Religion Sparks Reform by pr3GG4

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									Religion Sparks Reform

       Ch 8 Sect 1
             Charles Finley
• Father of modern revivalism
• Most famous preacher of the era
• Lectured on the depth of the conversation
  experience
• Convert’s duty was to spread the word
  about personal salvation.
• Participated in Second Great Awakening
• Focus on the possibility for salvation for all
  on an individual basis.
          Types of Reform
• Women’s rights, school reform, and
  abolition
• Emerged as responses to rapid changes
  in American Society
• Industrial growth, migration, and
  immigration
• Impulses toward reform were rooted in the
  revivals of the religious movement
  Second Great Awakening.
    Second Great Awakening
• revivals – an emotional meeting designed
  to awaken religious faith with impassioned
  preaching and prayer
• Last 4 – 5 days
• In the day, studied the bible and examined
  their souls.
• At night, heard emotional preaching that
  could make them cry out & bust into tears.
     Second Great Awakening
• Brought Christianity on a large scale to enslaved
  African Americans
• Belief that all people whether black or white
  belonged to the same God
• Slaves in the rural south participated in
  segregated worship in the same churches as the
  slave owners.
• Africans interpreted God’s word as a promise of
  freedom.
• In the east free Africans worshiped in separate
  churches like Richard Allen’s Bethel African
  Church.
• The church became a political, cultural, and
  social center for African Americans.
         Transcendentalism
• Many reform-minded individuals sought
  alternatives to religious reform.
• Ralph Waldo Emerson led a group
  practicing transcendentalism.
  – A philosophical and literary movement that
    emphasized living a simple life & celebrating
    the truth found in nature, emotion, &
    imagination.
• Read pg 243
               Unitarians
• Emphasized reason and appeals to
  conscience as the paths to perfection
• Wealthy and educated following
• Believed conversion was a gradual
  process.
• Purpose of Christianity was “the perfection
  of human nature”
• utopian communities – or perfect place.
               Shakers
• Shakers shared their goods with each
  other
• Believed men & women are equal, and
  refused to fight for any reason.
• Shakers vowed not to marry or have
  children.
• Depended on converts and adopting
  children to keep up their communities.
• In 1999, only about 7 Shakers remained in
  the U.S.
             Other Reforms
• Alexis de Tocqueville
• Dorothea Dix
  – Reformed prisons (mentally ill)
• Horace Mann
  – Reformed the education system
    • Developed curriculum
    • Developed teacher training programs
 Answer the following questions
1.   What was the Second Great Awakening?
2.   How did the Second Great Awakening affect African Americans?
3.   What did transcendentalism teach?
4.   What did Unitarians believe?
5.   What were the goals of the nation’s utopian communities?
6.   What views did the Shakers hold?
7.   How did reformers attempt to improve the nation’s prisons?
8.   In what ways did reformers seek to improve the country’s
     education system?
9.   What role did Horace Mann play in education reform?

								
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