IT Architecture (PowerPoint) by yurtgc548

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									 Information Technology: Its
Impact on Business Education

           Presented by
  Frederick H. Wu, Ph.D., CMA
           Emeritus Professor
       University of North Texas
           October 30, 2009
All the Business exists to create
            “Value”
 I am confident that we will rise to the challenge of delivering
for our shareowners and customers in 2009.
                ---Verizon Communications 2008 Annual Report

 We remain committed to growing long-term value to our
Shareholders…
                  ---ExxonMobil 2007 Annual Report

 Service is more robust in a downturn because it create value for
our customers. Service value for our customers comes from two
Streams: customer efficiency thru system performance and…; and
Customer productivity thru process improvement and data manage-
ment.
                     ---General Electric 2008 Annual Report
 Value Creation
                                                            Value to Customers


             Innovation Cycle        Operation Cycle Post Sales Service Cycle
Customer     Identify   Create the   Build Deliver    Service
 Need                                Product/Product/ The
Identified
              the       Product/
                                                      Customer
                                                                 Revenues
             Market     Service      Service Service



              Interfaced by Information Technology                              Profit


                                                                         Value
              Resources: Fixed Assets; Human Assets;
                         Intangible Assets                         Costs To
                                                                         Stock-
                                                                         Holders
  Value to Suppliers                                                     &
                                                                         Society
Top Priorities for Business in Today’s Changing Landscape:
         Corporate Strategies


      1. Strategies for driving growth

      2. Methods for managing talents

      3. Ideas for improving relationships with customers and
          suppliers

                                BusinessWeek, March 23 & 30 2009
                     Strategy as a Position
• Cost leadership (efficiency)
      Examples: Wal-Mart, Kia, Dell
• Product leadership (differentiating):
   – Higher qualities (endurance, safety, timely delivery,
     reliability, after-sales services, etc.)
       Examples: Toyota, Starbucks, Google
• Unique products through innovation (Blue Ocean)
      Wines (Yellow Tail)
           Relationship between Business Processes, Information Processes, and
           Management Processes: Business Model
                                          Culture
                                       Management Control System
                                                                                    Goals and Strategy
         Suppliers
                                     Management of Business Processes
            Operational                                                                   Management
            Processes                                                                      Processes
               Acq./Pmt
                Process
                                             Information System
                                                                                            Plan


              Conversion     Capture Data        Maintain           Provide Information
               Process                                                                    Execute
                             Support Processes    Data


                                             Communication System                         Control
Market




              Sell/Collect
                Process
                                            Organizational structure                      Evaluate



           Supporting Processes: Human resources, Financing, Research & development, etc
“Investing in the IT that Makes a Competitive Difference”
In Harvard Business Review, by McAfee and Brynjolfsson,
July-August 2008:



1. The link between technology and competition has
   become much stronger since the mid-1990s.

2. Information technology such as the internet and
   enterprise software applications (ERP, CRM, SRM,
   enterprise content management (ECM) became
   practical tool for business.
“Information Technology Capability: Firm Valuation, Earnings
Uncertainty, and Forecast Accuracy,” in Journal of Information
Systems, Fall 2007




  IT capability is positively associated with
  future earnings Uncertainty…
“An Empirical Study of the Organizational Impact of
Effective Information Technology Deployment,” in
“International Journal of Management Theory and Practices,”
By Wilfred Wu et al., August 2005



When IT applications and business strategy have
a good fit, it contributes to a firm’s financial
performance significantly.
                        IT Architecture



• Definition: “The blueprint of a firm’s IT
  architecture defines the technical
  computing, information management, and
  communications platform.”
Components of IT Architecture



                        Value – Creating Business Opportunities
                Commerce                           Content                             Community

                                    Value – Enabling IT Infrastructure

                                     Solutions and Services
             • Enterprise Resource Planning                                   • Internet service providers
               (e.g., SAP and People Soft)                                    • Systems integration services
             • Supply chain management                                        • Outsourcing and hosting

                     Software Productivity and Development Tools
                       • Packages (Word processing, spreadsheets, e-mail package, etc.)
                       • Programming Languages (C++, Visual Basic, Cobol, Basic, etc)
                 Computing                                                 Communications
         •   Hardware (computers, printers, etc)                       •   Hardware (networks, routers, etc.)
         •   Operating systems                                         •   Network Operating systems
         •   Database management systems                               •   Gateways
         •   Document management systems                               •   E-mail and file transfer services
       Implications for Business
              Education

• As a proficient knowledge worker, a student should, first of
  all, have a broad understanding of how firm works to
  create value for stakeholders: a successful “business
  model.”

• As a PKW, a student should develop his/her specialization
  coupled with a good IT skills.
                 Implications


• To understand how firm works to create value, a student
  take the following required business core courses:
  Accounting (6 hours)
  Finance (3 hrs) and investment/commodity future (3 hrs)
  Marketing (3 hours)
  Management (behavioral and quantitative: 6 hours)
  MIS (6 to 9 hrs)
  Ethics (1-3 hrs)
  Policy and Strategy (strategic management: 3 hrs)
  Economics (6 hrs)
                Implications

As a PKW, a student should develop the following skills:

Leadership
Communications (oral and written)
Ability to work in a team or group
High level of analytical ability
Multi-language (global business: The World is Flat)
Professionalism/work ethics
Learn to learn
                  Implications


We, Professors, should adopt the following for teaching:

1. Use case approach to allow students to make
    presentations and participate in discussion in class
2. Use group learning approach in class to allow students
    to learn listening, cooperation, and leadership abilities
3. Ability to speak well in presentation or class discussion
    is a part of the course grade, in addition to the written
    report.
4. Use IT to enhance real-time interaction with students.
          Implications – continued

Pursue the following career paths:
Accounting firms:
•    Systems audit
•    IT consultant

Industries/corporate firms:
•    Operations Analyst
The End

								
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