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					ICELAND
      Divergent Plate Boundaries
   Mid-Atlantic Ridge divides
    North American and
    Eurasian tectonic plates
   These tectonic plates are
    moving away from each
    other causing rift zones
   Magma rises from rift
    zones causing volcanism
    and earthquakes
   Iceland is growing about
    one inch per year as a
    result of seafloor
    spreading
Rift Valley
             Geological History
   Iceland is 20-25 million years old based on the
    time-span of active volcanism
   Over 1/3 of Iceland’s 40,000 square miles is
    volcanically active
   Iceland is a hotspot as it sits on a mantle plume
    with volcanic eruptions occurring about every 5-
    10 years
   Iceland is built mostly of volcanic rocks,
    predominately basalts (Igneous Rocks)
            Land Of Fire & Ice

   Iceland is far enough
    north to be covered
    by snow
   The heat generated
    by the Mid-Atlantic
    Ridge keeps the
    country in a constant
    state of thaw
     Major Volcanoes In Iceland
   Krafla
   Loki-Fogrufjoll
   Grimsvotn (and Laki)
   Hekla
   Vatnafjoll
   Katla
   Vestmannaeyjar
    (Surtsey, Heimaey)
         1973 Heimaey Eruption
   Volcano started erupting January 23, 1973
   1600 meter long fissure with early reports of 50-150
    meter high glowing fountains
   Eruptions ended June 26,1973 with a total eruption
    product volume of 250 million cubic meters
   417 homes destroyed and the remainder of the
    surrounding towns were hit with lava bombs and covered
    in ash
   Icelanders sprayed sea water on the lava to try to slow
    and stop the movement
1973 Heimaey Eruption
               1783 Laki Eruption
   Volcano started erupting
    June 8, 1783 after a week of
    earthquake activity
   15.5 mile long fissure opened
    with lava flows 25km long
   Total estimated volume of
    produced lava was 3.6 cubic
    miles
   Gases released slowed grass
    growth and killed farm
    animals
   7 months of eruptions caused
    crop failure
   Famine kills 10,000 people
    reducing Iceland’s population
    by 20%
Recent Iceland Eruptions
             Positive Impacts Of
             Volcanic Eruptions
   Dramatic scenery
    created by volcanic
    eruptions attract
    tourists
   Lava and ash
    deposits provide
    valuable nutrients for
    soil
             Positive Impacts Of
             Volcanic Eruptions

   The high level of heat
    and activity inside
    Earth, close to a
    volcano, can create
    opportunities for
    geothermal energy
            Negative Impacts Of
             Volcanic Eruptions
   Fatalities
   Lava flows and lahars
    (mudflows) can
    destroy settlements
    and clear areas of
    woodland or
    agriculture
   Human and natural
    landscapes can be
    altered or destroyed
                Volcano Monitoring




   Hydrologic Monitoring – early flood warning for people downstream of an
    active volcano
   Ground Deformation – monitors ground movements to help predict an
    eruption
   Seismicity – measures earthquake activity; earthquake activity almost
    always increases before an eruption
   Gas – monitors changes in the release of certain gases to provide eruption
    warnings
   Remote Sensing – using satellites to monitor volcanoes by sensing
    electromagnetic energy from the surface of a volcano
                             References
   http://homepage.mac.com/rmshultz/blogwavestudio/LH20050212162819/LHA20050703211002/
   http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=16443
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Iceland
   http://www.iceland.is/country-and-nature/nature/Geology/
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divergent_boundary
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mid-Atlantic_Ridge
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rift
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceland_hotspot
   http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Iceland/Maps/map_iceland_volcanoes.html
   http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Iceland/description_iceland_volcanics.html
   http://notendur.centrum.is/~edda/heimaey1.html
   http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020121.html
   http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/About/What/Monitor/monitor.html
   http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/platetectonics/volcanoesrev5.shtml
   http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/understanding.html#anchor15039288
   http://www.platetectonics.com/oceanfloors/iceland.asp
   http://quakeinfo.ucsd.edu/~gabi/erth15/lecture09/volcanoes.html
   http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/Gases/laki.html
   http://tlc.uwaterloo.ca/is303a/design/s2001/Volcano/Heimaey/Heimaey_7_Location.htm
Group Members


Christina Saylor
 Brian Duncan

				
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