Religion Sparks Reform Ch 8 Sect 1 Charles Finley • Father of modern revivalism • Most famous preacher of the era • Lectured on the depth of the conversation experience • Convert’s duty was to spread the word about personal salvation. • Participated in Second Great Awakening • Focus on the possibility for salvation for all on an individual basis. Types of Reform • Women’s rights, school reform, and abolition • Emerged as responses to rapid changes in American Society • Industrial growth, migration, and immigration • Impulses toward reform were rooted in the revivals of the religious movement Second Great Awakening. Second Great Awakening • revivals – an emotional meeting designed to awaken religious faith with impassioned preaching and prayer • Last 4 – 5 days • In the day, studied the bible and examined their souls. • At night, heard emotional preaching that could make them cry out & bust into tears. Second Great Awakening • Brought Christianity on a large scale to enslaved African Americans • Belief that all people whether black or white belonged to the same God • Slaves in the rural south participated in segregated worship in the same churches as the slave owners. • Africans interpreted God’s word as a promise of freedom. • In the east free Africans worshiped in separate churches like Richard Allen’s Bethel African Church. • The church became a political, cultural, and social center for African Americans. Transcendentalism • Many reform-minded individuals sought alternatives to religious reform. • Ralph Waldo Emerson led a group practicing transcendentalism. – A philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life & celebrating the truth found in nature, emotion, & imagination. • Read pg 243 Unitarians • Emphasized reason and appeals to conscience as the paths to perfection • Wealthy and educated following • Believed conversion was a gradual process. • Purpose of Christianity was “the perfection of human nature” • utopian communities – or perfect place. Shakers • Shakers shared their goods with each other • Believed men & women are equal, and refused to fight for any reason. • Shakers vowed not to marry or have children. • Depended on converts and adopting children to keep up their communities. • In 1999, only about 7 Shakers remained in the U.S. Other Reforms • Alexis de Tocqueville • Dorothea Dix – Reformed prisons (mentally ill) • Horace Mann – Reformed the education system • Developed curriculum • Developed teacher training programs Answer the following questions 1. What was the Second Great Awakening? 2. How did the Second Great Awakening affect African Americans? 3. What did transcendentalism teach? 4. What did Unitarians believe? 5. What were the goals of the nation’s utopian communities? 6. What views did the Shakers hold? 7. How did reformers attempt to improve the nation’s prisons? 8. In what ways did reformers seek to improve the country’s education system? 9. What role did Horace Mann play in education reform?
Pages to are hidden for
"Religion Sparks Reform"Please download to view full document