for
  the company?
               Buyer's Covert Concerns
o Will I be at risk?                o Will this solidify my position?
                                    o Will this mean more work for me?
o Will this reflect positively on
                                    o Do potential gains outweigh risks?
                      Ten Booby Traps
o Sneak attacks                     o Blind faith
                                    o Mental blocks
o Fatal assumptions
                                    o Price paralysis
o Misguided missiles
                                    o Unwise ultimatums
o Killer impatience
                                    o Misplaced emotions
o Bad intentions
                                    o Prepare!
                                    o Probe!
                                    o Propose!
                       CHAPTER 13

                          Be A Winner
            Winners                                   Losers
Part of the Solution                    Part of the problem

"It may be difficult but it's possible" "It may be possible but its too difficult"

Finds an answer for every problem       Finds a problem with every answer

"Let me do it for you"                  "That's not my job"

"There's a green near every sand       "There are two or three sand traps near
 trap"                                  every green

Always has a plan                       Always has an excuse

"I'll get it right next time."          "It wasn't my fault."

"If it is to be, it's up to me."        "I can't help it."

Translate dreams into reality.          Losers translate reality into dreams.

Empower.                                Losers control

"Let's find out."                       "Nobody knows."
            What is a Close?
                       o The process of helping people make a decision that
                         will benefit them.
                       o You help them make that decision by asking them to
      Closing            buy.
                       o A question or action designed to elicit a buying
                       o The Prospect is Ready.
Attempt to Close       o The prospect is in the "conviction stage" of the mental
 the Sale When           buying process.
                       o Can make closing quicker
    Computers          o Can quickly calculate complex prices
    and Closing        o Can fax or e-mail multiple parties

           Perspectives on Closing
o Closing should be natural and easy
o It should be planned like the rest of the process
o Closing is integrated throughout the presentation. It is not a separate event
o Each point of agreement is a minor close.
o Failure to close comes from an inadequate performance in other areas

            Abraham Lincoln's Record
    1832    Defeated in the race for the legislature
    1833    Failed in business
    1834    Elected to legislature
    1835    Sweetheart died
    1836    Suffered a nervous breakdown
    1838    Defeated for speaker in the legislature
    1843    Defeated for nomination to Congress
    1846    Elected to Congress
    1848    Lost renomination
    1849    Rejected for job as land officer
    1854    Defeated for Senate
    1856    Defeated for nomination for vice-president
    1858    Defeated for Senate
    1860    Elected sixteenth president of the United States
  Function of the Close
                                                   Buying means change
                    The Moment of
                 Decision is difficult for       Not buying leaves problems
                      most people                         unsolved
  The Need
                - The seller feels stress also
 For a Close    - The seller must ease the buyers pain
                - The art of closing sales is not the process of
                  persuading people to make decisions, but the art of
                  making decisions with which people agree

                - Encourage them but respect their decisions
  Reassure      - If they agree on the benefits then you are responsible to
    and           guide them to the close
   Close        - Your buyers will be relieved and grateful for your efforts
                  to close

                - Believe in what you sell
                - Assume commitment - Confidence is contagious
                - Understand that rejection is not personal
Salesperson's                        Your sincerity
   Attitude      Your attitude       Your interest in the buyer
                 will                Your belief in your product and
                 communicate         company
                                     Your overall success

                - Don't accept no for an answer unless it is in everyone's
                - You have earned the right to close
                - Abraham Lincoln's track record shows persistence in
                  the face of failure
                                48%          Quit after the 1st contact
                   Don't Stop
                                73%          Quit after the 2nd contact
                         at the 85%          Quit after the 3rd contact
                                90%          Quit after the 4th contact
                   First "NO."
                                10%          Get 80% of the business
                -   Count your successes.
                -   The number of failures doesn't count
                -   Failure to close a sale does not make you inferior
                -   Look at closing averages
                                Remind yourself that self worth is different
                                from performance
Dealing with                    Positive self talk
 Rejection                      Don't assume that you are the problem
                    Useful      Do more prospecting.
                                Work a fresh lead.
                                Expect rejection but don't create it
                              The buyer may have rational reasons for not
                              buying that they do not tell you
                Negative first impression still lingers in prospect's mind.
 Barriers to    Demonstration was not handled smoothly.
  Closing       Sales resistance was not overcome.
                Attempting to close too early or too late.
                    10% will never buy
The Closing
                    10% will be easy
                    80% can be closed
                    You believe in your product and your company
                    You have identified a genuine need
Display Self-       You naturally feel self-confident at the time of the close.
 confidence         "The prospect is persuaded more by the depth of your
                    conviction than the height of your logic" (Cavett
at the Close.
                    Ask for the sale in a confident way, not in a halfhearted
Recognizing Buying Signals
                         The CHEF Technique
                         o   Stroking cheek or chin means satisfaction
C    Cheek or Chin       o   Leaning forward and nodding

                         o   Open and Relaxed.
                         o   Plams Upward
H       Hands
                         o   Rubbing Hands means assumed ownership

                         o   Constant contact is good
                         o   Dilated eyes mean relaxation
E     Eye Contact
                         o   Rolling or squinting means confusion or ire

                         o   Smiling
                         o   Relaxed
F     Friendliness
                         o   Casual conversation

Some verbal and non verbal
     buying signals
                     o   objections mean interest
                     o   How much is it?
     Verbal          o   How soon can I get it?
                     o   Sounds good.
     Signals         o   What's the next step?

                     o   Nodding head
                     o   Leaning forward
                     o   Rubbing chin
    Gestures         o   Tugging ear
                     o   Reexamines product, sample or paperwork
                     o   Relaxes and become friendly.

                     o   Stopping just short of buying
                     o   Asking about price means they are sold on
                     o   Reinforcing or agreeing with your ideas
                     o   Asks another person's opinion.
              Types of Closes
The Trial Close      asks for an opinion not a decision

                    Assumptive Closes
 o      Assume that you asked for the order
 o      That the prospect said "Yes"
 o      Proceed to the next step

                        o   Asks the prospect to make a low-risk decision
                            on a minor, usually low-cost element of a
Minor-Point Close           single product such as delivery dates, optimal
                            features, etc...

Physical-Action         o   Fill out the order
                        o   Wrap it up
                        o   An old favorite; it provides a choice between
                            something and something, never between
Alternative-Choice          nothing and nothing.
Close                   o   Example: "Which do you prefer?" or "Would
                            you prefer A or B?"

                        o   ask questions and write answers on the
Order-Blank Close            contract.

                        o   keep asking questions that are designed to be
Continuous Yes               answered yes.

                        o   Explain another customer's situation and lead
Similar Situation           into the close.
      Direct Close: ask for the business
                                          oWe can have it delivered by
                                           the end of the month if we
                                           can get a signed contract
                                           into the implementation
                                           department by Thursday.
                                         o Should I forward a contract
                   o Has the advantage     so you can get started?
                     of clarity and      o Would you like to try it for a
                     simplicity.           quarter?
                   o Ask for the order   o It’ll take a few weeks to
                     in a                  process and ship the order
                     straightforward       so if you’re interested in
                     manner.               moving forward, we should
                                           start the paperwork now.
                   o Most direct closing
Direct                                   o Let’s get this off your plate
                     approach and
                                           and start the paperwork.
Appeal               appeals to many
Close                buyers, especially o What do you think?
                                         o Let’s start the process so
                     decisive people.
                                           you can get onto your other
                   o Should not come       priorities. Sound good?
                     too early.          o Would you like to move
                   o Highly effective      forward?
                     when salesperson o Are you ready to get
                     has earned the        started?
                     customer's          o Can we go ahead?
                     respect.            o We can start the process
                                           today with a credit card if
                                           you’d like.
                                         o We can deliver it to you by
                                           the close of business
                                           tomorrow if you’d like.

                    o Summarize the product's benefits in a positive
                      manner so that the prospect agrees with what
Summary of            you are saying
                    o Then ask for the order.
Benefits Close      o You can easily adapt Feature / benefit statements
                      for your "summary" close.

Impending-Event     o indicate that if they do not act now they may not
                      be able to buy in the future.
or Standing Room
                    o It should only be used in complete honesty.
Only Close
                    o Offers the buyer something extra for acting
                      immediately, such as
                     a special price reduction
                     a more liberal credit plan
                     an added feature
                    o Make sure the buyer places a value on the
Special               consession before offering.
Concession          o Don’t say that you will do it.
                     Ask instead if the special concession would be
Close                 sufficient to close the sale.
                     Only confirm the concession if the buyer agrees.
                     Only concede of the buyer has specifically told
                      you that there are no other objectionss
                    o Use with care because some buyers are skeptical
                      of concessions.
                    o Have a reason to come back
Call-Back Close     o Review everything when you come back

Trial-Order Close   o   Puppy dog
                    o Often called the Ben Franklin close
                    o Based on the process people go through when
                      they make a decision
                    o Weigh the cons against the pros.
                    o The same as debits and credits, act or not act,
or T - Account        etc..
Closes              o Modified T-Account or Balance Sheet Close --
                      only list the reasons to buy. Some salespeople
                      do not remind the prospect of any of the reasons
                      not to buy as they attempt to close the sale
                    o Ask prospects what the probability of doing
Probability           business at a later time is.
                    o This permits prospects to focus in on and
                      discover their own hidden objections.
                    o One single objection stands in the way of a close.
                    o Most often surfaces when a trial close is used.
Negotiating the     o Never lose patience with prospect
single problem      o Clarify the customer's position regarding the
close.              o Help customer weigh advantages of product by
                      reviewing product's superior points
                    o Provides prospects with choice as a way of
Limited Choice      o Allow customer to examine several different
Close                 models and try to assess degree of interest in
                      each one.
                          o Cease showing new products when it appears
                            that the prospect has been given ample selection.
                          o Remove products that the prospect does not
                            seem genuinely interested in.
                          o Place unwanted products aside and concentrate
                            on products the prospect seems to be definitely
                            interested in.

                  "Your price is too high!"
    Confirm that          o "Is there anything else beside price that is
                            holding you back?"
    price is the only     o "If the price were better then could we do
    Problem                 business right now?"
    The prospect
                          o "What did you have in mind?"
    should make an        o "What can your budget spare?"
o Confirm the offer
o No matter what it       o   "If I can get you that price then can we do
  is.                         business immediately?"
o Do not commit

         If the prospect responds
                          o "Then there must be something else. Can I ask
                            what it is?
    No                    o Then handle that objection.
                          o Price may never come up again.

                          o Recognize that you prospect is committed.
                          o You may or may not be able to negotiate.
                          o You can chose

    Yes                    Calculate the price difference and reduce
                           Haggle
                           Don't give in untill the contract is filled out and
                            ready to sign

                       I want to think it over
                        I want to sleep on it.
    Agree and             o "I can understand that."
    complement            o "I'd do the same thing myself?"

                          "I am sure that you'll have some questions for me
    Start packing up        as you think it over, won't you?"
                            o "Just so that I'm prepared.
                            o What are some of the specific things that you'll
One last question.
                              be thinking about?

                                    Soft                           Hard
                                                     o Start asking yes/no
                                                      Is it my company?
                                                      Is it the color?
                        o Be quiet and let them
                                                      Is it .....
Two options now           talk.
                                                     o Go through all the
                        o Handle any response
                          as an objection.             benefits
                                                     o Make the prospect
                                                       realize that they are just

     Research shows six common closing mistakes
1.   Talks too much. Doesn't ask enough questions.
2.   Over-controls the call; asks too many closed-end questions.
3.   Doesn't respond to customer needs with benefits.
4.   Doesn't recognize needs, gives benefits prematurely.
5.   Doesn't recognize or handle negative attitudes effectively.
6.   Makes weak closing statements, doesn't recognize when or how to

                            After the Close
 o    Confirm the sale when the buyer says yes:
 o    Be sure all details related to the purchase agreement are completed
 o    Check everything with buyer
 o    Ask for signature if necessary.
 o    Reassure customer and confirm
          Pointing out that s/he has made the correct decision
          Describe the satisfaction that will come with ownership of
            product or service
 o    Thank customer for the order.
 o    A follow-up thank-you letter is often appropriate.
 o    Ask for referrals.
 o    Provide after-sale service.
 o    Leave Gracefully
 o    Don't talk past the close
           When You Dont Make The Sale
 o Recognize hopeless selling situations
 o Avoid doing or saying anything that will jeopardize the relationship
                      o   Do not take the buyer's denial personally
                      o   It was a business decision that the buyer made given
                          the circumstances.
Act Professional      o   The proper handling of a no-sale situation helps build a
Act Adult                 sound business relationship with your customers.
                      o   Ask why you lost out - learn from your successes and
                      o   Sometimes, it is proper to reopen the presentation
                      o   Do everything possible to help customer make an
Prepare                   intelligent comparison.
prospect for          o   Review strong points of product, giving special
shopping the              emphasis to areas in which product has superior
competition               advantage over competition.

     o        Never treat the lost sale as a defeat.
     o        Do not use selling methods that are unethical and/or illegal.

           Analyze Lost Sales
     o   A lost sale can be a learning experience.
     o   Take a good, objective look at presentation and try to identify
     o   Consider how to avoid this problem in the future.
     o   Salvage as much as possible from the experience
     o   Don't give up too soon.
     o   Callbacks are very common, especially in the field of industrial selling.
                           o   Your sales manager
 Discuss the               o   Your fellow salespeople
 lost sale with            o   Other people who understand the selling and
                               buying process.
                           o   Personal information - family, hobbies, and so
 Prepare for a                 forth.
 possible return           o   Company information - if selling to an individual
 call by                       buyer, company information is quite valuable.
 recording                 o   Purchase priorities - every prospect has unique
 information.                  purchase priorities.
                      CHAPTER 14
         Service is an Ongoing Activity
    o Selling is the courtship; Service is like “permanent
    o You become part of the customer’s team
    o You establish a basis for a long-term relationship
    o You might get new prospects (your current customers
      give them to you)
    o Think of each customer as your only account

    “A lot of people have fancy things to say about customer
       service, including me, but it’s just a day-in, day-out,
         ongoing, never-ending, unremitting, persevering,
                  compassionate type of activity.”
                     - Leon Gorman, L.L. Bean

         Service Quality
o Can be a strategy to acquire and maintain
o Segment customers
o Inform specific customers what to expect
o Exceed expectations
o Must be a way of life

        Moments of Truth
o   Each time a customer contacts your firm a
  moment of truth occurs
o At each moment the customer becomes
  aware of your service quality

         Value Added
Everything the salesperson does during and
after the sale provides value added.
Value added .
Means going above and beyond what is
merely expected of you
Warranty and repairs are part of what we sell.
Our service must go beyond that.
There is no speed limit on the extra mile

                 Service After the Sale
   The sale is not complete until the customer is satisfied
    Ten elements of service after the sale.
  Follow-up on delivery schedules.
  Checking on the performance of the product after delivery.
  Training or instructing the customer in using the product.
  Making adjustments of mistakes in delivery quantity or quality.
  Assisting in securing replacement parts.
  Helping to arrange and check displays.
  Checking customer's inventory of related supplies to make the product or
  service work properly.
  Answering questions related to the product or other products or services
  your company provides.
  Giving prospect referrals to customers for their business when you
  discover one.

     Sending appropriate remembrances on occasions of importance to the
     customer including birthday, holiday seasons, public recognition or
     business achievement, promotion, etc.

                              o   If complaints are intercepted and solved
                                  quickly then they don't become major
      Problem Prevention
                              o   Quick service can turn a lemon into

                              o   Personnel changes
        Staying Informed -    o   Competitors activity
     frequent service calls   o   Upcoming structural changes in client
       keep you up to date        firm

                              o   More technical sales are lost through
                                  poor follow-up than anything else
        Retaining Existing    o   Average firm looses 20% of customer
                                  base per year
               Customers      o   Any reduction in that number greatly
                                  increases profits

                              o   Service is the only way to justify a price
        Building Goodwill
                              o   Goodwill makes a repeat sale possible

       Service as an Ongoing Activity
Selling is the courtship. Service is the marriage
o    You become part of the customers team
o    You establish a basis for a long term relationship
o    You make sure that customers get what they thought they were buying
o    You get new prospects
          1.    By referrals
          2.    By learning the customer's industry
o    Think of each customer as your only account

    Gaining a new customer cost five times more
          than keeping a current customer
            Service in Response to Needs
    o         Service the old accounts as well as the new
    o         Anticipate complaints and intercept them

Technical Assistance Research Programs,
               Inc findings
o       Only 4% of unhappy customers actually complain. Even some with
        serious problems
o       Complainers are more likely to do business with you again
o       50%-70% of complainers will give repeat business if the complaint is
o       95% complainers will give repeat business if the complaint is resolved
o       Dissatisfied complainers will tell at least 9 or 10 people. 13% tell more
        than 20 people
o       Satisfied complainers will tell about 5 people

        Some types of problems a salesperson, could
            solve before they become serious.
o       The product is not functioning properly.
o       The personnel handling the equipment cannot operate it efficiently.
o       They are not getting replacement parts quick enough.

                     o   the phone is a great tool.
                     o   Gives personalized attention
Phone                o
                         Customer service hot lines
Calls                    have proven themselves to be

Problem              o   Coordination Within Salesperson’s Company
                     o   Assistance With Training
                     Servicing Retailers
o   Keep customers informed of promotional programs
o   Supply display items
o   Help with displays and arrangements
o   Check inventory regularly
o   Train the customer's people

                  Servicing Intermediaries
o   Call on the distributor.
o   Call on the distributor's customers.
o   Train distributor's sales force.

         Technology and Service Quality
o   Service ability has been enhanced
o   Electronically mediated sales conversations - two computers sharing

          Tracking Service Activities
    A written specific plan should be developed
                      Call Frequency
o        Rank your customers (criteria may vary)
o        Allot service time and call frequency accordingly
      Follow-Up at a specific time interval
                 after each sale.
     Mail - keep your name in front of them
         o     Promotional material
         o     New product information
         o     Company newsletter
         o     Newspaper articles
         o     Letter with a reply card

o   Personal Reliability - don't be a flake
o   Second-Mile Action - there is no speed limit on the extra mile

             Winning Back Former
              Reasons for losing an account
     o Something the seller does
     o Something the seller fails
       to do
     o Something the company
     o Something the company
       fails to do
     o A question of service
        List of excuses - "It's not my fault."
    o        Competition too cheap
    o        Competition unethical
    o        Customer is too difficult
    o        All customer cares about is price
    o        I don't have time to follow up
    o        I've been doing sales for ## years. It can't be me.
    o        My company fails to back me up
                  delivery is late
                  quality deteriorates
                  I never lose a customer through any fault of mine

         Ask the tough questions
o Do I get mad at small orders?
o Do I stay away too long between calls?
o Do I keep customers informed?
o Do I keep all my commitments?
o Was our service ineffective?
o Can I help you in any way to get the account back?

carefully and
            o   are the life-blood of every business
Customers   o   satisfying them is an income-producing endeavor.

            o   are the most important people in my business.
            o   are not dependent on us
Customers   o   we’re dependent upon them.

            o   are not cold, hard lifeless statistics
            o   they are flesh and blood human beings with feelings and
                emotions just like our own.

            o   do us a favor when they call with a complaint or service
            o   customer retention is the bottom line.

            o   are not an interruption of our work
Customers   o   they are the purpose of everything we do.

            o   are the key components of our business
Customers   o   they are not outsiders.

            o   deserve the most courteous and attentive service we can
                give them
            o   develop a servant’s heart.

            o   are people who bring us their wants and needs
Customers   o   it is our job to thrill them.

            o   are not opponents to argue or match wits with
Customers   o   why win the battle and lose the war?

            o   should be considered economic assets
Customers   o   manage them to maximize your return on investment.

            o   make it possible for a company to pay your salary
            o   whether you are a secretary, production employee, office
                staff, salesperson or sales manager.
                CHAPTER 15
              Self Management

                      "Dost thou love life?
                      Then do not squander
                      time, for that’s the
                      stuff life is made of."

                      - Benjamin Franklin

       John Ciardi     o   The day will happen whether or not you get up.

         Yogi Berra    o   It isn't over till it's over.

  Benjamin Franklin    o   Remember that time is money.

    Alexander Rose     o   half the agony of living is waiting.
                       o   People count up the faults of those who keep them
    French proverb         waiting.
Napoleon Bonaparte     o   You may ask for anything you like except time.
                       o   You can't escape the responsibilty of tomorrow by
  Abraham Lincoln          evading it today.
    Thomas Edison      o   Everthing comes to him who hustles while he waits.

        Victor Kiam    o   Procrastination is opportunity's natural assassin....
                   Don't wait for your ship to come in; swim out to it.
       Anonymous o Someday is not a day of the week
                 o If it weren't for the last minute, nothing would get done.
                                        "What is the best use of my time right
Lakein's first question to ask:                        now?"
                                        o   Activities can be managed
Time cannot be managed.
                                        o Self Management or Self Discipline
Personal Organization and Self          o Planning and Organizing
Management involve                      o Automation systems and techniques

                                        o How will you spend your time?
                                        o How will you invest your time?
                                        o How much to business, service,
84,000 seconds per day to use
                                          family, leisure?
                                        o How much for yourself?

  We have the ability but what about the desire?
 Lack of organization is a major contributor to failure
        Organization must become a habit

Mental preparation - takes lots of practice
                       o List activities that you want to complete this week
                       o Keep a detailed, hour by hour, record of what you do
                         with your time
Some suggestions       o Audit yourself at the end of each day and week
                       o List five habits that are your biggest obstacles. Write
                         out a plan to correct

Detailed time analysis twice per year
Organize to prioritize and process
information received
          Three Basic Mental Tasks
                      o Unaided recall is 40% maximum
                      o Stimulated recall can be 100%
 Stimulating Recall
                      o Reminders must be in plain sight.

                      o Incompletion: anything that needs additional
                        action before it is put to rest.
                      o To avoid frustrating thoughts about incompletions
                      1.    Do it now if possible
     Incompletions    2.    Delegate and forget
                      3.    Put a reminder someplace that will work

                      o You need to make time for creative thinking
                      o Get everything else under control and this time
Thinking Creatively
                        becomes available.

   David Allan's Getting Things Done
                            People Pleaser       o   Wants to please
                                                 o   Fears authority

        Types of                                 o   Unrealistic standards
                              Perfectionist      o   Can't delegate
   Time Abusers
                                                 o   Put off, put off
                            Procrastinator       o   panic

                                o   Even neat piles must go.
 Remove the Clutter             o   Clutter in sight is a mental burden.
     o         Collect the Clutter from everyplace
     o         Get into one location.
     o         Sort the Clutter
            1.       Time critical
            2.       Someday
            3.       Trash

                                            o   31 day folder system
 Deal with Priorities -                     o   David Allen's 43 folders
Time critical material                      o   computerized reminders

    Set Up Working                          o   Reading
         Categories                         o   Projects - separate folder for each
        for the Rest                            project
 (Someday material)

                       Handle Interruptions
               People                     Paper
                                                          Environmental Interruptions
          Interruptions              Interruptions
 o       Superior: you can
                                                           o Telephone Calls - try to
         respectfully ask
                                  o Notes                    hold and return
         for a delay
                                  o Memos                  o Visual distractions
 o       Associate
                                  o Correspondence         o Comfort factors
 o       Subordinate
                                  o Periodicals            o You might need a
 o       Customer:
                                  o Messages                 hideaway
         consider it a
                                  o Projects               o Email
         contact not an
          If an interruption is part of your job then you need to decide whether it
           is more important than your current task
          Tasks handled by interruptions take longer
         two simple tools
  The Master Calendar

A simple pocket                   1-31 files or
                                  a computer
calendar backed by

       Daily to-do List

                             2000Write down tasks
                             Rank them in order of priority
                             Attack them in order
                             Forces you to attach time to each
         How its done         task
                             The Integrated System
                             Forget about incompletions until they
                             Start a fresh to-do list every day
                 Identifying Priorities
                             The 80/20 Rule
                             means that in anything
                             a few
                                       are vital

          (Vilfredo)                   are
          Pareto             many
          principle          (80%)
          Aka the
          80/20 rule
 In Pareto's case it meant
20% of the people owned
80% of the wealth.                      Sales Managers
  Industrial Engineering           20% of salespeople produce
20% of the defects causing         80% of sales
80% of the problems.                      Sales People
     Project Managers              20% of customers produce
20% of the work consumes           80% of your income
    of your time and
80% resources.
                    How It Can Help You

   The value of the Pareto Principle for is that it reminds you to focus on the
    20 percent that matters.
   Of the things you do during your day, only 20 percent really matter.
   Those 20 percent produce 80 percent of your results.
   Identify and focus on those things.
   When the fire drills of the day begin to sap your time, remind yourself of
    the 20 percent you need to focus on.
   If something in the schedule has to slip, if something isn't going to get
    done, make sure it's not part of that 20 percent.

           "A" Priorities          pressing and related to your goals
          "B" Priorities           something that can be done anytime
                                    within a day, week, month
          "C" Priorities           Nice to do sometime
            Time Goals             Parkinson's law - work expands to fill
                                    the time allowed to do it
                                   Record time next to each item
Maintaining a Positive Attitude Toward Time
    Set Deadlines and beat them
    Place a time limit on meetings
    Take advantage of your peak time
    Learn to say no
    Make Decisions
    Overtime is another bad habit
    Delegate
    Write it down (or type it into ACT!)
    Nurture helpful relationships
    Stay Balanced

Benefits of Planned                     Telephone saves you time
                                        Schedule and confirm appointments
Telephone Time
                                        Get Organized to Make Calls
                                             List topics for discussion
                                             Have reference material handy
                                             Have your calendar handy
Controlling Telephone Time
                                        Limit the Time for Making Calls
                                        Some socializing is necessary
                                        Give a time limiting preface

             Setting Goals for Telephone Control
                   Techniques for Telephone Time Problems
                                 Don't get upset if they can't talk when you
                     Ego Needs
                                  Minimize.
                     Socializing  Remember priorities

   Lack of Awareness of time
                               Keep track of time spent on each call
             Easy availability Set a quiet time to make and take calls
                               Don’t leave the caller hanging while you
           Facts not available
            Fear of offending The other person needs to hang up too.
               Self-discipline It takes practice to do all of the above.
                                Preface call "I'll just be a minute…."
Too much time given to a call.  Preface termination "Before I hang up… "
      Computerized Mapping Systems
           Computer software that displays numeric data on maps
           Trip Maker - Plans trips and tracks expenses
           Strategize prospecting calls

                        AvantGo Software for your phone
                        Color maps fully annotated
                        Zooming capability
                        Routing information
                        Hotel Data
Features of most        Restaurant Data
mapping programs        Car Rental Data
                        Toll Free Numbers and URL's
                        Expense Tracking
                        Custom Printouts

                        The system uses satellites to locate the position of
                         anything with a GPS receiver, like a car.
                        Rick's GPS
                        You always know where you are even in a bad storm
                         or heavy fog
Global Positioning      GPS will become standard equipment in cars
                        Lock your keys in your car, no problem; use your cell
                         phone to call a toll-free number and the satellite
                         system will beam down a signal that will unlock your
                         car door.

                        Rand McNally
                                                        GeoQuery
                        Delorme GPS for PDA
                        Copilot -                      Garmin
Web Sites                                               Google Maps
                                                        Yahoo Maps
                        Maps On Us
                        Mapquest
                         A High Volume repeat customers
Prioritize customers     B Moderate volume reliable customers
                         C Cost you time and energy and yield little profit

             Territory Routing Patterns
                              Starting and ending point are the same
Cloverleaf                    Each leaf represents a cluster of customers

                              start at the farthest customer and call on clients
Hopscotch                      on the way home

Straight line

      Without a plan much time is wasted

    Time management is largely a matter
     of attitudes.
    Time is life
    You can control your life only by
     controlling time,
    Professionally, time is money.
    The necessary elements of an
     effective organizing system.

             The 1-31 reminder file
             The master calendar.

                A daily "to do" list
         Defining Success More Broadly.
A good life-balance means taking the time to appreciate what we're doing now.
                         It prompts these questions:
 What are we doing?                   - are we doing something that's worth
                                         doing, however that may be defined?
 Why are we doing it?                  - what is our ultimate goal or reward?
 Who are we doing it for?              - for ourselves, families, others?
 How do we measure our success? - is it by narrow, materialistic gain or by
                                          broader, subjective achievements?

Try thinking again about what you're doing and what you hope to achieve. Being
satisfied with what you've got can be a liberating experience. Knowing when
enough is enough could transform your perception of success. Perhaps the real
benefits of time management come by ensuring we don't waste it, doing the
wrong things for the wrong reasons. Guard against narrow definitions of success.
Stop following the crowd, simply striving for more. Consider what you have to
appreciate, here and now. Stop and smell the flowers!

               How to realise the benefits of time management?

                      Begin with the end in mind, and
  Define success broadly - recognising what you have, and when enough is

                                       The Benefits Of Time Management:
                                       Remember Who You Work For

                                       A recent UK TV commercial showed short
                                       clips of children admonishing their work-
                                       obsessed parents.

                                       “Your fired” said the children, as parents
                                       came home late from work, or missed
                                       special moments.

The ads finished with the statement
“remember who you're working for”.

     The happy manager approach is to ensure working doesn't diminish our
           appreciation of what we have now - the pleasures in life.

Think through what you really value in life, and what you need to do to enjoy it.
           Perhaps these are the real benefits of time management.
         CHAPTER 16
   The Sales Management Function
  Sales management may be a firm's
      largest operating expense
                 o Between sellers and
      Sales        customers
 manager is      o between sellers and
    the link       management

 Two sets of     o Selling Skills
    skills are   o Management Skills
         As a    o Less time is spent in the field
    manager        with salespeople
                 o More time in spent in
 rises in the      administration

       Managing any
    In The 21st Century
Employees consider three item most
important about their job

                     Open two way communication
                     Effect on personal / family life
                     The nature (importance) of their work
Total Quality Management (TQM) and
         the Sales Manger
o TQM philosophy is changing many aspects of business
o Many sales management methods contradict TQM
o TQM uses salespeople to connect customers to the firm's internal

          Role of the Salesperson in TQM
o Must satisfy customer
o Must satisfy management

          Video Conferencing
    o         Combines voice and visuals
    o         Saves time and money

         What To Do                          What Not To Do
o       Edit information ahead of time
o       Interact!                        o   Have a clear, limited agenda
        Ask and answer questions         o   Don't let one person dominate
                                         o   Body language is hard to read.
o       Have Audio Backup
                                             Don't use it.
o       Control noise and
        interruptions                    o   Use it often to get comfortable with
                                             the technology
o       Practice and debug ahead of
           Choosing a sales manager
      Promote the top-producing salesperson
o         Expertise in all aspects of selling
o         Sales ability alone is not enough.
o         May be unhappy and ineffective in managing other salespeople.

 Lateral transfer of an effective manager from
another department (e.g., finance, advertising,
o    Has the management ability
o    Lacks the basic sales abilities that everyone in sales needs.

Hiring someone from outside the organization
o    Has sales ability management ability
o    Unfamiliar with company policies, office practices expense account
     procedures and organizational goals.

From salesperson to sales manager
               Activities of a sales manager
o         Working with sales representatives
o         Recruitment
o         Training and development
o         Appraisal, counseling coaching
o         Administration
o         Self management

    Five characteristics that make a great leader
                    o Provides employees with a sense of mission
                    o Creates a challenging work environment
                    o Gives immediate feedback
                    o Rewards and praises to recognize
                      a. The individual
                      b. The individual as a member of a team
                      o Develops employees talents and careers
            Steps to success as a sales manager
o Clarify attitudes about leadership
o See yourself as
   a.    Production manager first
   b.    Personnel manager second
o Pride in your team
o Always do what you say
o Set priorities
o Continuously and consistently recruit the right kinds of people
o Train continuously and consistently

                 Becoming A Winning Manager
        Traditional Managers                   Winning Managers
                  o  Resist Change                 o   Loves Change
                  o  Self Image:"The                o Self Image: "The Coach"
                     Boss"                          o Group Decision Making
                  o  Make decisions                 o Shares news and
                     alone                             information
                  o  Reluctant to                   o Expects results and
                     share                             progress
                     information                    o Helps everyone plan
    o   Demands hours not                              career
        achievement                    o   Considers staff to be a team
    o   Neglects career planning       o   Provides employees with a sense of
    o   Considers sales staff to be        mission
        subordinates                   o   Challenges sales team to stretch
                                       o   Gives immediate feedback
                                       o   Rewards and praises individual and
                                           team performance
                                       o   Helps employees develop their
                                           talents and careers
          Determine Sales Force Organization
                         o    Expensive complex products
Product Organization     o    Expensive due to specialization
        Geographic       o    Product line must not be too complex
       Organization      o    Territories must be properly sized
                         o    Selected SIC Codes
                         o    Selected customers by name (without
     Customer Type            centralized buying)
       Organization      o    Selected customer by region
                         o    National or Key Accounts (with centralized
       Combination        o    Can combine any and all of the above
       Approaches         o    Depends on need, cost, etc

  Determine the Number of Salespeople Needed
 Workload approach - popular
 o       Determine the number of calls needed
 o       Determine time needed per call
 o       Determine total working time ( a * b)
 o       Determine actual selling time available per salesperson
 o       Determine number of sales people ( c /d)

                 Develop a Job Description
                         o         Educational requirements
          Develop        o         Experience
         candidate       o         Job conditions
            profile      o         Type of customers

                         o         Job title
                         o         Relationship to management
                              a.   Who is their boss
       Information            b.   Compensation
                              c.   Criteria for promotion
           needed        o         Job planning : what the salesperson is
              in a                 expected to learn or know
   job description       o         Selling activities
                              a.   Selling techniques
                              b.   Activity expectations
                         o         Self management
        Recruit and Select Salespeople
                  o    Within the organization
     Sources      o    Competitors
                  o    Non competing companies
           for    o    Advertisements
   Recruiting     o
                  o    Employment agencies
                       o         Application form
                       o         Reference check
                       o         Personal interview
     Interview              1.   Qualified?
           and              2.
                                 Want or need the job?
                                 Can we meet their expectations?
     Selection              4.   Can they do the job?
                       o         Testing
                       o         Physical exam
                       o         Introductions
                       o         Policies and practices
   Orientation         o
                                 Vertical communication
                                 Company outside activities
                       o         Expense account
                                           o   Hire someone with
                      Skip the learning        experience in the areas
                                  curve        specific to your needs

                                           o   Some sales experience is
                      marketing skills     o   marketing requires different
                      over sales skills        abilities and approaches
Tips for hiring                                than does sales

          right           Seek out         o   Leadership abilities
                                           o   Strong communication skills
                  charismatic types
                                           o   Some of the best training
                                               grounds are in the
                  Raid the big guns            companies such as Procter
                                               & Gamble
                                           o   So try to recruit their best
 Determine the Compensation Plan
                   o   Achieve high volume sales
      Straight     o   Allows salespeople to
   Commission          structure their own time and
                   o   Gives control over
       Straight        salespeople's activities
        Salary     o   May not give aggressive
   Combination     o   Most Popular today
         Plans     o   Draw vs Salary
                   o   Customer Retention Bonus
                   o   Penetration of Target
   TQM Based           Accounts Bonus
 Compensation      o   Company-Wide
                       Performance Bonus

            Provide Sales Training
         One on
                   Interactive Multimedia CD Sales Training
  One Sessions
  Field Training   Video sales training
Group Sessions     Single issue sessions
   Role playing    Feedback
                   o Receive continuous training in new product
                   o Guide and direct them in goal-setting
      Supervise    o Motivation is at the very heart of supervision
           and      Goal is to create a work environment within which
       Motivate      the individuals can and do motivate themselves
                    The real key is to find motivated men and women
                     and teach them how to sell
                        Performance Evaluation
        o            Objective and standardized
        o            Easier to use

        o            Focus on Quality not quantity
        o            Often ambiguous
        o            Allows use of personal biases
        o            Should accompany quantitative measures
        o            Other requirements
                         Standardized form
                         Consistent over time
                         Used for the entire sales force

            Techniques for Qualitative Appraisals
               Behaviorally          o   Each point on a scale is labeled with a different
            Anchored Rating              description of behavior
               Scale(BARS)           o   Often a dozen or more scales
                                     o    More of a standardized 5 or 10 point scale
                 Checklist Scale     o    Usually has more scales
                                     o    Goal setting and evaluation process
                                     o    Mutual goals
                              MBO    o    Periodic reviews
                                     o    Evaluation based on each goal

                        Effectiveness versus Efficiency
    o                Effectiveness is a function of
                    Territory Objectives
                    Resources allocated to that territory
                    Salesperson's performance
    o                Measure actual sales against potential, quota or objectives

    o        Profitability of a territory
                Time, effort and money invested to get sales
    o        Ratio analysis - various ratios are used as a measure of efficiency
                Expense/Volume (E/V)
                Profit/Volume (P/V)
                predicts the effects of sales on profits
            predicts the number of sales needed to offset rising expenses

              Evaluating actual performance
                       When and how often?
    o   Informal evaluations should be done frequently- daily, weekly
    o   Formal evaluations should be on a regular schedule - two months is
        considered optimal

        Sources of Information for the Evaluation
                             o       Sales Reports
                                     Expense Reports
           Company           o
                             o       Activity Reports
            Records          o
                                     Complaint Records
                                     Call Reports
                             o       Accompany salesperson
    Observations             o       Observe phone conversation, mail, e-mail
                             o       Customers
        External             o       Associations
        Sources              o       Agencies

            Recommending Action Improvement
    o        Salesperson should agree on what are reasonable improvements
    o        Step by step plan should be developed
    o        Reasonable time period should be specified

    Characteristics of an Effective Evaluation Program
                            Evaluation should motivate salespeople to want
      Motivation            to improve
                            Evaluation should offer the sales person an
    Participation           opportunity to participate
                            Both parties should agree on
                                 o         Objectives
        Agreement                o         Means of getting the objectives
                                 o         How attainment will be measured
                            Salesperson should be committed to attaining the
    Commitment              objectives
                            The program should be based on realistic
       Realism              objectives that reflect actual territory conditions
                            The program should be centered around
        Objectivity         objective and constructive techniques and
                            measuring tools

chapter   1:   Introduction to Selling
chapter   2:   Relationship Selling
chapter   3:   Ethical and Legal Considerations
chapter   4:   Consumer Behavior and
               The Communication Agenda
chapter   5:   Finding your Selling Style
chapter   6:   Preparation for Success in Selling
chapter   7:   Prospecting
chapter   8:   The Preapproach and
               Telephone Techniques
chapter 9:     Approaching the Prospect
chapter 10:    Asking Questions and Listening
               The S P I N
chapter 11:    Preparing for an Effective Presentation
chapter 12:    Handling Objections
chapter 13:    CLOSE
chapter 14:    Building Relationships
               with Total Customer Service
chapter 15:    Personal Organisation and
               Self Management
chapter 16:    Sales Management

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